Georgia Tann

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Georgia Tann
Born
Beulah George Tann

(1891-07-18)July 18, 1891
DiedSeptember 15, 1950(1950-09-15) (aged 59)
Memphis, Tennessee, United States
Resting placeHickory, Mississippi, United States
NationalityAmerican
Alma materColumbia University
Martha Washington College
OccupationSocial worker
OrganizationTennessee Children's Home Society
MotiveProfit
Partner(s)Camille Kelley
Ann Atwood Hollinsworth
CommentsDied before arrest
Details
Victims19+
Span of crimes
1924–1950
CountryUnited States
State(s)Tennessee

Beulah George "Georgia" Tann (July 18, 1891 – September 15, 1950) was an American child trafficker who operated the Tennessee Children's Home Society, an adoption agency in Memphis, Tennessee. Tann used the unlicensed home as a front for her black market baby adoption scheme from the 1920s until a state investigation into numerous instances of adoption fraud being perpetrated by her closed the institution in 1950. Tann died of cancer before the investigation made its findings public.

Early life and education[edit]

Georgia Tann was born on July 18, 1891, in Philadelphia, Mississippi to George Clark Tann (a district court judge) and Beulah Isabella Tann (née Yates).[1] She was older than her brother, Rob Roy Tann, by three years.[2] Judge Tann reportedly had a "domineering" personality.[2] He also had aspirations of his daughter becoming a concert pianist, and, beginning at the age of five, he put her in piano lessons that continued into adulthood.[3] Tann attended Martha Washington College in Abingdon, Virginia, graduating with a degree in music in 1913,[2] and took social courses at Columbia University in New York for two summers.[1] However, she despised playing piano and, instead, desired to become a lawyer as her father had been.[3] Under his tutelage, she read the law and passed the state bar exam in Mississippi.[4] However, her father did not want her to practice law because it was unusual for women.[5] With no apparent desire to get married or have children, she availed herself of one of the few careers available to unmarried women of her time, social work.[1]

Illegal activities[edit]

Tann moved to Memphis, Tennessee, in 1924 with her adopted daughter, June, and her girlfriend, Ann Atwood.[6] Atwood had recently given birth to a son out of wedlock, and around this time appended Hollinsworth to her name, likely to give the impression that she had actually been widowed.[1] While so-called "Boston marriages", or cohabitation of two financially independent women, had once been socially acceptable, such arrangements had begun to be viewed as suspiciously homosexual.[7] Tann and Atwood hid the true nature of their relationship.[8]

In Memphis, Tann began trafficking children.[9] Prior to the 1920s, adoption was a rare practice in the United States, with the Boston Children's Aid Society only placing five children per year.[10] By contrast, in 1928, Tann placed 206 children with adoptive families.[10]

Tann used a variety of methods to procure children. Through pressure tactics, threats of legal action, and other ways, she would dupe or coerce birth parents, mostly poor single mothers, to turn the children over to her custody, often under false pretenses. In turn, she might sell the children to her wealthy patrons. Alma Simple, one of Tann's victims, described her as "a stern-looking woman with close-cropped grey hair, round wireless glasses and an air of utter authority."[11] Tann also arranged for the taking of children born to inmates at Tennessee mental institutions and those born to wards of the state through her connections. To meet demand, she resorted to kidnappings. In some cases, single parents would drop their children off at nursery schools, only to be told that welfare agents had taken the children. In others, children would be temporarily placed in an orphanage because a family was experiencing illness or unemployment, only to find out later that the orphanage had adopted them out or had no record of the children ever being placed. Tann was also documented as taking children born to unwed mothers at birth, claiming that the newborns required medical care. When the mothers asked about the children, Tann or her accomplices would explain that the babies had died, when they had actually been placed in foster homes or adopted.

While in her care, she mistreated the children, with reports of neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and murder.[1][12] In the 1930s, Memphis had the highest infant mortality rate in the nation, largely due to Tann.[13] Some children were never accounted for or buried, and exact numbers of deceased children remain unknown.[13]

Tann's crimes were accomplished with the aid of Memphis Family Court Judge Camille Kelley, who used her position of authority to sanction Tann's tactics and activities. Tann would identify children as being from homes which could not provide for their care, and Kelley would push the matter through her dockets. Kelley also severed custody of divorced mothers, placing the children with Tann, who then arranged for adoption of the children into "homes better able to provide for the children's care." However, many of the children were placed into homes where they were used as child labor on farms, or with abusive families.

When an adoptive parent discovered that the information on the child was incorrect, such as in cases of falsified medical histories, Tann often threatened the adoptive parents with possible legal action that would force a surrender of their children (ordered by Kelley) by demonstrating that they were unfit parents.

Tann destroyed records of the children who were processed through the Society and conducted minimal background checks on the adoptive homes. Many of the files of the children were fictionalized before being presented to the adoptive parents, which covered up the child's circumstances prior to being placed with the society. As a result, the Child Welfare League of America dropped the Society from its list of qualifying institutions in 1941.[14]

Tann adopted Hollinsworth on August 2, 1943, in Dyer County, Tennessee, a legal provision that same-sex couples used at the time to ensure that their partners would inherit their property.[1] Tann died in 1950, and was buried in her family's plot in Hickory Cemetery.[2]

The Georgia Tann/Tennessee Children's Home Society scandal resulted in adoption reform laws in Tennessee in 1951.[15] In 1979, the state adopted legislation requiring the state to assist siblings who were trying to find each other, while a bill that extended this provision to birth parents did not pass.[16]

Out-of-state adoptions[edit]

In an effort to ban the selling of children, Tennessee law permitted agencies to place children with appropriate applicants and charge them for the services.[16] In keeping with the law, the Home charged about $7 per adoption.[citation needed] Adoptions in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Missouri could be arranged for $750.[citation needed] However, Tann also had arranged for out-of-state private adoptions where she charged a premium, upwards of $5,000 per child.[citation needed] Additionally, Tann charged prospective parents for a background checks she never pursued, air travel costs at exorbitant rates, and adoption paperwork at five times the actual cost.[16] Profits were kept in a secret bank account under a false a corporation name at the time, It is alleged that she pocketed 75 percent of the fees from these adoptions for her own personal use and failed to report the income to either the Society Board or the Internal Revenue Service. In an interview with the Los Angeles Times, Tennessee special prosecutor, Robert Taylor, reported that 1,200 children were adopted out of the home between 1944 and 1950, but only a few of them remained with Tennessee families.[16]

The Tennessee Children's Home Society was closed in 1950 and is not to be confused with the current Tennessee Children's Home, which is accredited by the state of Tennessee.[17] This Tennessee Children's Home has no legacy connection with Georgia Tann or the Society which she operated.

Tann made millions selling children, 90 percent of them to people in New York and California. New York and California vowed to take action, but the children's adoptions were never investigated, and no children were restored.[18]

Notable personalities who used Tann's services included actress Joan Crawford (twin daughters, Cathy and Cynthia were adopted through the agency while daughter Christina Crawford and son Christopher were adopted through other agencies).[19] June Allyson and husband Dick Powell also used the Memphis-based home for adopting a child, as did the adoptive parents of professional wrestler Ric Flair. New York Governor Herbert Lehman, who signed a law sealing birth certificates from New York adoptees in 1935, also adopted a child through the agency.[20]

Aftermath[edit]

Memorial to Tennessee Children's Home Society victims.

Tann is estimated to have stolen over 5,000 children.[21] Over several decades, 19 of the children who died at the Tennessee Children's Home Society due to the abuse and neglect that Tann subjected them to were buried in a 14 ft × 13 ft (4.3 m × 4.0 m) lot at the historic Elmwood Cemetery with no headstones. Tann bought the lot sometime before 1923 and recorded the children there by their first names, "Baby Estelle", "Baby Joseph", and so on. In 2015, the cemetery raised $13,000 to erect a monument to their memory. It reads, in part, "In memory of the 19 children who finally rest here unmarked if not unknown, and of all the hundreds who died under the cold, hard hand of the Tennessee Children's Home Society. Their final resting place unknown. Their final peace a blessing. The hard lesson of their fate changed adoption procedure and law nationwide."[22]

In the media[edit]

The scandal was the subject of two made-for-television films: Missing Children: A Mother's Story (1982),[citation needed] and Stolen Babies (1993).[23] The subject of Georgia Tann also appears in an episode of Investigation Discovery's series Deadly Women titled "Above the Law" that aired September 13, 2013[citation needed] and also appeared on an episode of Unsolved Mysteries.[citation needed] She was the topic of the April 25, 2017 episode of the podcast Southern Hollows;[24] the August 29, 2017, episode of the True Crime Brewery podcast titled "The Baby Thief: The Crimes of Georgia Tann";[25] the March 15, 2019, episode of the Criminal podcast titled "Baby Snatcher," [26] and the April 30, 2019 two part episode of the Behind The Bastards podcast titled "The Woman Who Invented Adoption (By Stealing Thousands of Babies)". She is also featured in the 2017 novel about the scandal, Before We Were Yours, by Lisa Wingate (ISBN 0425284689).

Notable cases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Loftiss, Neil (June 12, 2009). "Georgia Tann". Find A Grave. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d Cooper, Lois. "A Story of Stolen Babies". www.nchgs.org. Archived from the original on March 10, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. 48.
  4. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, pp. 48-49.
  5. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. 49.
  6. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. 105-106.
  7. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. 105.
  8. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. 106.
  9. ^ Duran, Gabby (February 19, 2018). "Meet The Woman Who Kidnapped 5,000 Babies And Sold Them All". All That's Interesting. Archived from the original on July 2, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  10. ^ a b Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. ix.
  11. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. vii.
  12. ^ BROWNING, MARIA (July 17, 2008). "She terrified people". Nashville Scene. Archived from the original on March 10, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  13. ^ a b Bisantz Raymond 2007, p. viii.
  14. ^ "INVESTIGATION OF THE TENNESSEE CHILDREN'S HOME". tennesseechildren.tripod.com. Archived from the original on October 13, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
  15. ^ "Tennessee Government: Department of Children's Services: Access to Adoption Records". Tennessee State Government. August 10, 2009. Archived from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  16. ^ a b c d Miller, Laura (December 25, 1979). "New Routes to Old Roots". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  17. ^ "Home". smithdray.tripod.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2007.
  18. ^ "clipping". New York Times – via facebook.com.[dead link]
  19. ^ Shirley Downing. Quest led Joan Crawford twins, others to Tenn. Archived February 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine The Memphis Commercial Appeal. September 11, 1995. Retrieved August 10, 2009 .
  20. ^ Bisantz Raymond 2007, pp. 107–108.
  21. ^ Raymond, B.B. (March 1991). "The woman who stole 5,000 babies". Good Housekeeping. 212 (3): 140. ISSN 0017-209X. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  22. ^ "Meet America's Notorious Baby Seller, Georgia Tann". Southern Hollows Podcast (Podcast). April 25, 2017. Archived from the original on March 21, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  23. ^ "Mary Tyler Moore". Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television. Gale. 108. April 8, 2011. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
  24. ^ "Meet America's Notorious Baby Seller, Georgia Tann". SouthernHollows.com (Podcast). April 25, 2017. Archived from the original on March 28, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
  25. ^ "The Baby Thief: The Crimes of Georgia Tann". Tiegrabber Podcasts (Podcast). August 29, 2017. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  26. ^ Judge, Phoebe (March 15, 2019). "Episode 110: Baby Snatcher". This is Criminal (Podcast). Archived from the original on March 27, 2019. Retrieved March 17, 2019.

Works cited[edit]

  • Bisantz Raymond, Barbara (2007). The baby thief : the untold story of Georgia Tann, the baby seller who corrupted adoption (1st ed.). New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 9780786733743.

General references[edit]

  • PROFILE: Mary Margulis St. Louis Post - Dispatch St. Louis, Mo.: May 10, 1993. p. 1 Section: EVERYDAY MAGAZINE
  • "Report to Governor Gordon Browning on Shelby County Branch, Tennessee Children's Home Society". State of Tennessee, Dept. of Public Welfare. 1951. OCLC 4349960.
  • Tollett Austin, Linda (July 1, 1993). Babies for sale: the Tennessee Children's Home adoption scandal. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-94585-5.
  • Elkins, Ashley (August 10, 1997). "HED:Stolen baby meets her family". Daily Journal. Retrieved March 17, 2019.

External links[edit]