Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
Artist representation of GSLV Mk II.
|Function||Medium Lift Launch System|
|Country of origin||India|
|Cost per launch||Mk II ₹2.2 billion($36 million) |
|Height||49.13 metres (161.2 ft)|
|Diameter||2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)|
|Mass||414,750 kilograms (914,370 lb)|
|Payload to LEO||5,000 kilograms (11,000 lb)|
|Payload to GTO||2,500 kilograms (5,500 lb)|
|Launch sites||Satish Dhawan|
|Total launches||10 (6 Mk.I, 4 Mk.II)|
|Successes||5 (2 Mk.I, 3 Mk.II)|
|Failures||4 (3 Mk.I, 1 Mk.II)|
|Partial failures||1 (Mk.I)|
|Engines||1 L40H Vikas 2|
|Thrust||760 kN (170,000 lbf)|
|Total thrust||3,040 kN (680,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||262 s (2.57 km/s)|
|Burn time||160 seconds|
|Thrust||4,700 kN (1,100,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||237 s (2.32 km/s)|
|Burn time||100 seconds|
|Engines||1 GS2 Vikas 4|
|Thrust||800 kN (180,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||295 s (2.89 km/s)|
|Burn time||150 seconds|
|Third stage (GSLV Mk.II) - CUS12|
|Thrust||75 kN (17,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||454 s (4.45 km/s)|
|Burn time||720 seconds|
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: भूस्थिर उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण यान), abbreviated in English as GSLV, is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). GSLV has been used in ten launches to date, since its first launch in 2001 through to its most recent launch on September 8, 2016 of the INSAT-3DR.
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project was initiated in 1990 with the objective of acquiring an Indian launch capability for geosynchronous satellites. India has depended on the United States and Europe for the launch of INSAT class of satellites.
GSLV uses major components that are already proven in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launchers in the form of the S125/S139 solid rocket booster and the liquid-fueled Vikas engine. The third stage was procured from Russian company Glavcosmos based on an agreement signed in 1991. Russia backed out of the deal after US sanctions were imposed in May 1992. ISRO started the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project in April 1994 and began developing its own cryogenic stage. Russia agreed to sell 7 cryogenic stages and 1 ground mock-up stage instead of 5 cryogenic stages and the technology to build the stages.
The first development flight of GSLV Mk.I (GSLV-D1) was launched on 18 April 2001. The flight carrying GSAT-1 failed to reach the correct orbit. Attempts to save GSAT-1 by using its own propulsion system to maneuver it into the correct orbit were unsuccessful as it ran out of fuel several thousand kilometres below geosynchronous orbit.
The GSLV became operational after a second development flight, which successfully placed GSAT-2 in 2003. In its first operational flight in September 2004, GSLV launched EDUSAT - India's first dedicated satellite for educational services. However, the second operational flight, GSLV F02, conducted on July 10, 2006 did not succeed in placing the satellite INSAT-4C into orbit.
GSLV F04 is the fifth flight of India's Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), launched INSAT-4CR satellite, into a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) of 170 km perigee and 35,975 km apogee with an orbital inclination of 21.7° with respect to the equator on 2 September 2007. Subsequently, the satellite was maneuvered into geostationary orbit using its own propulsion system.
Two launches in 2010 failed; the first, in April 2010, was the first flight of the GSLV Mk.II, with an Indian-developed third stage engine replacing the Russian engine used on earlier flights. The third stage failed to ignite. The next launch, in December 2010, used the Russian engine, however the vehicle went out of control during first stage flight and was destroyed by range safety.
GSLV-F05 successfully launched from Sriharikota at 16:50 on September 8th 2016 carrying 2211 kg satellite INSAT-3DR and the satellite has been placed at GTO 1024 seconds after launch.
The 49 metres (161 ft) tall GSLV, with a lift-off mass of 415 tonnes (457 tons), is a three-stage vehicle with solid, liquid and cryogenic stages respectively. The payload fairing, which is 7.8 metres (26 ft) long and 3.4 metres (11 ft) in diameter, protects the vehicle electronics and the spacecraft during its ascent through the atmosphere. It is discarded when the vehicle reaches an altitude of about 115 km.
GSLV employs S-band telemetry and C-band transponders for enabling vehicle performance monitoring, tracking, range safety / flight safety and preliminary orbit determination. The Redundant Strap Down Inertial Navigation System/Inertial Guidance System of GSLV housed in its equipment bay guides the vehicle from lift-off to spacecraft injection. The digital auto-pilot and closed loop guidance scheme ensure the required altitude maneuver and guide injection of the spacecraft to the specified orbit.
The GSLV can place approximately 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) into an easterly low Earth orbit. With the GSLV Mk.I, using the Russian 12KRB upper stage, with KVD-1 cryogenic rocket engine, GSLV can place 2,200 kg (4,900 lb) into an 18° geostationary transfer orbit. The GSLV Mk.II uses an indigenous cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5 in the third stage instead of the Russian cryogenic engine.
The first GSLV flight, GSLV-D1 used the L40 engine. Subsequent flights of the GSLV used high pressure engines in the strap-on boosters called the L40H. The GSLV uses four L40H liquid strap-on boosters derived from the L37.5 second stage, which are loaded with 42.6 tons of hypergolic propellants (UDMH & N2O4). The propellants are stored in tandem in two independent tanks 2.1 m diameter. The engine is pump-fed and generates 760 kN (150,000 lbf) of thrust, with a burn time of 150 seconds.
GSLV-D1 used the S125 stage which contained 125 tonnes of solid propellant and had a burn time of 100 seconds. All subsequent launches have used enhanced propellant loaded S139 stage. The S139 stage is 2.8 m in diameter and has a nominal burn time of 109 seconds. The stage generates a maximum thrust of 4700 kN.
The third stage of the GSLV Mk.II is propelled by the CE-7.5, an indigenous cryogenic rocket engine, 2.8 m in diameter and uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) The indigenous cryogenic engine was built at the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre in Valiamala, Kerala & Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu. This makes India one of the 6 countries which are capable of producing cryogenic engines. The engine has a default thrust of 7.5 tons (75 kN) but is capable of a maximum thrust of 9.31 tons (93.1 kN).
GSLV rockets using the Russian Cryogenic Stage (CS) are designated as the GSLV Mk I while versions using the indigenous Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS) are designated the GSLV Mk II. All GSLV launches have been conducted from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota.
GSLV Mk I (a)
GSLV Mk I (b)
This variant had 139 t (S-139) first stage and improved fuel in the strap-on boosters and second stage. This variant can launch 1900 kg into geostationary transfer orbit.
GSLV Mk I (c)
This variant has a 15 tonne propellant loading in the third stage, called the C-15. GSLV-F06 (flight 6) is the only attempted launch of the Mark I(c) version to date.
GSLV Mk II
This variant uses an Indian cryogenic engine, the CE-7.5, and is capable of launching 2500 kg into geostationary transfer orbit. Previous GSLV vehicles (GSLV Mk.I) have used Russian cryogenic engines.
|Flight||Launch date/time (UTC)||Variant||Launch pad||Payload||Payload mass||Result|
|D1||18 April 2001
|Mk I(a)||First||GSAT-1||1540 kg||Failure|
|Developmental Flight, payload placed into lower than planned orbit, and did not have sufficient fuel to reach a usable orbit. ISRO claimed the launch to be successful and claims GSAT-1 as failure.|
|D2||8 May 2003
|Mk I(a)||First||GSAT-2||1825 kg||Success|
|F01||20 September 2004
|Mk I(b)||First||GSAT-3||1950 kg||Success|
|First operational flight.|
|F02||10 July 2006
|Mk I(b)||Second||INSAT-4C||2168 kg||Failure|
|Both rocket and satellite had to be destroyed over the Bay of Bengal after the rocket's trajectory veered outside permitted limits.|
|F04||2 September 2007
|Mk I(b)||Second||INSAT-4CR||2160 kg||Partial failure|
|Apogee lower and inclination higher than expected, due to an error in the guidance subsystem. Eventually the 2160 kg payload reached the designated geostationary transfer orbit. Minor error in orbit inclination corrected by satellite mission operators. Satellite is fully operational and full design life of ten years will be achieved. It completed 6 years in orbit successfully. ISRO claims this GSLV flight to be successful.|
|D3||15 April 2010
|Mk II||Second||GSAT-4||2220 kg||Failure|
|First flight test of the ISRO designed and built Cryogenic Upper Stage (CUS). Failed to reach orbit due to malfunction of the Fuel Booster Turbo Pump (FBTP) of the cryogenic upper stage.|
|F06||25 December 2010
|Mk I(c)||Second||GSAT-5P||2310 kg||Failure|
|First flight of GSLV Mk.I (c). Destroyed by range safety officer after loss of control over liquid-fueled boosters.|
|D5||5 January 2014
|Mk II||Second||GSAT-14||1980 kg||Success|
|The flight was scheduled for 19 August 2013, but one hour and 14 minutes before the lift off, a leakage was reported and the launch was halted.
Second flight of GSLV with indigenous cryogenic upper stage (CUS) developed by ISRO's Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) was launched successfully on 5 January 2014. It was a launch with precision of 40 metres (130 ft). All the three stages performed successfully. This was the first successful flight of the cryogenic stage which was developed indigenously in India.
|D6||27 August 2015
|Mk II||Second||GSAT-6||2117 kg||Success|
|GSLV Mk II D6 with an Indigenous Cryogenic Engine (ICE) successfully ferried GSAT-6 payload into Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) with injection parameters of 170 km x 35945 km, 19.96 degree inclination. The cuboid-shaped GSAT-6 satellite includes a technology demonstrator S-Band unfurlable antenna with a diameter of six metre which will provide S-band communication services during its expected mission life of nine years.|
|F05||8 September 2016
|MK II||Second||INSAT-3DR||2211 kg||Success|
|First operational flight of GSLV Mk II.
The injection parameters were met with extreme precision. Perigee was within 300m (within 0.18%) of the expected value whereas apogee was within 0.2% (80 km). The difference between expected and actual inclination degree was 0.
|F07||March 2017||Mk II||Second||SAARC Satellite||2000 kg||Scheduled|
|F08||September 2017||Mk II||Second||GISAT-1||2100 kg||Scheduled|
|F09||2018||Mk II||Second||GSAT-9||2330 kg||Planned|
||Mk II||Second||Chandrayaan 2||3250 kg||Planned|
- Comparison of orbital launchers families
- Comparison of orbital launch systems
- Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk III (LVM3)
- ISRO Orbital Vehicle
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Besides the new upper stage, the GSLV Mk.2 launched in April was nearly identical to previous versions of the booster.
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