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Georgism (also known as geoism and geonomics) is an economic philosophy holding that the economic value derived from land, including natural resources and natural opportunities, should belong equally to all residents of a community, but that people justly own value that they fairly create. The Georgist paradigm offers solutions to social and ecological problems, relying on principles of land rights and public finance which attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social justice.
Georgism is concerned with the just distribution of economic rent caused by natural monopolies, pollution, and the control of commons, including title over natural resources and other contrived privileges (e.g., intellectual property). Any natural resource, which is inherently limited in supply, can generate economic rent, but the classical and most significant example of 'land monopoly' involves the extraction of common ground rent from valuable urban locations.
Georgists argue that taxing economic rent is efficient, fair, and equitable. The main Georgist policy tool is a fee assessed on location value, often referred to as a land value tax (LVT). Georgists argue that socially captured rents can reduce or eliminate existing taxes on labor and investment that are unfair or inefficient. Some Georgists also advocate for the return of surplus public revenue collected from economic rent back to the people through a basic income or citizen's dividend.
Economists since Adam Smith have observed that, unlike other taxes, a public levy on land value does not cause economic inefficiency and even stimulates economic activity. A land value tax is often said to have progressive tax effects, in that it is paid primarily by the wealthy, and it cannot be passed on to tenants, workers, or users of land. Land value capture would reduce economic inequality, increase wages, remove incentives to misuse real estate, and reduce the vulnerability that economies face from credit and property bubbles.
The philosophical basis of Georgism dates back to several early proponents such as John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, and Thomas Paine, but the concept of gaining public revenues from natural resource privileges was widely popularized by the economist and social reformer Henry George and his first book, Progress and Poverty.
Henry George wrote that his plan would call upon people "to contribute to the public, not in proportion to what they produce . . . but in proportion to the value of natural [common] opportunities that they hold [monopolize]." He went on to explain that "by taking for public use that value which attaches to land by reason of the growth and improvement of the community," it would, "make the holding of land unprofitable to the mere owner, and profitable only to the user." Under George's plan, it would be impossible for speculators to hold valuable natural opportunities like urban real estate unused or only partly used. George claimed this would have many benefits, including the reduction or removal of tax burdens from poorer neighborhoods and agricultural districts; the removal of a multiplicity of taxes and expensive obsolete government institutions; the elimination of corruption, fraud, and evasion in the collection of taxes; the enablement of true free trade; the destruction of monopolies; the elevation of wages to the full value of labor; the transformation of labor saving inventions into blessings for all; and the equitable distribution of comfort, leisure, and other advantages that are made possible by an advancing civilization.
Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, "[S]uch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned." Georgists were divided by this question of natural monopolies and often favored public ownership only of the rents from common rights-of-way, rather than public ownership of utility companies themselves.
Georgist ideas were popular and influential. Political parties, institutions and communities were founded based on Georgist principles during that time. Early followers of George's philosophy called themselves Single Taxers, associated with the idea of raising public revenue exclusively from land and privileges, but the term is considered a misnomer because Georgists do not consider their proposals to be true taxes and they usually support multiple funding mechanisms. In classical and Georgist economics, the term 'land' is defined as all locations, natural opportunities, resources, physical forces, and government privileges over economic domains, which is closely related to the concept of commons. Georgism was coined later, and some prefer the term geoism or geonomics to distinguish their beliefs from those of Henry George.
- 1 Main tenets
- 2 Synonyms and variants
- 3 Influence
- 4 Criticism
- 5 Notable Georgists
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Henry George is best known for his argument that the economic rent of land should be shared equally by the people of a society rather than being owned privately. George held that people own what they create, but that natural resources, most importantly land, belong equally to all. George believed that although scientific experiments could not be carried out in political economy, theories could be tested by comparing different societies with different conditions and through thought experiments about the effects of various factors. Applying this method, George concluded that many of the problems that beset society, such as poverty, inequality, and economic booms and busts, could be attributed to the private ownership of the necessary resource, land.
In Progress and Poverty George argued: "We must make land common property." He believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property. Although equal rights to land could be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private parties, George preferred taxing unimproved land value. A land value tax would not overly penalize those who had already bought and improved land, and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted.
Some Georgists have observed that in modern states, privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (through income tax, etc.), but socially created wealth from community created land values are privatized and owned by private individuals and corporations. They argue that the opposite would be the case when a single tax on land value is implemented; that socially created wealth is taxed and used by the community, while privately created wealth remains private as no other taxes are levied.
In Georgism, a land value tax is seen as fitting the definition of a user fee instead of a tax, since it is tied to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be viewed as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions.[not in citation given] A land value tax, charging fees for exclusive use of land, as a means of raising public revenue is also a progressive tax tending to reduce economic inequality, since it falls entirely on ownership of valuable land, which is highly correlated to incomes, and there is no means by which landlords can shift the tax burden onto tenants or laborers.
Standard economic theory suggests that a land value tax would be extremely efficient – unlike other taxes, it does not reduce economic productivity. Nobel laureate Milton Friedman described Henry George's tax on unimproved value of land as the "least bad tax", since unlike other taxes, it would not impose an excess burden on economic activity (leading to zero or even negative "deadweight loss"); hence, a replacement of other more distortionary taxes with a land value tax would improve economic welfare. As land value tax can improve the use of land and redirect investment toward productive, non-rentseeking activities, it could even have a negative deadweight loss that boosts productivity. Because land value tax would fall on foreign land speculators, the Australian Treasury estimated that land value tax was unique in having a negative marginal excess burden, meaning that it would increase long-run living standards.
Ground-rents are a still more proper subject of taxation than the rent of houses. A tax upon ground-rents would not raise the rents of houses. It would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent, who acts always as a monopolist, and exacts the greatest rent which can be got for the use of his ground. More or less can be got for it according as the competitors happen to be richer or poorer, or can afford to gratify their fancy for a particular spot of ground at a greater or smaller expense. In every country the greatest number of rich competitors is in the capital, and it is there accordingly that the highest ground-rents are always to be found. As the wealth of those competitors would in no respect be increased by a tax upon ground-rents, they would not probably be disposed to pay more for the use of the ground. Whether the tax was to be advanced by the inhabitant, or by the owner of the ground, would be of little importance. The more the inhabitant was obliged to pay for the tax, the less he would incline to pay for the ground; so that the final payment of the tax would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent.
Both ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are a species of revenue which the owner, in many cases, enjoys without any care or attention of his own. Though a part of this revenue should be taken from him in order to defray the expenses of the state, no discouragement will thereby be given to any sort of industry. The annual produce of the land and labour of the society, the real wealth and revenue of the great body of the people, might be the same after such a tax as before. Ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are, therefore, perhaps, the species of revenue which can best bear to have a peculiar tax imposed upon them. [...] Nothing can be more reasonable than that a fund which owes its existence to the good government of the state should be taxed peculiarly, or should contribute something more than the greater part of other funds, towards the support of that government.
Ben Franklin and Winston Churchill made similar distributional and efficient arguments for publicly capturing land rents. They noted that the costs of taxes and the benefits of public spending always eventually fall on and enrich, respectively, the owners of land. Therefore, they believed it would be best to defray public costs and recapture value of public spending by placing public charges directly on owners of land titles, rather than harming public welfare with taxes on trade and labor.
Income flow resulting from payments for restricted access to natural opportunities or for contrived privileges over geographic regions is called economic rent. Georgists argue that economic rent of land, legal privileges, and natural monopolies should accrue to the community, rather than private owners. In economics, "land" is everything that exists in nature independent of human activity. While the philosophy of Georgism does not say anything definitive about specific policy interventions needed to address problems posed by various sources of economic rent, the common goal among modern georgists is to capture and share (or reduce) rent from all sources of natural monopoly and legal privilege.
Henry George shared the goal of modern Georgists to socialize or dismantle rent from all forms of land monopoly and legal privilege. However, George focused mainly on his preferred policy tool known as land value tax, which targeted a particular form of unearned income called ground rent. George focused on ground-rent because basic locations were more valuable than other monopolies and everybody needed locations to survive, which he contrasted with the less significant streetcar and telegraph monopolies, which George also spoke out against. George likened the problem to a laborer traveling home who is waylaid by a series of highway robbers along the way, each who demand a small portion of the traveler's wages, and finally at the very end of the road waits a robber who demands all that the traveler has left. George reasoned that it made little difference to challenge the series of small robbers when the final robber remained to demand all that the common laborer had left. George predicted that over time technological advancements would increase the frequency and importance of lesser monopolies, yet he expected that ground rent would remain dominant. George even predicted that ground-rents would rise faster than wages and income to capital, a prediction that modern analysis has shown to be plausible, since the supply of land is fixed.
Common ground rent is still the primary focus of Georgists because of its large value and the known diseconomies of misused land. However, there are other sources of rent that are theoretically analogous to ground-rent and are highly debated topics within Georgism. The following are some sources of economic rent.
- extractable resources (minerals and hydrocarbons)
- severables (forests and stocks of fish)
- extraterrestrial domains (geosynchronous orbits and airway corridor use)
- legal privileges tied to location (taxi medallions, billboard and development permits, or the monopoly of electromagnetic frequencies)
- restrictions/taxes on pollution or severance (tradable emission permits and fishing quotas)
- Right-of-way (transportation) used by railroads, utilities, and internet service providers
- issuance of legal tender (see seigniorage)
- privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities (patents)
Georgism and environmental economics
The early conservationist movement of the Progressive Era was inspired by Henry George and his influence extended for decades afterward. Some ecological economists still support the Georgist policy of land value tax as a means of freeing or rewilding unused land and conserving nature by reducing urban sprawl.
Pollution degrades the value of what Georgists consider to be commons. Because pollution is a negative contribution, a taking from the commons or a cost imposed on others, its value is economic rent, even when the polluter is not receiving an explicit income. Therefore, to the extent that society determines pollution to be harmful, most Georgists propose to limit pollution and then capture the resulting rents for public use, restoration, or a citizen's dividend.
Georgism is related to the school of ecological economics, since both propose market based restrictions on pollution. The schools are compatible in that they advocate using similar tools as part of a conservation strategy, but they emphasize different aspects. Conservation is the central issue of ecology, whereas economic rent is the central issue of geoism. Ecological economists might price pollution fines more conservatively to prevent inherently unquantifiable damage to the environment, whereas Georgists might emphasize mediation between conflicting interests and human rights. Geolibertarianism, a market oriented branch of geoism, tends to take a direct stance against what it perceives as burdensome regulation and would like to see auctioned pollution quotas or taxes replace most command and control regulation.
Since ecologists are primarily concerned with conservation, they tend to put less emphasis on the issue of equitably distributing scarcity/pollution rents, whereas Georgists insist that unearned income not be captured by those who hold title to natural assets and pollution privilege. To the extent that geoists recognize the impact of pollution or share conservationist values, they will agree with ecological economists about the need to limit pollution, but geoists will also crucially insist that pollution rents generated from those conservation efforts are not captured by polluters and are instead used for public purposes or to compensate those who suffer the negative effects of pollution. Ecological economists advocate similar pollution restrictions but, placing conservation first, might be willing to grant private polluters the privilege to capture pollution rents. To the extent that ecological economists share the geoist view of social justice, they would advocate auctioning pollution quotas instead of giving them away for free. This distinction can be seen clearly in the difference between basic cap and trade and the geoist variation, cap and share, a proposal to auction temporary pollution permits, with rents going to the public, instead of giving pollution privilege away for free to existing polluters or selling perpetual permits.
Georgists suggest two uses for the revenue from a land value tax. The revenue can be used to fund the state (allowing the reduction or elimination of other taxes), or it can be redistributed to citizens as a pension or basic income (or it can be divided between these two options).
In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a very high land value tax, higher than any currently existing land tax. Introducing a high land value tax would cause the price of land titles to decrease correspondingly, but George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Many other geoists disagree on the question of compensation, ranging from complete compensation to only the compensation required to achieve Georgist reform.
Synonyms and variants
Most early advocacy groups described themselves as Single Taxers, and George reluctantly accepted "single tax" as an accurate label for the movement's main political goal—the replacement of all unjust or inefficient taxes with the capture of land-rents, primarily using a land value tax (LVT). In the modern era, some groups inspired by Georgism emphasize environmentalism, while others emphasize its egalitarian free market philosophy; utilitarians and urbanists emphasize the economic and social benefits of efficiently utilizing land.
Some modern proponents are dissatisfied with the name Georgist. While Henry George was well known throughout his life, he has been largely forgotten by the public and the idea of a single tax of land predates him. Some now prefer the term geoism, with the meaning of geo (earth, in Greek) deliberately ambiguous. The terms Earth Sharing, geonomics, and geolibertarianism (see Libertarianism) are also used by some Georgists. These terms represent a difference of emphasis, and sometimes real differences about how land rent should be spent (citizen's dividend or just replacing other taxes); but all agree that land rent should be recovered from its private recipients.
Compulsory fines and fees related to land rents are the most common Georgist policies, but some geoists prefer voluntary value capture systems that rely on methods such as non-compulsory or self-assessed location value fees, community land trusts, and purchasing land value covenants.
Some geoists believe that partially compensating landowners is a politically expedient compromise necessary for achieving reform. For similar reasons, others propose capturing only future land value increases, instead of all land rent.
Though Georgism has historically been viewed as a radically progressive or socialist ideology, some libertarians and minarchists take the position that limited social spending should be financed using Georgist concepts of rent value capture, but that not all land rent should to be captured. Today, this conservative adaptation is usually considered incompatible with true geolibertarianism, which requires that excess rents be gathered and then distributed back to residents. During Henry George's time, this position was known as "single tax limited", as opposed to "single tax unlimited". Henry George disagreed with the limited interpretation but accepted its adherents (e.g., Thomas Shearman) as legitimate "single-taxers" [Georgists]. (See Milton Friedman in "Critical reception")
Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas include the Commonwealth Land Party, the Justice Party of Denmark, the Henry George Justice Party, and the Single Tax League.
In the UK in 1909, the Liberal Government included a land tax as part of several taxes in the People's Budget aimed at redistributing wealth (including a progressively graded income tax and an increase of inheritance tax). This caused a crisis which resulted indirectly in reform of the House of Lords. The budget was passed eventually—but without the land tax. In 1931, the minority Labour Government passed a land value tax as part III of the 1931 Finance act. However, this was repealed in 1934 by the National Government before it could be implemented.
In Denmark, the Georgist Justice Party has previously been represented in Folketinget. It formed part of a centre-left government 1957–60 and was also represented in the European Parliament 1978–79. The influence of Henry George has waned over time, but Georgist ideas still occasionally emerge in politics. In the 2004 Presidential campaign, Ralph Nader mentioned Henry George in his policy statements.
Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities that still exist are Arden, Delaware, which was founded in 1900 by Frank Stephens and Will Price, and Fairhope, Alabama, which was founded in 1894 by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax Corporation.
The German protectorate of Jiaozhou Bay (also known as Kiaochow) in China fully implemented Georgist policy. Its sole source of government revenue was the land value tax of six percent which it levied on its territory. The German government had previously had economic problems with its African colonies caused by land speculation. One of the main aims in using the land value tax in Jiaozhou Bay was to eliminate such speculation, an aim which was entirely achieved. The colony existed as a German protectorate from 1898 until 1914, when seized by Japanese and British troops. In 1922 the territory was returned to China.
Georgist ideas were also adopted to some degree in Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan. In these countries, governments still levy some type of land value tax, albeit with exemptions. Many municipal governments of the USA depend on real property tax as their main source of revenue, although such taxes are not Georgist as they generally include the value of buildings and other improvements, one exception being the town of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which only taxes land value.
Institutes and organizations
Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas of Henry George. According to the The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, the periodical Land&Liberty, established in 1894, is "the longest-lived Georgist project in history". Also in the U.S., the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (established in 1974) was founded based on the writings of Henry George. It "seeks to improve the dialogue about urban development, the built environment, and tax policy in the United States and abroad". The Henry George Foundation continues to promote the ideas of Henry George in the UK. The IU is an international umbrella organisation that brings together organizations worldwide that seek land value tax reform.
Richard T. Ely, known as the "Father of Land Economics", agreed with the economic arguments for Georgism but believed that correcting the problem the way Henry George wanted (without compensation) was unjust to existing landowners. In explaining his position, Ely wrote that "If we have all made a mistake, should one party to the transaction alone bear the cost of the common blunder?"
Karl Marx viewed the Single Tax platform as a step backwards from the transition to communism and referred to Georgism as "Capitalism’s last ditch." Marx argued that, "The whole thing is... simply an attempt, decked out with socialism, to save capitalist domination and indeed to establish it afresh on an even wider basis than its present one." Marx also criticized the way land value tax theory emphasizes the value of land, arguing that, "His fundamental dogma is that everything would be all right if ground rent were paid to the state." Fred Harrison replies to these Marxist objections in "Gronlund and other Marxists – Part III: nineteenth-century Americas critics", American Journal of Economics and Sociology.
George has also been accused of exaggerating the importance of his "all-devouring rent thesis" in claiming that it is the primary cause of poverty and injustice in society. George argued that the rent of land increased faster than wages for labor because the supply of land is fixed. Modern economists, including Ottmar Edenhofer have demonstrated that George's assertion is plausible but was more likely to be true during George's time than today.
Contemporaries such as Frank Fetter and John Bates Clark argued that it was impractical to distinguish land from capital, and used this as a basis to attack Georgism. Mark Blaug, a specialist in the history of economic thought, credits Fetter and Clark with influencing mainstream economists to abandon the idea "that land is a unique factor of production and hence that there is any special need for a special theory of ground rent" claiming that "this is in fact the basis of all the attacks on Henry George by contemporary economists and certainly the fundamental reason why professional economists increasingly ignored him."
An early criticism of Georgism was that it would generate too much public revenue and lead to unwanted growth of government. Joseph Schumpeter later concluded his analysis of Georgism by stating that, "It is not economically unsound, except that it involves an unwarranted optimism concerning the yield of such a tax." Economists who study land conclude that Schumpeter's criticism is unwarranted because the rental yield from land is likely much greater than what modern critics such as Paul Krugman suppose. Krugman agrees that land value taxation is the best means of raising public revenue but asserts that increased spending has rendered land rent insufficient to fully fund government. Georgists have responded by citing studies and analyses implying that land values of nations like the US, UK, and Australia are more than sufficient to fund all levels of government.
Anarcho-capitalist political philosopher and economist Murray Rothbard criticized Georgism in Man, Economy, and State as being philosophically incongruent with subjective value theory, and further stating that land is irrelevant in the factors of production, trade, and price systems, but this critique is generally seen, even by other opponents of Georgism, as relying on false assumptions and flawed reasoning.
Chicago school libertarian economist Milton Friedman agreed with "the Henry George argument" as being "the least bad" means of raising whatever public revenue was needed. Georgists agree with Friedman that land titles should remain private and not be socialized. However, Friedman viewed Georgism as partially immoral, due to a difference of opinion about the validity of vested property rights in land. Georgists believe that the private capture of unimproved land-rents is inherently unjust, drawing comparisons to slavery.
Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek credited early enthusiasm for Henry George with developing his interest in economics. Later, Hayek said that the theory of Georgism would be very strong if assessment challenges didn't lead to unfair outcomes, but he believed that they would.
- Harry Gunnison Brown
- John R. Commons
- Raymond Crotty
- Paul Douglass
- Ottmar Edenhofer
- Fred Foldvary
- Mason Gaffney
- Max Hirsch
- Wolf Ladejinsky
- Donald Shoup
- Herbert A. Simon
- Robert Solow
- Joseph Stiglitz
- Nicolaus Tideman
- William Vickrey
- Léon Walras
- Philip Wicksteed
Heads of government
Other political figures
- Warren Worth Bailey
- Newton D. Baker
- Willie Brown
- Clyde Cameron
- George F. Cotterill
- John W. Davis
- William Jay Gaynor
- Keir Hardie
- Frederic C. Howe
- Blas Infante
- Tom L. Johnson
- Samuel M. Jones
- Frank de Jong
- Franklin Knight Lane
- Hazen S. Pingree
- Philip Snowden
- William Bauchop Wilson
- Jane Addams
- Louis Brandeis
- Clarence Darrow
- Sara Bard Field
- Michael Davitt
- Samuel Gompers
- Bolton Hall
- Hubert Harrison
- John Haynes Holmes
- Benjamin C. Marsh
- James Ferdinand Morton
- Thomas Mott Osborne
- Amos Pinchot
- Louis Freeland Post
- Terence V. Powderly
- Samuel Seabury
- Catherine Helen Spence
- Thomas Spence
- Helen Taylor (feminist)
- William Simon U'Ren
- Ida B. Wells
- Frances Willard (suffragist)
- Frank Chodorov
- Ernest Howard Crosby
- Charles Eisenstein
- Hamlin Garland
- Fred Harrison
- Ebenezer Howard
- Aldous Huxley
- James Howard Kunstler
- William D. McCrackan
- Albert Jay Nock
- Kathleen Norris
- Upton Sinclair
- Leo Tolstoy
- Charles Erskine Scott Wood
- William F. Buckley, Jr.
- Timothy Thomas Fortune
- Theodor Herzl
- Michael Kinsley
- Suzanne La Follette
- Dylan Matthews
- Raymond Moley
- Reihan Salam
- Martin Wolf
- Merryn Somerset Webb
- Brand Whitlock
- Tim Worstall
- Matthew Yglesias
- David Bachrach
- John Wilson Bengough
- Daniel Carter Beard
- Matthew Bellamy
- Walter Burley Griffin
- James A. Herne
- John Hutchinson
- George Inness
- Emma Lazarus
- Agnes de Mille
- Henry Churchill de Mille
- William C. deMille
- Francis Neilson
- Banjo Paterson
- Will Price
- Frank Stephens (sculptor)
- Frank Lloyd Wright
- Roger Babson
- Albert Einstein
- Henry Ford
- Spencer Heath
- Mumia Abu-Jamal
- Margrit Kennedy
- John C. Lincoln
- Elizabeth Magie
- Edward McGlynn
- Buckey O'Neill
- George Foster Peabody
- Raymond A. Spruance
- Silvanus P. Thompson
- Fiske Warren
- Alfred Russel Wallace
- Joseph Fels
- Agrarian Justice
- Arden, Delaware
- Cap and Share
- Causes of poverty
- Citizen's dividend
- Classical economics
- Classical liberalism
- Community land trust
- Deadweight loss
- Diggers movement
- Economic rent
- Excess burden of taxation
- Free-market environmentalism
- Green economy
- Labor economics
- Land (economics)
- Landed property
- Land law
- Land monopoly
- Land tenure and registration
- Land value tax
- Law of rent
- Lockean proviso
- Natural and legal rights
- Optimal tax
- Pigovian tax
- Poverty reduction
- Progress and Poverty
- Progressive Era
- Prosper Australia (formerly "Henry George League")
- Radical centrism
- Tax reform / shift
- Tragedy of the anticommons
- Universal basic income
- Value capture
- Wealth concentration
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human beings have an inalienable right to the product of their own labor
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A land tax is considered a progressive tax in that wealthy landowners normally should be paying relatively more than poorer landowners and tenants. Conversely, a tax on buildings can be said to be regressive, falling heavily on tenants who generally are poorer than the landlords
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It can also invoke geoism, a philosophical tradition encompassing the views of John Locke and Henry George ...
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- Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). "To Hold the Sea In Fee Simple". The Single Tax Review. 21-22: 37. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Darrow, Clarence. "How to Abolish Unfair Taxation". Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Sullivan, Dan. "Are you a Real Libertarian, or a ROYAL Libertarian?". Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Post, Louis F. "Outlines of Louis F. Post's Lectures". Retrieved 15 June 2014.
- Zarlenga, Stephen. "Henry George’s Concept of Money (Full Text) And Its Implications For 21st Century Reform". http://www.monetary.org/. American Monetary Institute. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- George, Henry. "On Patents and Copyrights". Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- Niman, Neil B. "Henry George and the Intellectual Foundations of the Open Source Movement" (PDF). http://schalkenbach.org/. Retrieved 16 June 2014. "A modern counterpart to the nineteenth century focus on land can be found in the twentieth century concern with the establishment of intellectual property rights that fence off a portion of the creative commons in order to construct temporary monopolies."
- Fox, Stephen R. The American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. Madison, WI: U of Wisconsin, 1985.
- Daly, Herman E., and Joshua C. Farley. Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. Washington: Island, 2004.
- Cato, Molly Scott. "The Gypsy Rover, the Norman Yoke and the Land Value Tax". Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Smith, Peter. "Beaver, Rewilding & Land Value Tax have the answer to the UK's Flooding Problem.". Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- Ikerd, John. "The Green Tax Shift: Winners and Losers". missouri.edu. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Casal, Paula (2011). "Global Taxes on Natural Resources" (PDF). Journal of Moral Philosophy (8): 307–327. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- Backhaus, Jurgen, and J. J. Krabbe. "Henry George's Contribution to Modern Environmental Policy: Part I, Theoretical Postulates." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 50.4 (1991): 485-501. Web. 14 Aug. 2014.
- Cobb, Clifford. "Herman Daly Festschrift: Ecological and Georgist Economic Principles: A Comparison". Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- Roark, Eric (2013). Removing the Commons: A Lockean Left-Libertarian Approach to the Just Use and Appropriation of Natural Resources. Lexington Books. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- Brebbia, C. A. (2012). Ecodynamics: The Prigogine Legacy. WIT Press. p. 104. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
- Gluckman, Amy. "A Primer on Henry George's "Single Tax"". Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- Hartzok, Alanna. "Citizen Dividends and Oil Resource Rents A Focus on Alaska, Norway and Nigeria". Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "A Cannan Hits the Mark" (PDF). Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Socialism, Capitalism, and Geoism – by Lindy Davies
- Introduction to Earth Sharing,
- Geonomics in a Nutshell
- Geoism and Libertarianism by Fred Foldvary
- Curtis, Mike. "The Arden Land Trust". Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Adams, Martin. "Sharing the Value of Land: The Promise of Location Value Covenants". Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Kent, Deirdre. "Land and Money Reform Synergy in New Zealand". Smart Taxes. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Foldvery, Fred. "Geoanarchism A short summary of geoism and its relation to libertarianism.". Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Bille, Frank F. "The Danish-American Georgist". Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1904). Land and Freedom: An International Record of Single Tax Progress, Volume 4. Single Tax Publishing Company. pp. 9–15.
- Wolf, Martin. "Why we must halt the land cycle". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Barker, Charles A. "The Followers of Henry George". http://www.cooperativeindividualism.org/. Henry George News. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
- "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 2004-08-28. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- Fairhope Single Tax Corporation
- Silagi, Michael; Faulkner, Susan N. "Land Reform in Kiaochow, China: From 1898 to 1914 the Menace of Disastrous Land Speculation was Averted by Taxation". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43 (2): 167–177. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02240.x.
- Gaffney, M. Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later". Association for Georgist Studies Board. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 62, 2003, p. 615
- "About the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy". Lincolninst.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-26.
- "The Henry George Foundation". Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- The IU. "The IU". Retrieved 2008-10-31.
- George, Henry. "A Response to Richard Ely On the Question of Compensation to Owners of Land". Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- Andelson, Robert V. "Henry George and The Reconstruction Of Capitalism". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Karl Marx – Letter to Friedrich Adolph Sorge in Hoboken
- 14 Gronlund and other Marxists – Part III: nineteenth-century Americas critics | American Journal of Economics and Sociology, The | Find Articles at BNET
- Critics of Henry George
- Blaug, Mark. Interview in Andelson, Robert V. Critics of Henry George: An Appraisal of Their Strictures on Progress and Poverty. Blackwell Publishing. 1979. p. 686.
- Hudson, Michael (1994). A Philosophy for a Fair Society. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- http://www.psmag.com/politics/this-land-is-your-land-3392 "urban economics models actually do suggest that Georgist taxation would be the right approach at least to finance city growth."/
- Mason Gaffney, (2009) "The hidden taxable capacity of land: enough and to spare", International Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 36 Iss: 4, pp. 328 - 411
- Foldvery, Fred. "The Ultimate Tax Reform: Public Revenue from Land Rent" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Steven, Cord, "How Much Revenue would a Full Land Value Tax Yield? Analysis of Census and Federal Reserve Data." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 44 (3) (July 1985), pages 279-93
- Steven Cord, "Land Rent is 20% of U.S. National Income for 1986," Incentive Taxation, July/August 1991, pages 1-2.
- Miles, Mike. 1990. "What Is the Value of all U.S. Real Estate?" Real Estate Review 20 (2)(Summer): 69-75.
- Nicolaus Tideman and Florenz Plassman, "Taxed Out of Work and Wealth: The Costs of Taxing Labor and Capital," in The Losses of Nations: Deadweight Politics versus Public Rent Dividends (London: Othila Press, 1988), pages 146-174.
- Fitzgerald, Karl. "Total Resource Rents of Australia". Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Rothbard, Murray (1962). Man, Economy, and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles. Van Nostrand.
- Heinrich, David J. "Murray Rothbard and Henry George". www.mises.org. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Microeconomics"; N. Gregory Mankiw, Mark P. Taylor – 2006 – 474 pages
- George, Henry (1881). The Irish Land Question.
- Andelson, Robert V. (January 2000). "On Separating the Landowner’s Earned and Unearned Increment: A Georgist Rejoinder to F. A. Hayek". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59 (1): 109–117. doi:10.1111/1536-7150.00016. Retrieved 27 November 2013. Hayek wrote, "It was a lay enthusiasm for Henry George which led me to economics."
- Brown, H. G. "A Defense of the Single Tax Principle." The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 183.1 (1936): 63-69.
- Harter, Lafayette G. John R. Commons, His Assault on Laissez-faire. Corvallis: Oregon State UP, 1962. Pages 21, 32, 36, 38.
- "Two Centuries of Economic Thought on Taxation of Land Rents." In Richard Lindholm and Arthur Lynn, Jr., (eds.), Land Value Taxation in Thought and Practice. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1982, pp. 151-96.
- Brue, Stanley (2012). The Evolution of Economic Thought (PDF) (Supplemental Biography of John Rogers Commons for chapter 19 of the online edition of The Evolution of Economic Thought ed.). Cengage Learning. Retrieved 1 September 2014. "After reading Henry George's Progress and Poverty," Commons "became a single-taxer."
- Crotty, Raymond D. (1988). A Radical's Response. Poolbeg. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Sheppard, Barry. "‘Progress and Poverty’ – Henry George and Land Reform in modern Ireland". http://www.theirishstory.com/. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "Stimulus: The False and the True Mason Gaffney". Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- Douglas, Paul (1972). In the fullness of time; the memoirs of Paul H. Douglas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151443769.
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Hypergeorgism: When is Rent Taxation as a Remedy for Insufficient Capital Accumulation Socially Optimal?". Retrieved 11 November 2013. Edenhofer writes, "Extending and modifying the tenet of georgism, we propose that this insight be called hypergeorgism." "From a historical perspective, our result may be closer to Henry George’s original thinking than georgism or the neoclassical Henry George Theorems."
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "Financing Public Capital Through Land Rent Taxation: A Macroeconomic Henry George Theorem". Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Edenhofer, Ottmar. "The Triple Dividend Climate Change Mitigation, Justice and Investing in Capabilities" (PDF). Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- Fred Foldvary's website
- Mason Gaffney's homepage
- Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- Airlie Worrall, The New Crusade: the Origins, Activities and Influence of the Australian Single Tax Leagues, 1889–1895 (M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne, 1978).
- Andelson Robert V. (2000). Land-Value Taxation Around the World: Studies in Economic Reform and Social Justice Malden. MA:Blackwell Publishers, Inc. p. 359.
- Knack, Ruth Eckdish. "Pay As You Park: UCLA professor Donald Shoup inspires a passion for parking." (May 2005). Planning Magazine. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Shoup, Donald C. "The Ideal Source of Local Public Revenue." Regional Science and Urban Economics 34.6 (2004): 753-84.
- Washington, Emily. "The High Cost of Free Parking Chapters 19-22". marketurbanism.com. Market Urbanism. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- Quotes from Nobel Prize Winners Herbert Simon stated in 1978: "Assuming that a tax increase is necessary, it is clearly preferable to impose the additional cost on land by increasing the land tax, rather than to increase the wage tax – the two alternatives open to the City (of Pittsburgh). It is the use and occupancy of property that creates the need for the municipal services that appear as the largest item in the budget – fire and police protection, waste removal, and public works. The average increase in tax bills of city residents will be about twice as great with wage tax increase than with a land tax increase."
- Herbert Simon. (2014). The Famous People website. Retrieved 12:59, Oct 30, 2014, from http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/herbert-simon-293.php.
- Foldvery, Fred E. (2005). "Geo-Rent: A Plea to Public Economists" (PDF). Econ Watch 2 (1): pp 106–132. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Cleveland, Mary Manning. "How a Progressive Tax System Made Detroit a Powerhouse (and Could Again)". Retrieved 3 February 2015.
- Tideman, Nicolaus. "Global Economic Justice". Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Bill Vickrey – In Memoriam
- Cirillo, Renato (Jan 1984). "Léon Walras and Social Justice". The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 43 (1): 53–60. doi:10.1111/j.1536-7150.1984.tb02222.x. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- Barker, Charles A., 1955. Henry George. New York: Oxford University Press
- Boast, Richard (2008). Buying the land, selling the land : governments and Maori land in the North Island 1865-1921. Wellington N.Z: Victoria University Press, Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 9780864735614.
- MacLaren, Andrew (Autumn 2001). "The People's Rights: Opportunity Lost?". Finest Hour 112. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Dugan, Ianthe Jeanne (March 17, 2013). "It's a Lonely Quest for Land-Tax Fans, But, by George, They Press On". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Laurent, John (2005). Henry George's legacy in economic thought. Cheltenham, UK Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub. p. 9. ISBN 1843768852.
- Bastian, Peter (2009). Andrew Fisher an underestimated man. Sydney, N.S.W: UNSW Press. pp. 28–30. ISBN 1742230040.
- The Life of Henry George, Part 3 Chapter X1
- Hayes, Rutherford B. "Henry George". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Hughes, William Morris (Billy) (1862–1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography: Online Edition.
- Stout, Robert (14 April 1885). "ADDRESS BY THE HON. R. STOUT." (Volume XXII, Issue 7302). PAPERPAST. New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
- WOOLF, S.J. (April 27, 1941). "MORGENTHAU AT 85 RECALLS A FULL LIFE; MORGENTHAU AT 85". New York Times. NY Times Magazine.
At heart [Woodrow Wilson] was a follower of Henry George and strongly objected to private profit accruing through the increase in land values.
- Trescott, Paul B. (2007). Jingji Xue: The History of the Introduction of Western Economic Ideas Into China, 1850-1950. Chinese University Press. pp. 46–48.
The foregoing help to demonstrate why Sun Yat-sen would have regarded Henry George as a very credible guide, and why in 1912 Sun could tell an interviewer, 'The teachings of your single-taxer, Henry George, will be the basis of our program of reform.'
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1902). Land and Freedom: An International Record of Single Tax Progress, Volume 2. Single Tax Publishing Company. pp. 40–41.
- "A Remembrance of Warren Worth Bailey". Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "Henry George 100 Years Later: The Great Reconciler". Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Retrieved 3 September 2014.
- Finegold, Kenneth (1995). Experts and politicians : reform challenges to machine politics in New York, Cleveland, and Chicago. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691037345.
- Stevens, Elizabeth Lesly (July–August 2012). "The Power Broker". Washington Monthly. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Cameron, Clyde. "REVENUE THAT IS NOT A TAX". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Single Tax Loses, But Mayor Favoring This Reform Is Chosen By a Small Vote Margin". The Milwaukee Journal. Mar 6, 1912. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Davis, John W. "Henry George, Original Thinker". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Gaynor, William Jay. Some of Mayor Gaynor's Letters and Speeches. New York: Greaves Pub., 1913. 214-21. http://books.google.com/books?id=-7kMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA219#v=onepage&q&f=false
- "Socialism in England: James Keir Hardie Declares That It Is Capturing That Country.". California Digital Newspaper Collection. San Francisco Call. 25 September 1895. Retrieved 4 November 2014. Hardie states, "I was a very enthusiastic single-taxer for a number of years."
- Howe, Frederic C. The Confessions of a Reformer. Kent, OH: Kent State UP, 1988.
- Arcas Cubero, Fernando: El movimiento georgista y los orígenes del Andalucismo : análisis del periódico "El impuesto único" (1911–1923). Málaga : Editorial Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros, 1980. ISBN 84-500-3784-0
- "Single Taxers Dine Johnson". New York Times May 31, 1910.
- "Henry George". Ohio History Central: An Online History of Ohio History.
- "Frank de Jong: Economic Rent Best Way to Finance Government". Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Gaffney, Mason. "What’s the matter with Michigan? Rise and collapse of an economic wonder" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Cleveland, Polly. "The Way Forward for Detroit? Land Taxes". Washington Spectator. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Gaffney, Mason. "New Life in Old Cities" (PDF). UC Riverside. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Bryson, Phillip (2011). The economics of Henry George : history's rehabilitation of America's greatest early economist. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 145.
- Moore, Robert (1974). Pit-men, preachers & politics the effects of Methodism in a Durham mining community. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 61.
- Jones, Carolyn C. (Spring 1997). "TAXING WOMEN: THOUGHTS ON A GENDERED ECONOMY: SYMPOSIUM: A HISTORICAL OUTLOOK: TAXES AND PEACE: A CASE STUDY OF TAXING WOMEN". Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies Southern California Review of Law and Women's Studies. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Rothbard, Murray (2007). Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought (Complete, 1965-1968). Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 263. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. p. 82.
- "101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth". Retrieved 22 October 2013. Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
- How to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913 http://books.google.com/books/about/How_to_Abolish_Unfair_Taxation.html?id=rlOFHAAACAAJ
- Darrow, Clarence. "The Land Belongs To The People" (PDF). www.umn.edu. Everyman. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "The Centre for Incentive Taxation" 20 (4). August 1994.
Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke."
- Beth Shalom Hessel. "Field, Sara Bard"; http://www.anb.org/articles/15/15-00220.html; American National Biography Online April 2014. Access Date: Sun Mar 22 2015 14:24:04 GMT-0700 (Pacific Daylight Time)
- Lane, Fintan. The Origins of Modern Irish Socialism, 1881–1896.Cork University Press, 1997 (pp. 79, 81).
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). "Mr. Samuel Gompers Replies to Our Criticism". The Single Tax Review. 21-22: 42. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Gompers, Samuel (1986). The Samuel Gompers Papers: The making of a union leader, 1850-86, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. pp. 431–432. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- Leubuscher, F. C. (1939). Bolton Hall. The Freeman. January issue.
- Miller, Joseph Dana (1921). The Single Tax Review, Volumes 21-22. p. 178. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- Land and Freedom, Volumes 22-23. 1922. p. 179. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 5 December 2014. Holmes said, "The passing years have only added to my conviction that Henry George is one of the greatest of all modern statesmen and prophets."
- Eckert, Charles R. "Henry George, Sound Economics and the "New Deal"". Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Caves, Roger W. Encyclopedia of the City. Abingdon, Oxon, OX: Routledge, 2005.
- Marsh, Benjamin Clarke. Lobbyist for the People; a Record of Fifty Years. Washington: Public Affairs, 1953.
- "Single-Taxers again laud Henry George" (PDF). Daily Standard Union (Brooklyn, NY). Sep 8, 1912. p. 12 (1st col from top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "British MP guest at George dinner" (PDF). Daily Standard Union (Brooklyn, NY). Sep 6, 1912. p. 9 (3rd col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Community Club" (PDF). Silver Creek News (Silver Creek, NY). Jan 4, 1916. p. 1 (3rd col of text, up from bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "James F. Morton at Eagle Temple" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Jan 23, 1917. p. 10, (4th col below top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Meetings this evening; Labor Forum" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Mar 30, 1918. p. 12 (3rd col above mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "F. P. Morgan(sic) gives instructive talk on the single tax" (PDF). The Saratogian (Saratoga Springs, NY). Apr 10, 1929. p. 9 (2nd col below top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- Morton, James F., Jr. (July–August 1918). "Report of James F. Morton, Jr.'s Lecture Work". The Single Tax Review 18 (4): 116. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Single taxer to speak" (PDF). Buffalo Courier (Buffalo, NY). Apr 7, 1916. p. 9 (2nd col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Plans single tax talk" (PDF). Buffalo Courier (Buffalo, NY). Apr 14, 1916. p. 10 (7th and 8th col, above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Single tax advocate lectures in church" (PDF). Buffalo Courier (Buffalo, NY). Apr 17, 1916. p. 6 (4th col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Meetings this evening; Meeting of the Men's club" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Apr 25, 1916. p. 14 (3rd col below top_). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Philosophy of the Single Tax" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Apr 26, 1916. p. 7 (1st col and most of bottom half of the page). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Season's close at Chautauqua; The Single Tax" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Aug 28, 1916. p. 9, (see majority of 3rd col). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Exclusive tax on land values" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Jan 15, 1917. p. 3 (3rd col top). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Saturday Night Club" (PDF). Jamestown Evening Journal (Jamestown, NY). Jan 12, 1917. p. 9 (3rd col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Lewiston" (PDF). Buffalo Evening News (Buffalo, NY). Apr 30, 1917. p. 10 (2nd col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Greenfield Center" (PDF). The Saratogian (Saratoga Springs, NY). Nov 13, 1917. p. 7 (4th col mid). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- "Church Services Tomorrow; First Congregational Church" (PDF). Daily Argus (Mount Vernon, NY). Dec 3, 1917. p. 12 (4th col above bottom). Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
- Jorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible, All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue by a Single Tax on Land Values Only. Chicago, IL: Chicago Singletax Club, 1920.
- Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. http://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJ
- Ware, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf
- Young, Arthur Nichols (1916). Single tax Movement in the United States. S.l: Hardpress Ltd.
- Thompson, John (1987). Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Post, Louis F. The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George. The Minerva Group.
- Powderly, Terence Vincent (1889). Thirty Years of Labor. 1859-1889. Excelsior publishing house. Retrieved 8 December 2014. "It would be far easier to levy a "single tax," basing it upon land values." "It is because [...] a single land tax would prove to be the very essence of equity, that l advocate it.
- Mitgang, Herbert (1996). The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury. Fordham Univ Press.
- Magarey, Susan (1985). Unbridling the tongues of women : a biography of Catherine Helen Spence. Sydney, NSW: Hale & Iremonger. ISBN 0868061492.
- Thomas Spence was a self-taught militant who believed that the land had been stolen from the people and should be returned to them. This idea was the corner stone of his Plan. http://thomas-spence-society.co.uk/2.html
- Wenzer, Kenneth (1997). An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1). University Rochester Press. pp. 87, 243.
- "Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren". Oregon History Project. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
- Candeloro, Dominic (April 1979). "The Single Tax Movement and Progressivism, 1880-1920". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 38 (2): 113–127. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "The Inquisitive Voter". The Great Adventure 4 (35). September 11, 1920.
The proposition of Henry George will do more to lift humanity from the slough of poverty, crime, and misery than all else.
- "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Eisenstein, Charles. "Post-Capitalism". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "The Funeral Procession". New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vviBboUXhuA Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
- Steuer, Max (June 2000). "REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard". The British Journal of Sociology 51 (2): 377–386. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00377.x. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Meacham, Standish (1999). Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement. Yale University Press. pp. 50–53. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Purdom, Charles Benjamin (1963). The Letchworth Achievement. p. 1. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
- Harrison, F. (May–June 1989). "Aldous Huxley on 'the Land Question'". Land & Liberty. "Huxley redeems himself when he concedes that, if he were to rewrite the book, he would offer a third option, one which he characterised as 'the possibility of sanity.' In a few bold strokes he outlines the elements of this model: 'In this community economics would be decentralist and Henry Georgian, politics Kropotkinesque and co-operative.'"
- Kunstler, James Howard (1998). Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. pp. Chapter 7.
- Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310. "Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical liberalism, which [Albert Jay Nock and Francis Nielson] were afraid was being lost, and for the economics of Henry George, which both men shared."
- Norris, Kathleen. "The Errors of Marxism". Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 3 November 2014.Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."
- Gaffney, Mason. "Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- A Great Iniquity.. Leo Tolstoy once said of George, "People do not argue with the teaching of George, they simply do not know it".
- Lebrun, Victor. "Leo Tolstoy and Henry George". Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Starr, Kevin (1997). The dream endures : California enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195157974. Wood had "strong leanings toward the single-tax theory of Henry George".
- Barnes, Tim. "C.E.S. Wood (1852-1944)". The Oregon Encyclipedia. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Buckley, William F. Jr. "FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?" (PDF). http://www.schalkenbach.org/. PBS. Retrieved 6 November 2014.Buckly says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
- Perry, Jeffrey (2009). Hubert Harrison the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883-1918. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 023113911X.
- Sklar, Dusty. "Henry George and Zionism". Retrieved 28 October 2014.
- Kinsley, Michael (Jun 13, 2012). "Inequality: It’s Even Worse Than We Thought". Bloomberg. BloombergView. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- Kinsley, Michael. "The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts" (Dec 19, 2012). Retrieved 31 October 2014.Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.
- "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Retrieved 31 October 2014.In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
- Chamberlain, John (1965). Farewell To Reform. Quadrangle Books. pp. 47–48.
- Bernstein, David (May 2003). "Lochner's Feminist Legacy". Michigan Law Review 101 (6). Retrieved 23 December 2014.
- Matthews, Dylan (January 7, 2014). "Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for". The Washington Post. Wonkblog. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- https://twitter.com/dylanmatt/status/414149160775204864 Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
- Lawson, R (2006). A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801884063.
- Salam, Reihan (July 15, 2010). "On Property Taxes". Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- Martin Wolf (2010-07-08). "Why we must halt the land cycle". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Merryn Somerset Webb (2013-09-27). "How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
- Smith, Charles Joseph (January–February 1941). "Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom". Land and Freedom XLI (1). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- Filler, Louis (1993). The muckrakers. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
- Miller, Joseph Dana (ed.), 1917. Single Tax Year Book. NY: Single Tax Review Publishing Company
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