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|Born||George Hoyt Whipple
28 August 1878
Ashland, New Hampshire
|Died||1 February 1976
Rochester, New York
|Parent(s)||Ashley Cooper Whipple
Frances Anna Hoyt
|Institutions||University of Rochester / University of California|
|Alma mater||Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Yale University|
|Known for||Liver therapy in cases of anemia|
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934|
George Hoyt Whipple (August 28, 1878 – February 1, 1976) was an American physician, pathologist, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator. Whipple shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anemia," making Whipple the only Nobel laureate born in New Hampshire.
Life and career
Whipple was born to Ashley Cooper Whipple and Frances Anna Hoyt in Ashland, New Hampshire. He was the son and grandson of physicians. Whipple attended Phillips Academy and then Yale University from which he graduated with a B.A. degree in 1900. He attended medical school at the Johns Hopkins University from which he received the M.D. degree in 1905.
After graduation. Whipple worked in the pathology department at Hopkins until he went to Panama, during the time of the construction of the Panama Canal, as pathologist to the Ancon Hospital in 1907–08. Whipple returned to Baltimore, serving successively as Assistant, Instructor, Associate and Associate Professor in Pathology at The Johns Hopkins University between 1910 and 1914.
In 1914, Whipple was appointed Professor of Research Medicine and Director of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research at the University of California Medical School. He was dean of that medical school in 1920 and 1921.
At the urging of Abraham Flexner, who had done pioneering studies of medical education, and University of Rochester President Benjamin Rush Rhees, Whipple agreed in 1921 to become Dean of the newly funded and yet-to-be-built medical school in Rochester, New York. Whipple thus became Professor and Chairman of Pathology and the founding Dean of the new School of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Rochester. Whipple served the School as the Dean until 1954 and remained at Rochester for the rest of his life. He was remembered as a superb teacher. Whipple died in 1976 at the age of 97 and is interred in Rochester's Mount Hope Cemetery.
He won the Nobel Prize jointly with Minot and Murphy for the discovery that liver fed to anemic dogs reverses the effects of the anemia. This remarkable discovery led directly to successful liver treatment of pernicious anemia by Minot and Murphy. Before that time, pernicious anemia had been truly pernicious in that it was invariably fatal.
In presenting the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934, Professor I. Holmgren of the Nobel committee observed that "Of the three prize winners, it was Whipple who first occupied himself with the investigations for which the prize is now awarded. ... Whipple's experiments were planned exceedingly well, and carried out very accurately, and consequently their results can lay claim to absolute reliability. These investigations and results of Whipple's gave Minot and Murphy the idea that an experiment could be made to see whether favorable results might also be obtained in the case of pernicious anemia...by making use of the foods of the kind that Whipple had found to yield favorable results in his experiments regarding anemia from loss of blood."
Whipple was also the first person to describe an unknown disease he called lipodystrophia intestinalis because there were abnormal lipid deposits in the small intestine wall. Whipple also correctly pointed to the bacterial cause of the disease in his original report in 1907. The condition has since come to be called Whipple's disease.
- Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; & G. H. Whipple. "Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine", University of Rochester, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (Dec. 9, 1949).
- Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; & G. H. Whipple. "Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies", University of Rochester, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (Jan. 9, 1950).
- Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W. "Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation", University of Rochester, United States Department of Energy (through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (Apr. 7, 1952).
- Whipple House (Ashland, New Hampshire), his birthplace
- Autobiographical notes of Lauren V. Ackerman. IN: Rosai J (Ed): Guiding the Surgeon's Hand, American Registry of Pathology, Washington, D.C., 1997; pp. 275–285.
- Whipple of Whipple's disease - Gastroenterology
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934: Presentation Speech". Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- "The National Academies Press: Biographical Memoirs – George Hoyt Whipple". Retrieved 3 January 2010.
- Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos (2002). "[George H. Whipple. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934. Whipple's disease, pernicious anemia, and other contributions to medicine]". Gaceta médica de México 138 (4): 371–6. PMID 12200882.
- Raju, T N (January 1999). "The Nobel chronicles. 1934: George Hoyt Whipple (1878–1976); George Richard Minot (1885–1950); William Perry Murphy (1892–1987)". Lancet 353 (9148): 247. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)77266-4. PMID 9923916.
- Sparkman, R S (September 1995). "Two physicians named Whipple". Am. J. Surg. 170 (3): 306–7. doi:10.1016/S0002-9610(05)80024-8. PMID 7661304.
- Miller, L L (1995). "George Hoyt Whipple – August 28, 1878 – February 2, 1976". Biographical memoirs. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) 66: 371–93. PMID 11616328.
- Carlsson, M; Wiberg J (April 1989). "[The man behind the syndrome: George Hoyt Whipple. He was the first one to theorize on infectious causes of a rare systemic disease]". Lakartidningen 86 (14): 1271–4. PMID 2468979.
- Diggs, L W (November 1976). "Dr. George Hoyt Whipple". The Johns Hopkins medical journal 139 (5): 196–200. PMID 792552.
- Harvey, A M (1976). "Teacher and distinguished pupil: William Henry Welch and George Hoyt Whipple". Johns Hopkins Med. J. Suppl.: 39–48. PMID 801545.
- Rijlant, P (1976). "[Note on the life and work of Professor George Heyt Whipple, foreign honorary member (1878–1976)]". Bull. Mem. Acad. R. Med. Belg. 131 (3–4–5): 139–43. PMID 798621.
- Young, L E (1976). "George Hoyt Whipple 1878–1976". Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians 89: 34–7. PMID 798387.
- Kenéz (September 1968). "[George Hoyt Whipple, nature lover and Nobel prize winner is 90 years old]". Orvosi hetilap 109 (36): 1994–8. PMID 4886380.
- Sulek, K (April 1968). "[Nobel prize in 1934 for G.H. Whipple, G.R. Minot and W.P. Murphy for discovery of treatment of anemia with liver extracts]". Wiad. Lek. 21 (7): 627–9. PMID 4876155.
- CORNER, G W (July 1963). "George Hoyt Whipple, Nobel Prize Pathologist". Transactions & studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia 31: 40–1. PMID 14044626.
- BIBBY, B G (December 1951). "George Hoyt Whipple, M. D: a benefactor of dentistry". The Journal of the American College of Dentists 18 (4): 252–7. PMID 14897600.