St. Nicholas Church of the Georgiyevsk Fortress
|Federal subject||Stavropol Krai|
|Town status since||1786|
|• Total||25 km2 (10 sq mi)|
|Elevation||300 m (1,000 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||218th in 2010|
|• Density||2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||town of krai significance of Georgiyevsk|
|• Capital of||town of krai significance of Georgiyevsk, Georgiyevsky District|
|• Urban okrug||Georgiyevsk Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Georgiyevsk Urban Okrug, Georgiyevsky Municipal District|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
Georgiyevsk (Russian: Гео́ргиевск) is a historical town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, located in the North Caucasus on submontane tableland on the right bank of the Podkumok River (a tributary of the Kuma River), 210 kilometers (130 mi) southeast of Stavropol. Population: 72,153 (2010 Census).
It was founded in September 1777 as St. George fortress on the Azov-Mozdok defense line. In 1783, Georgievsk saw the signing of the Treaty of Georgievsk between the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, which made the east Georgian kingdom a Russian protectorate. After 1785, Georgiyevsk grew considerably. In 1786, it was granted town status. After 1802, it was the seat of Caucasian Governorate. The early 19th century marked a peak in Georgiyevsk's influence as a trading center. After 1822, the town's influence began to wane.
In 1875, a railway station was built 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) away in Nezlobnaya. This became a new beginning in town's development. In 1894, the first blacksmith works was founded. This was the beginning of "ArZiL", the biggest enterprise in the town. In 1900, a slaughter house and oil mill were founded. In the 1920s, Georgiyevsk became a big industrial and trade center of the Ciscaucasia.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Georgiyevsk serves as the administrative center of Georgiyevsky District, eve though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of krai significance of Georgiyevsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of krai significance of Georgiyevsk is incorporated as Georgiyevsk Urban Okrug.
Today, Georgiyevsk is one of the largest industrial towns in the area with an accessory plant, repair and engineering works, nail works, semiconductor plant, acoustical and insulation material works, brickworks, two asphalt refineries, garment, shoe and fur plants, and a number of food processing facilities, including H.J. Heinz instant baby food plant.
Public transport consists mainly of marshrutkas (routed taxis).
- 1897 Census: 11,000;
- 1914 Census: 21,200;
- 1939 Census: 31,600;
- 1959 Census: 35,100;
- 1970 est.: 44,000;
- 1979 Census: 53,600;
- 62,926 (1989 Census);
- 70,575 (2002 Census);
- 72,153 (2010 Census).
Georgiyevsk has right-angled planning in the town center—a legacy of the fortress. The old town center was in the high bank on the Podkumok River near the Nikolskaya church—the oldest Orthodox church in Stavropol Krai—and a monument of wooden architecture of the 18th century.
The modern town center was built at the beginning of the 20th century around the fair square. The best examples of architecture of that period are the Old City Hall, the former Hotel "Louvre", the former Hotel "London", and Public Secondary schools #1 and #3. First enterprises were built at that time to the north of the town center. In the 1920s and 1930s, the area near the railway station was built out. After the World War II, Georgiyevsk grew quickly in the western residential areas and northern industrial areas. From the 1970s to the 1990s, several multistoried blocks were built in the southwest of the town. Today, the main part of Georgiyevsk is an area of owner-occupied dwellings. Multistoried buildings are situated in the central part of the town and in the "Beryozka" microdistrict. The town has three industrial areas, the largest of which is to the north of the town.
One of the local attraction is the Georgiyevsk Skyscraper, a twelve-story building, with views of Georgiyevsk, the Stavropol steppe, and Caucasus Mountains.
Education and culture
Georgiyevsk is an important educational center, with nine secondary schools, five vocational school, and fifteen universities and universities' satellite campuses with more than 20,000 students. It also has a Palace of Culture with a public theater, a casino, a museum, parks, Iodine-bromine mineral waters, and several churches.
In the corner of Pobedy Square and Pyatigorskaya Street is the Old City Hall, which has a bell tower from the 20th century. In the other corner of the square, opposite the Central Drugstore, stands the Monument for International Friendship. This is the beginning of Golovinsky boulevard. Tykhe road is very short and ends at the Eternal Flame on Oktyabrskya street.
On the Old Boulevard, visitors can see the Youth Palace, located in the building of the Georgiyevsk City Bank, the best example of the modern architecture in the town. There are some cafés and restaurant on the boulevard with building of different ages and architectural styles. The Old Boulevard leads to the Central Town Park. It is rather small but not long ago it was reconstructed and now has several side-shows.
The New Boulevard leads to the historical center of the town at Lermontov street. On the left side, there is a town museum in a building known as Dara. It was built at the beginning of 20th century. The owner was the producer of the first amateur theater in the town. On the right side is the mansion of Tumasov with lions of the top of the gates and the huge Palace of Culture. The Palace is now a drama theater but was once a town assembly hall.
At the end of the New Boulevard is Stela, a twenty-meter monument to mark the 200th anniversary of signing of the Treaty of Georgievsk. Until the 1930s, the Voznesensky Cathedral, which was similar to the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow, stood here.
Behind the Stela is Oktyabrskaya street through Old Georgiyevsk. The street runs high over the Podkumok river, from where there are views of the Caucasus Mountains from Mount Kazbek to Mount Elbrus, the Podkumok forest and the lower part of the town. A short distance away is the most important monument in Georgiyevsk, the Nikolskaya church, which was carried to the St. George fortress from the Khopyor River in the 1780s. This is the only church not demolished by the Soviet authorities. This is the old town center, the location of the St. George fortress.
Other areas Georgiyevsk have little of interest for tourists. Local souvenirs include "Georgiyevskaya krepost", a local wine. Georgiyevsk is one of the biggest in Russia centers for items made from fur, and many items are available in the central market.
On the way to Pyatigorsk there are old Cossacks stanitsas—Nezlobnaya, Lysogorskaya, and Goryachevodsk. A very beautiful wooden church of Rozhdestva Presvyatoy Bogoroditsy (The Birth of the Blessed Virgin), built in 1886, is situated in the center of Lysogorskaya.
Well-known Russians who visited Georgiyevsk include: Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Leo Tolstoy, Maxim Gorky, and Emperor Alexander II. Generals Nikolay Raevsky and Alexey Yermolov lived in the town.
- Resolution #63-p
- Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 107. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #88-kz
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- Правительство Ставропольского края. Постановление №63-п от 4 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края», в ред. Постановления №75-п от 5 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в пункт 47 Раздела II Реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Ставропольского края от 04 мая 2006 г. №63-п». Вступил в силу с 4 мая 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Сборник законов и других правовых актов Ставропольского края", №17, ст. 5609, 10 июля 2006 г. (Government of Stavropol Krai. Resolution #63-p of May 4, 2006 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Resolution #75-p of March 5, 2015 On Amending Item 47 of Section II of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai Adopted by Resolution #63-p of the Government of Stavropol Krai of May 4, 2006. Effective as of May 4, 2006.).
- Государственная Дума Ставропольского края. Закон №88-кз от 4 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований Ставропольского края статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №51-кз от 28 мая 2015 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований, входящих в состав Минераловодского муниципального района Ставропольского края (Минераловодского территориального муниципального образования Ставропольского края), и об организации местного самоуправления на территории Минераловодского района Ставропольского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ставропольская правда", №216, 6 октября 2004 г. (State Duma of Stavropol Krai. Law #88-kz of October 4, 2004 On Granting the Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District to the Municipal Formations of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Law #51-kz of May 28, 2015 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations Within Mineralovodsky Municipal District of Stavropol Krai (Mineralovodskoye Territorial Municipal Formation of Stavropol Krai), and on the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of Mineralovodsky District of Stavropol Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).