Geotrichum

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Geotrichum
Geotrichosis Case 151(2).jpg
Geotrichum candidum
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Saccharomycetes
Order: Saccharomycetales
Family: Endomycetaceae
Genus: Geotrichum
Link
Species

See text.

Geotrichum is a genus of fungi found worldwide in soil, water, air, and sewage, as well as in plants, cereals, and dairy products; it is also commonly found in normal human flora and is isolated from sputum and feces. It was first described in 1809 by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link.[1]

The genus Geotrichum includes several species. The most clinical relevant is Saprochaeta capitata, formerly known as Geotrichum capitatum, with most cases occurring in Europe.[2][3]

Saprochaete clavata, formerly known as Geotrichum clavatum, is an uncommon infection that has been associated with sporadic outbreaks.[4] Geotrichum candidum is closely related to Saprochaeta sp., rarely isolated but may cause invasive and disseminated disease with high mortality Yeast-like and mold-like strains have been identified.[5]

The most important risk factor for invasive fungal infection related to Geotrichum is severe immunosuppression, especially in hematological malignancies as acute leukemia, associated with profound and prolonged neutropenia.[2][6]

Fungemia is very common, often with deep organ involvement (lung, liver, spleen, and central nervous system) and also skin and mucous membranes lesions.[7] There is no optimal treatment for Geotrichum infections but based on existing data guidelines recommend amphotericin B with or without co administered flucytosine or with voriconazole showing good in vitro susceptibility.

Mortality associated with Geotrichum-related infections is high, ranging from 57% to 80%.[8]

Increasing the knowledge on Geotrichum related invasive fungal infections may improve early diagnosis and adequate treatment of these severe infections.

History[edit]

The genus Geotrichum was described by Johann Heinrich Friedrich Link in 1809 to accommodate the species G. candidum found on decaying leaves. Since then, over 130 taxa have been described in the genus, and hundreds of synonyms have been generated.[9] For example G. candidum was misclassified as the Oidium lactis in much early literature.[10] Species of Geotrichum resemble the genera Trichosporon and Protendomycopsis; however, Geotrichum is of ascomycetous affiliation whereas the latter are members of the Basidiomycota. Species of Geotrichum are occasionally mistaken for fast growing members of the genus Dipodascus, which are characterized by irregularly branched, 10-14 μm wide hyphae and the production of single-spored asci. However, unlike Geotrichum, members of the genus Dipodascus lack dichotomous branching of the peripheral hyphae and their growth rates are generally less than 3 mm per day.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ J.W. Carmichael (1957) "Geotrichum candidum", Mycologia, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov. - Dec., 1.
  2. ^ a b Girmenia C, Pagano L, Martino B, et al. (Apr 2005). "Invasive infections caused by Trichosporon species and Geotrichum capitatum in patients with hematological malignancies: a retrospective multicenter study from Italy and review of the literature.". J Clin Microbiol. 43 (4): 1818–28. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.4.1818-1828.2005. PMID 15815003. 
  3. ^ García-Ruiz JC, López-Soria L, Olazábal I, et al. (Oct 2013). "Invasive infections caused by Saprochaete capitata in patients with haematological malignancies: report of five cases and review of the antifungal therapy.". Rev Iberoam Micol. 30 (4): 248–55. doi:10.1016/j.riam.2013.02.004. PMID 23583265. 
  4. ^ Vaux S, et al. (Nov 2014). "Multicenter outbreak of infections by Saprochaete clavata, an unrecognized opportunistic fungal pathogen.". MBio. 5 (6): e02309–14. doi:10.1128/mBio.02309-14. PMID 25516620. 
  5. ^ Gente S, Desmasures N, Jacopin C, et al. (June 2002). "Intra-species chromosome-length polymorphism in Geotrichum candidum revealed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 76 (1-2): 127–34. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00023-5. PMID 12038569. 
  6. ^ Gadea I, et al. (Apr 2004). "Genotyping and antifungal susceptibility profile of Dipodascus capitatus isolates causing disseminated infection in seven hematological patients of a tertiary hospital.". J Clin Microbiol. 42 (4): 1832–6. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.4.1832-1836.2004. PMC 387620Freely accessible. PMID 15071063. 
  7. ^ Martino R, et al. (Feb 2004). "Blastoschizomyces capitatus infection in patients with leukemia: report of 26 cases." (PDF). Clin Infect Dis. 38 (3): 335–41. doi:10.1086/380643. PMID 14727202. 
  8. ^ Rolston K (Nov 2001). "Overview of systemic fungal infections.". Oncology. 15 (11): 11–4. PMID 11757845. 
  9. ^ Anonymous. "Geotrichum". MycoBank. 
  10. ^ Boutrou, R; Gueguen, M (2005). "Interests in Geotrichum candidum for Cheese Technology". International Journal of Food Microbiology. 102: 1–20. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.12.028. 
  11. ^ Domsch, K.H.; W. Gams, W.; Andersen, T.H. (1980). Compendium of soil fungi (2nd ed.). London, UK: Academic Press. ISBN 9780122204029.