Geraldo Alckmin

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Geraldo Alckmin
Alckmin em Cooperação entre o Instituto Ayrton Senna, Secretaria da Educação e Artesp (cropped).jpg
Governor of São Paulo
In office
1 January 2011 – 6 April 2018
Vice GovernorGuilherme Afif Domingos
Márcio França
Preceded byAlberto Goldman
Succeeded byMárcio França
In office
6 March 2001 – 30 March 2006
Acting: 22 January 2001 – 6 March 2001
Vice GovernorCláudio Lembo
Preceded byMário Covas
Succeeded byCláudio Lembo
Secretary of Development of São Paulo
In office
19 January 2009 – 1 April 2010
GovernorJosé Serra
Preceded byAlberto Goldman
Succeeded byLuciano Almeida
Vice Governor of São Paulo
In office
1 January 1995 – 6 March 2001
GovernorMário Covas
Preceded byAloysio Nunes
Succeeded byCláudio Lembo
Federal Deputy for São Paulo
In office
1 February 1987 – 1 January 1995
State Deputy of São Paulo
In office
15 March 1983 – 1 February 1987
Mayor of Pindamonhangaba
In office
31 January 1977 – 15 May 1982
Vice MayorThiers Fernandes Lobo
Preceded byJoão Bosco Nogueira
Succeeded byThiers Fernandes Lobo
City Councillor of Pindamonhangaba
In office
1 January 1973 – 1 January 1977
Personal details
Geraldo José Rodrigues de Alckmin Filho

(1952-11-07) 7 November 1952 (age 69)
Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Political partyPSB (2022–present)
Other political
(m. 1979)
EducationUniversity of Taubaté (BM)
WebsiteOfficial website

Geraldo José Rodrigues de Alckmin Filho (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒeˈɾawdu ˈaɫkmĩ]; born 7 November 1952) is a Brazilian politician who served as the Governor of São Paulo from 2001 to 2006, and then again from 2011 to 2018. He was the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) presidential nominee for the 2018 presidential election, when he finished in fourth place, as well for the 2006 presidential election, when he came in second place, losing in the runoff to then president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. He is usually described by political analysts and supporters as a pro-business centrist, closely associated with the political and financial establishment.[1]

Alckmin attended the Universidade de Taubaté's medical school, specializing in Anesthesiology, before going on to work in the São Paulo Public Service Hospital. Alckmin was elected governor of São Paulo in 2010 and reelected in 2014, for the fourth (not consecutive) time.[2] He resigned on 6 April 2018 to run for president for a second time in the 2018 elections.[3] His vice governor Márcio França held the office until the end of the term on 1 January 2019. In 2021, Alckmin left PSDB after 33 years with the party and joined the Brazilian Socialist Party the following year to be Lula da Silva's running mate in the 2022 presidential election.[4]


Geraldo José Rodriguez Alckmin Filho was born in the city of Pindamonhangaba, Vale do Paraíba. Alckmin is the son of Geraldo José Rodriguez Alckmin and Miriam Penteado. Geraldo is the nephew of José Geraldo Rodriguez de Alckmin, who was a minister of the Supreme Federal Court. According to Época magazine, Geraldo received a Christian formation from the Opus Dei Catholic prelature, and told the magazine that his uncle Jose Geraldo was from Opus Dei.[5]

Geraldo is married to Maria Lúcia Ribeiro Alckmin and is the father of three children. Sophia, Geraldo and Thomaz.[6] Thomaz died in a helicopter accident on 2 April 2015.[7]

Political career[edit]

While still in his first year of medical school, Alckmin began his political career in 1972 when he was elected to the Pindamonhangaba city council (1973–1977), and then its mayor (1977–1982). At age 25, he was the youngest Brazilian mayor. He was elected a federal deputy for two terms, (1983–1987 and 1987–1994), distinguishing himself by authoring consumer protection laws. In 1988, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB).

He was elected vice governor of São Paulo, Mário Covas's running-mate first in the 1994 election and then again in 1998. With the death of Covas, he assumed the governorship of the state of São Paulo in March, 2001, he continued Covas' policies, investing in large, state-run projects, health and education programs. All of these investments were possible through privatization programs that sold off public and state-owned companies. He was elected governor on October 27, 2002, through a runoff election, for the 2003–2006 term, with 12 million votes (or 58.64%). His current administration is marked by a reduction in the state payroll from 49% to 46% of the state's budget, the unification of purchasing systems and other "smart spending" initiatives, as well as the implementation of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs).

2006 presidential election[edit]

On March 14, 2006, PSDB nominated Alckmin as its candidate for president in the 2006 elections. Because of electoral rules, no candidate running for office may currently be in an executive office, forcing him to resign the governorship on March 31, 2006. Cláudio Lembo, the lieutenant governor, finished Alckmin's term. Alckmin's party mate, José Serra, the PSDB's presidential standard-bearer who lost to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002, then announced his candidacy to replace Alckmin in the 2006 state elections. Serra won the vote in Brazil's first round elections on October 1, 2006 and was elected as the governor of São Paulo.

Contrary to all major polls taken in the run-up to the October 1, 2006 balloting, Alckmin surprised almost everyone and came in second place in the presidential election[citation needed]. His 41.64% of the vote,[8] along with votes cast for two less significant candidates, as well as ballots that were left blank or spoiled, was enough to deny the simple majority necessary to re-elect incumbent President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva ("Lula") in the first round. Lula and Alckmin faced one another in a run-off election on October 29, 2006. Alckmin received 39% of the vote, losing to Lula, who received 61% of the vote and was then reelected.

Return to São Paulo[edit]

On January 19, 2009, Geraldo was appointed Secretary of Development for the State of São Paulo by then-Governor José Serra.[9][10]

Governor of São Paulo; 2011–2018[edit]

State elections, 2010[edit]

At the PSDB Convenction held on June 13, 2010, Alckmin was officially named the party's candidate for the São Paulo government.[11]

Alckmin was elected governor in the first round with 11.5 million votes (50.63%) defeating Senator Aloizio Mercadante (PT) who obtained 8 million votes (35.23%).[12]

Third term as governor, 2011–2014[edit]

Alckmin assumed the government of São Paulo for the third time on January 1, 2011. The inauguration took place during a ceremony held at State Legislative Assembly.[13]

His administration in 2013 faces strikes in education and health.[14][15] After the readjustment in the passage of the metropolitan trains and the subway, great manifestations of protests began, that also happened in all Brazil. The readjustment was later suspended by Alckmin and the mayor of São Paulo, Fernando Haddad.[16]

Alckmin's reelection campaign for 2014 was officialized on June 29, 2014.[17] In the first round, on October 5, 2014, he was re-elected with 12.2 million votes (57.31%), being the second highest percentage of votes since the redemocratization of Brazil.[18]

Fourth term as governor, 2015–2018[edit]

Alckmin took office for the fourth time as governor of São Paulo on January 1, 2015.[19]

2018 presidential campaign[edit]

In a convention held on 9 December 2017, Alckmin was elected the PSDB's national president in a 470–3 vote, succeeding Minas Gerais senator Aécio Neves, and announced his pre-candidacy for next year's presidential race.[20] On 23 February 2018, after Manaus mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto suspended his campaign, Alckmin became the sole candidate for the party's primary. His candidacy became official on 6 March 2018.[21]

Since resigning as governor and losing his legal immunity, Alckmin has been the target of a probe by electoral justice authorities for allegations that construction company Odebrecht illegally funneled R$10 million into his 2010 and 2014 campaign. He has denied wrongdoing, saying the funds were of "electoral nature" and that the allegation "does not proceed".[22]

In early May 2018, Alckmin announced his campaign communications team, which is headed by Luis Felipe d'Avila with Lula Guimarães as marketing director.[23] Later that month, he announced his economic advisorial team, which includes Plano Real economists Edmar Bacha and Persio Arida.[24] In late July, Alckmin negotiated a coalition with the "centrão" (big centre), a group of parties in Congress composed of DEM, PP, PR, PRB and SD.[25] On 2 August 2018, Rio Grande do Sul senator Ana Amélia Lemos, a member of PP, was confirmed as Alckmin's running mate in the general election.[26] As the candidate with the largest coalition, Alckmin has secured the longest slot for political ads on free-to-air television channels.[27]

As candidate, Alckmin has proposed a smaller government and reduction of taxes, and has defended the labor reform that took place in the administration of President Michel Temer.[28]

2022 presidential election[edit]

After his defeat in the 2018 elections, Alckmin considered running again for São Paulo governor in 2022. His former ally, São Paulo governor João Doria, launched his vice governor Rodrigo Garcia as the PSDB's candidate for the role.[29][30] Alckmin considered staying with the PSDB in the case of Eduardo Leite's victory against Doria in the party's presidential primaries. After Doria's victory in November 2021, Alckmin's departure from the party became inevitable.

On December 15, 2021, Alckmin formally announced his departure from the PSDB.[31] After his departure, there were speculations that he would join the PSD if he decided to run for the government of São Paulo in 2022, or the leftist PSB if he decided to run for vice president on former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's ticket in the 2022 presidential elections.[32]

In March 2022, Alckmin joined PSB to be Lula's running mate in the 2022 presidential election. The two were formerly rivals in the 2006 presidential election, where Alckmin, then a PSDB member, was defeated by Lula in the second round.[4]


  1. ^ "Brazil's Pro-Business Candidate Won't Win Alone, Protege Says". 2018-05-15. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  2. ^ Alckmin elected São Paulo governor for 4th time Agência Brasil, October 5, 2014
  3. ^ Mellis, Fernando (6 April 2018). "Governador com mais tempo no cargo, Alckmin renuncia nesta sexta" [Governor with longest time in office, Alckmin resigns this Friday]. (in Portuguese). Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b Boadle, Anthony (23 March 2022). "Former Sao Paulo governor Alckmin joins leftist party to be Lula's running mate". Reuters.
  5. ^ Eliane Brum e Ricardo Mendonça (16 January 2006). "O Governador e a Obra". Época. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  6. ^ "Candidatos - Presidente - Geraldo Alckmin" (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo. 12 August 2006. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  7. ^ "Brazilian governor's son killed in helicopter crash".
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-12-01. Retrieved 2006-10-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ José Alberto Bombig e Fernando Barros de Mello (19 January 2009). "Alckmin é o novo secretário de Desenvolvimento de Serra". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  10. ^ "Geraldo Alckmin assume secretaria em São Paulo". Clicrbs. 19 January 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  11. ^ Daniel Roncaglia (June 13, 2010). "PSDB lança Geraldo Alckmin candidato ao governo paulista". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  12. ^ "Apuração completa - Governador". Folha de S.Paulo. October 3, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  13. ^ "Alckmin toma posse e promete trabalhar 'não apenas por São Paulo, mas pelo Brasil'". Folha de S.Paulo. 1 January 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  14. ^ Gabriela Vieira e Ricardo Chapola (5 June 2013). "Greve afeta 14 hospitais estaduais na capital, diz sindicato". O Estado de S. Paulo. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  15. ^ Viana, Julia Basso (19 April 2013). "Professores decidem greve em assembleia na Avenida Paulista". Portal G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  16. ^ "Haddad e Alckmin anunciam redução das tarifas para R$ 3 em SP". Terra. 19 June 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  17. ^ Tatiana Santiago (29 June 2014). "PSDB oficializa candidatura de Alckmin à reeleição ao governo de SP". G1. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  18. ^ Paulo Saldaña (5 October 2014). "Geraldo Alckmin é reeleito governador de SP com 57% dos votos". O Estado de S. Paulo. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  19. ^ Débora Melo e Janaina Garcia (1 January 2015). "Alckmin assume 4º mandato e não cita crise hídrica em SP". Terra. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  20. ^ "Por 470 votos a 3, PSDB elege Geraldo Alckmin presidente nacional do partido". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  21. ^ "Arthur Virgílio desiste, e Alckmin deve ser candidato do PSDB à Presidência". 23 February 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Alckmin diz que delação da Odebrecht é de 'natureza eleitoral' e 'não tem procedência' - Política - Estadão". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  23. ^ Jardim, Lauro. "O time da comunicação - Lauro Jardim - O Globo". Lauro Jardim - O Globo. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  24. ^ "Alckmin anuncia equipe econômica com criadores do Plano Real - Política - Estadão". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  25. ^ "Após ameaças de divisão, Centrão fecha com Alckmin para tentar chegar ao segundo turno". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  26. ^ "Alckmin confirma Ana Amélia como vice". 2 August 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  27. ^ "Alckmin terá 44% da TV; líderes, Bolsonaro e Marina dependerão da internet". 5 August 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  28. ^ "A trajetória de Alckmin, candidato do PSDB à Presidência". Retrieved 1 November 2018.
  29. ^ "Rodrigo Garcia, vice-governador de SP, deixa DEM depois de 27 anos e se filia ao PSDB". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-12-16.
  30. ^ "PSDB oficializa vice-governador Rodrigo Garcia como candidato ao governo de São Paulo em 2022". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-12-16.
  31. ^ "Geraldo Alckmin deixa PSDB após 33 anos no partido". CNN Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 2021-12-16.
  32. ^ Paraguassu, Lisandra (2021-12-14). "Analysis: A possible alliance in the making between Lula, former rival in Brazil 2022 run". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-12-15.

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