20 February 1888|
|Died||5 July 1948
Georges Bernanos (French: [ʒɔʁʒ bɛʁnanɔs]; 20 February 1888 – 5 July 1948) was a French author, and a soldier in World War I. Of Roman Catholic and monarchist leanings, he was critical of bourgeois thought and was opposed to what he identified as defeatism. He thought this led to France's eventual occupation by Germany in 1940 during World War II. Most of his novels have been translated into English and frequently published in both Great Britain and the United States.
Bernanos was born in Paris, into a family of craftsmen. He spent much of his childhood in the Pas de Calais region, which became a frequent setting for his novels. He served in the First World War as a soldier, where he participated in the battles of the Somme and Verdun. He was wounded several times.
After the war, he worked in insurance before writing Sous le soleil de Satan (1926, Under the Sun of Satan).
Despite his anti-democratic leanings and his allegiance to the Action Française (he was a member of their youth organization, the Camelots du Roi), which he left in 1932, Bernanos saw the danger in Fascism and National Socialism (which he described as "disgusting monstrousness") before World War II broke out in Europe. He won the Grand Prix du roman de l'Académie française for The Diary of a Country Priest (Journal d'un curé de campagne), published in 1936.
He initially supported Francisco Franco and the Falange at the outset of the Spanish Civil War. But Bernanos spent part of the conflict in Majorca, observed 'a terrorized population,' and became disillusioned with the nacionales, which he criticized in the book Diary of My Times (1938). He wrote, "My illusions on the enterprise of General Franco did not last long - two or three weeks - but while they lasted I conscientiously endeavoured to get over the disgust which some of the men and means inspired in me." Most of his important fictional works were written between 1926 and 1937.
With political tensions rising in Europe, Bernanos emigrated to South America with his family in 1938, settling in Brazil. He stayed there until 1945, for most of the time in Barbacena, where he tried his hand at managing a farm. His three sons returned to France to fight when World War II broke out, while he fulminated at his country's 'spiritual exhaustion,' which he saw as the root of its collapse in 1940. From exile he mocked the 'ridiculous' Vichy regime and became a strong supporter of the nationalist Free French Forces led by the conservative Charles de Gaulle.
After the liberation, de Gaulle invited Bernanos to return to France, offering him a post in the government. Bernanos did return but, disappointed that no signs of spiritual renewal were to be perceived, he did not participate actively in French political life.
- The Diary of a Country Priest was the first novel by Bernanos to be adapted as a film, called Diary of a Country Priest (1951); it was directed by Robert Bresson, and starred Claude Laydu in his debut role, called one of the greatest performances in the history of film.
- Under the Sun of Satan was adapted as a film of the same name, produced in 1987 in France. The film won the Palme d'Or prize at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.
- Bernanos also wrote a screenplay based on the novella Die Letzte am Schafott (The Last on the Scaffold) by Gertrud von Le Fort. Although no film was made until after the premiere of the opera, this screenplay became the basis of Dialogues of the Carmelites by Francis Poulenc.
Works in English translation
- The Star of Satan. London: The Bodley Head, 1927 [New York: Macmillan, 1940; H. Fertig, 1975].
- Under the Sun of Satan. New York: Pantheon, 1949 [University of Nebraska Press, 2001].
- The Crime. London: Hale, 1936 [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1936].
- The Diary of a Country Priest. 1936 in Paris, France; London: The Bodley Head, 1937 [New York: Macmillan, 1948, 1962; Carroll & Graf, 1983, 2002].
- A Diary of My Times. New York: Macmillan, 1938 [London: The Bodley Head, 1945].
- Plea for Liberty. New York: Pantheon, 1944 [London: Dobson, 1946].
- The Open Mind. London: The Bodley Head, 1945.
- Monsieur Ouine. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
- Sanctity Will Out. London and New York: Sheed & Ward, 1947.
- Joy. New York: Pantheon Books, 1946 [London: The Bodley Head, 1948; Toronto: Thomas Nelson, 1948].
- Tradition of Freedom. London: Dobson, 1950 [New York: Roy, 1951].
- The Fearless Heart. Toronto: Thomas Nelson, 1952 [London: The Bodley Head, 1961].
- Night Is Darkest. London: The Bodley Head, 1953.
- Mouchette. London: The Bodley Head, 1966 [New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966; New York Review Books, 2006].
- The Last Essays of Georges Bernanos. Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1955 [Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1968].
- The Impostor. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999.
- "Bernanos", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary
- Allen, W. Gore (1948). "George Bernanos: A Mystic in the World," The Irish Monthly, Vol. 76, No. 903, pp. 414-416.
- Tobin, Michael R. (2007). Georges Bernanos: The Theological Source of his Art. McGill-Queen's University Press.
- Hellman, John (1990). "Bernanos, Drumont, and the Rise of French Fascism," The Review of Politics, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 441-459.
- Georges Bernanos. A Diary of My Times, London: Boriswood, 1938, p. 85.
- Robert Bergan, "Claude Laydu obituary", The Guardian, 7 August 2011, accessed 15 June 2014
- Blumenthal, Gerda (1965). The Poetic Imagination of Georges Bernanos: An Essay in Interpretation. The Johns Hopkins Press.
- Braybrooke, Neville (1954). "Georges Bernanos," The Irish Monthly, Vol. 83, No. 969, pp. 174–179.
- Bush, William (1969). Georges Bernanos. Twayne Publishers.
- Field, Frank (1975). Three French Writers: Studies in the Rise of Communism and Fascism.
- Hebblethwaite, Peter (1965). Bernanos, an Introduction. London: Bowes and Bowes.
- Molnar, Thomas (1960). Bernanos: His Political Thought and Prophecy. New York: Sheed and Ward.
- Molnar, Thomas (1995). "The Case of Georges Bernanos," Modern Age 38 (1), pp. 61–68.
- Noth, Ernst Erich (1949). "The Prophetism of Georges Bernanos," Yale French Studies, No. 4, Literature and Ideas, pp. 105–119.
- O'Malley, Frank (1944). "The Evangelism of Georges Bernanos," The Review of Politics, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 403–421.
- Reck, Rima Drell (1965). "George Bernanos: A Novelist and His Art," The French Review, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 619–629.
- Speaight, Robert (1973). Georges Bernanos: A Study of the Man and the Writer. London: Collins & Harvill Press [New York: Liveright, 1974].
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