Georgi Efremov

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Georgi D. Efremov
Georgi Efremov.tif
Born (1932-12-08)8 December 1932
Kratovo, Republic of Macedonia
Died 6 May 2011(2011-05-06) (aged 78)[1]
Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
Residence Skopje
Citizenship Republic of Macedonia
Institutions Research Laboratory for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology and Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
Academic advisors Professor Titus H.J. Huisman Ph.D.
Doctoral students Dr. Zoran T. Popovski
Known for molecular biology, genetic engineering, GMO

Dr. Georgi D. Efremov,[2] (8 December 1932- 6 May 2011) was Macedonian academician and scientist at Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts,[3] Skopje, Macedonia and professor from Faculty of Agricultural Science and Food in Skopje. He was specialized in genetic engineering in human medicine, veterinary medicine and animal biotechnology. He was former Ambassador and Minister of Science in R. Macedonia.

He was born in the little town of Kratovo, Republic of Macedonia-one of the oldest towns in Europe on December 8, 1932. His father was Merchant-wholesales, a richest man in the town until 1945, when the new communist regime of the former Yugoslavia confiscated all his property. His parents taught their children that education is the only way to a better life.

He started his higher education in the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Croatia.[4] In 1956 he graduated from this university and the next two years he served as a veterinarian, later enrolling at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Medicine in Macedonia. After he finish medicine he was appointed as junior assistant in physiology of domestic animals at the Faculty of Agriculture and Food in Skopje.[5]

In 1960 he specialized (M.Sc.) in physiology and biochemistry at the University of Belgrade with help from his mentor Professor Bozidar Nikolic. After his masters studies, Efremov defended his doctoral thesis "Fetal and Adult Animal Hemoglobins" in September 1963 at the University of Belgrade.

After his Ph.D. dissertation he started to work as Professor at the Department of Internal Medicine, Veterinary College of Norway in Oslo, which was headed by Professor Mikael Braed. After 2 years he was invited from Professor Titus H.J. Huisman to join his group for 2 years at the Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, USA that was styding the structure, function, synthesis, and expression of normal and abnormal human hemoglobins.

After he returned from the United States he was appointed to a position at Macedonian Academy[6] of Sciences and Arts where he find the Research Laboratory for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology[7] where he served as Director.[8][9][10][11][12]


  1. ^ Polenakovic, M. "In memoriam: Efremov D. Georgi (1932-2011). Founder of the molecular biology in the Republic of Macedonia - biochemist, geneticist.". Prilozi. 32: 333–6. PMID 21836541. 
  2. ^ "How i Became a Biochemicst"
  3. ^ "MANU Members"
  6. ^ "Speech"
  7. ^ "Research Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology"
  8. ^ "Interview 1" on YouTube
  9. ^ "Interview 2" on YouTube
  10. ^ "Interview 3" on YouTube
  11. ^ "Пост фестум на академикот Ефремов"
  12. ^ "biomedexperts"