Georgi Emmanuel

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Georgi Arsenyevich Emmanuel
EmmanuelGA.jpg
Birth nameЂорђе Мануиловић
Djordje Manuilović
Born13 April 1775
Vršac, Banat of Temeschwar
Died26 January 1837
Yelisavetgrad, Russian Empire
Allegiance Habsburg Monarchy
 Russian Empire
Service/branchArmy
Years of service1789–1831
RankGeneral of the Cavalry
Battles/warsAustro-Turkish War (1788–1791)

War of the First Coalition

War of the Fourth Coalition

Austro-Polish War
Patriotic War of 1812

War of the Sixth Coalition

Russo-Turkish War (1828-1829)
AwardsOrder of the Sword Commander 1st class,
Order of the Red Eagle 1st class,
Order of St. George 3rd class,
Order of St. Anna 1st class
Order of St. Vladimir 4th class,
Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky
Golden Sword for Bravery

Count Georgi Arsenyevich Emmanuel (Russian: Георгий Арсеньевич Эммануэль) (13 April 1775–26 January 1837) was a Russian general of the Napoleonic Wars of Serbian origin.

He was promoted to major general on 26 December 1812 and after the end of the battle of Paris to general on 27 March 1814. After returning to Russia, he was put in command of the 4th Dragoon Division. On 25 June 1825 he became the supreme commander and governor of the Caucasus. He was promoted to general of the cavalry in July 1828, during the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29). In 1829 he organised and led the first Russian scientific expedition to Mount Elbrus, for which he was made a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Biography[edit]

George Arsenyevich Manuilović (hence Emmanuel) was born in Vršac, a Serbian town in the Banat Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy where from early age he participated in actions against the Turks in the Siege of Belgrade (1789) in the ranks of the Serbian Frei-Corps (volunteers). In 1791 he joined the Austrian army to fight the Porte. At Landau in 1792, he was serious wounded after receiving a bayonet wound to the stomach, and a cannonball splinter to the right hand. The same year, in another battle he was shot with canister in the right leg. For his actions under combat, he was awarded a gold medal with inscription "Der Tapferkeit" (for bravery) and, notwithstanding his humble origins, was accepted in the Hungarian Guard with rank of second lieutenant in 1794. But Emmanuel soon found the Austrians reluctant to commit resources to the Serbian cause (war of independence). Dissatisfied with his prospects he resigned in late 1796 and sought military employment elsewhere. He arrived in Moscow in April 1797 and applied to Emperor Paul I of Russia, who immediately accepted his services. The same day, he enlisted in the Life Guard Hussar Regiment with a rank of lieutenant. The next year, he became staff rotmistrz (or rittmeister) and in 1799, was promoted to rotmistrz, commander of between 100 and 180 hussars, having lieutenant Hussar executing his order. He was highly valued by Paul I who, in October 1800, promoted Emmanuel to colonel. With the accession of Alexander I of Russia, Emmanuel's rapid promotion slowed down. In 1802, he was transferred to the Kiev Dragoon regiment and then participated in the 1806-1807 Campaign against Napoleon. At the Battle of Pultusk, he commanded two squadrons and was again seriously wounded, but remained in the ranks. For his courage, Emmanuel was awarded a Golden Weapon "For Bravery". After his wounds healed, he served in General Ivan Essen's 1st Corps. In June 1807, he fought at Dobre Miasto (Guttstadt), where he personally led his squadron in a charge and captured over 100 French. For his actions, he was awarded the Order of Saint Vladimir (4th Class). He then distinguished himself at the Battle of Heilsberg and received the Order of Saint Anna (2nd Class). At the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807, he served with Kiev Dragoons, covered the retreat of the main forces, and destroyed the bridges over the Neman River. On 24 May 1808, he was appointed commander of the Kiev Dragoon Regiment and on 23 December 1808, became chef of the Kurland Dragoon Regiment. Two months later, on 2 February, he became chef of Kiev Dragoon Regiment.

During the 1809 Campaign against Austria, his regiment was assigned to the corps of Sergey Fedorovich Golitsyn (1749-1810) to fight the Austrians, but Emmanuel appealed to Alexander for permission to avoid the service because he once had served in Austria. His petition was satisfied and he did not participate in the actions.

In 1812, Emmanuel served in the 2nd Western Army and fought at the Battle of Mir (1812) on the 9th of July, for which he received the Order of St. Vladimir (3rd Class). He took part in actions at Novoselsk, Saltanovka, Smolensk and the retreat from the Battle of Borodino to the Shevardino Redoubt. He led several charges against the French at Shevardino but was wounded in the chest. For his courage, he received the Order of St. George (4th Class). Emmanuel spent next weeks recuperating and joined the army in late September at the Battle of Tarutino. In October he was assigned to the advance guard and fought at Battle of Vyazma. For his actions, he was promoted to major general on 7 January 1813. During the campaign in Germany, Emmanuel took part in sieges of Modlin and Glogow, and then commanded a detachment around Zwenkau. He was one of the first to cross the Elbe River and participated in several minor actions prior to the Battle of Bautzen, where he distinguished himself against Jacques MacDonald, Marshal of France. During the armistice, he was observing the demarcation lines on the Bohemian borders. For his actions before and after Bautzen, he was awarded the Order of St. Anna (1st Class) and Prussian Order of Red Eagle (2nd Class). As the hostilities resumed, Emmanuel commanded the cavalry of the advance guard of Louis Alexandre Andrault de Langeron's Corps. On the 19th of August he fought the French near Zibeneichen on the Bobr River and then had several minor actions until the Battle of Katzbach, where, according to the official rosters, he captured seven guns and 1,131 men. He then engaged the French at Levenberg on the 29th of August and had minor actions at Stolpen, Rotmeritz, Bischofswerda, Elster, Duben, Rodefeld, and Badefeld. For his service in these actions, he was awarded the Order of St. George (3rd Class). Emmanuel then took part at the Battle of Leipzig on 16-18 October and distinguished himself by capturing two generals, including Jacques Lauriston, 17 officers and 400 soldiers. However, Emmanuel was not awarded for this action because of disagreements on tactics with the famed Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. He was soon transferred to Lieutenant General Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard, vicomte de Saint-Priest's 8th Corps and fought at the Battle of Reims, where he covered the retreat of the Russian troops. He took part in the Battle of Paris (1814) and was promoted to lieutenant general on 8 May 1814. He also received the Prussian Order of the Red Eagle (1st Class) and the Swedish Order of the Sword (2nd Class). In 1815, Emmanuel was given command of the 4th Dragoon Division and remained at this position for the next ten years. In July 1826, he was appointed to command the Russian forces in the Caucasus and succeeded in subjugating the local tribes. For his actions, he received the Imperial Order of Alexander Nevsky. During the Russo-Turkish War (1828-1829), he defeated and annexed several major regions in the North Caucasus, including Karachaevo (Karachay-Cherkessia), and suppressed a pro-Turkish uprising in the Kuban Valley. For his actions, he was promoted to general of cavalry in June 1828 and two years later was awarded a lifetime pension and estate. Emmanuel retired in 1831 and lived at Elizavetgrad (now Kirovohrad) for the next six year. He died there on 26 January 1837.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The State Hermitage. Western European painting. Catalog. 2nd Volume

Translated and adapted from French: http://www.histoire-empire.org/persos/generaux_russes/generaux_russes.htm Itc editor2 (talk) 15:30, 30 December 2013 (UTC)

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