Geraldo Alckmin

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Geraldo Alckmin
Alckmin in 2023
Vice President of Brazil
Assumed office
1 January 2023
PresidentLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Preceded byHamilton Mourão
Minister of Development, Industry, Trade and Services
Assumed office
1 January 2023
PresidentLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Preceded byMarcos Jorge de Lima
State offices
1973–2018
Governor of São Paulo
In office
1 January 2011 – 6 April 2018
LieutenantAfif Domingos (2011–2014)
Márcio França (2015–2018)
Preceded byAlberto Goldman
Succeeded byMárcio França
In office
6 March 2001 – 30 March 2006
Acting: 22 January 2001 – 6 March 2001
Vice GovernorNone (2001–2002)
Cláudio Lembo (2003–2006)
Preceded byMário Covas
Succeeded byCláudio Lembo
Secretary of Development of São Paulo
In office
19 January 2009 – 1 April 2010
GovernorJosé Serra
Preceded byAlberto Goldman
Succeeded byLuciano Almeida
Lieutenant Governor of São Paulo
In office
1 January 1995 – 6 March 2001
GovernorMário Covas
Preceded byAloysio Nunes
Succeeded byCláudio Lembo
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
In office
1 February 1987 – 31 December 1994
ConstituencySão Paulo
State Deputy of São Paulo
In office
15 March 1983 – 1 February 1987
ConstituencyAt-large
Mayor of Pindamonhangaba
In office
31 January 1977 – 15 May 1982
DeputyThiers Fernandes Lobo
Preceded byJoão Bosco Nogueira
Succeeded byThiers Fernandes Lobo
Councillor of Pindamonhangaba
In office
1 January 1973 – 31 December 1976
ConstituencyAt-large
Personal details
Born
Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin Filho

(1952-11-07) 7 November 1952 (age 71)
Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo, Brazil
Political partyPSB (since 2022)
Other political
affiliations
MDB (1972–1980)
PMDB (1980–1988)
PSDB (1988–2021)
Independent (2021–2022)
Spouse
(m. 1979)
Children3
RelativesJosé Maria Alkmin (great-uncle)
ResidencePalácio do Jaburu
Alma materUniversity of Taubaté (BM)
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin Filho (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒeˈɾawdu ˈawkmĩ]; born 7 November 1952) is a Brazilian physician and politician who has served as the 26th vice president of Brazil since 1 January 2023.[1] He previously served as the Governor of São Paulo in nonconsecutive terms from 2001 to 2006 and from 2011 to 2018, the longest since democratization. He was the candidate of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party for president, losing in 2006 and 2018.[2]

Before entering politics, Alckmin attended the Universidade de Taubaté's medical school, specializing in anesthesiology, going on to work in the São Paulo Public Service Hospital. The Alckmin family has a history in politics, most notably Rodrigues Alckmin, a Minister of the Supreme Federal Court, and José Maria Alkmin, Vice-President in the Castelo Branco administration.[3]

In 2022, after 33 years in the PSDB, Alckmin joined the Brazilian Socialist Party to be the running mate of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, his former opponent in 2006, in the 2022 Brazilian presidential election.[4] After the ticket's victory, Alckmin became Vice-President.[5] Alckmin is usually described by political analysts and supporters as a pro-business centrist, closely associated with the political and financial establishment.[6]

Biography[edit]

Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin Filho was born in the city of Pindamonhangaba, Vale do Paraíba. Alckmin is the son of Geraldo José Rodrigues Alckmin and Míriam Penteado. Geraldo is the nephew of José Geraldo Rodrigues de Alckmin, who was a minister of the Supreme Federal Court. According to Época magazine, Geraldo received a Christian formation from the Opus Dei Catholic prelature, and told the magazine that his uncle José Geraldo was from Opus Dei.[7]

Geraldo is married to Maria Lúcia Ribeiro Alckmin and is the father of three children. Sophia, Geraldo and Thomaz.[8] Thomaz died in a helicopter accident on 2 April 2015.[9]

Early political career[edit]

Alckmin at the World Economic Forum Latin America in 2011

While still in his first year of medical school, Alckmin began his political career in 1972 when he was elected to the Pindamonhangaba city council (1973–1977), and then its mayor (1977–1982). At age 25, he was the youngest Brazilian mayor. He was elected a federal deputy for two terms, (1983–1987 and 1987–1994), distinguishing himself by authoring consumer protection laws. In 1988, he was one of the founders of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB).

First term as São Paulo governor[edit]

He was elected vice governor of São Paulo, Mário Covas's running-mate first in the 1994 election and then again in 1998. With the death of Covas, he assumed the governorship of the state of São Paulo in March, 2001, he continued Covas' policies, investing in large, state-run projects, health and education programs. All of these investments were possible through privatization programs that sold off public and state-owned companies.

He was elected governor on October 27, 2002, through a runoff election, for the 2003–2006 term, with 12 million votes (or 58.64%). His current administration was marked by a reduction in the state payroll from 49% to 46% of the state's budget, the unification of purchasing systems and other "smart spending" initiatives, as well as the implementation of Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs).

2006 presidential election[edit]

Alckmin and his family during the 2006 presidential campaign

On March 14, 2006, PSDB nominated Alckmin as its candidate for president in the 2006 elections. Because of electoral rules, no candidate running for office may currently be in an executive office, forcing him to resign the governorship on March 31, 2006. Cláudio Lembo, the lieutenant governor, finished Alckmin's term. Alckmin's party mate, José Serra, the PSDB's presidential standard-bearer who lost to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2002, then announced his candidacy to replace Alckmin in the 2006 state elections. Serra won the vote in Brazil's first round elections on October 1, 2006 and was elected as the governor of São Paulo.

Contrary to all major polls taken in the run-up to the October 1, 2006 balloting, Alckmin surprised almost everyone and came in second place in the presidential election[citation needed]. His 41.64% of the vote,[10] along with votes cast for two less significant candidates, as well as ballots that were left blank or spoiled, was enough to deny the simple majority necessary to re-elect incumbent President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva ("Lula") in the first round. Lula and Alckmin faced one another in a run-off election on October 29, 2006. Alckmin received 39% of the vote, losing to Lula, who received 61% of the vote and was then reelected.

Second term as São Paulo governor[edit]

Return to São Paulo[edit]

On January 19, 2009, Geraldo was appointed Secretary of Development for the State of São Paulo by then-Governor José Serra.[11][12]

State elections, 2010[edit]

At the PSDB Convention held on June 13, 2010, Alckmin was officially named the party's candidate for the São Paulo government.[13]

Alckmin was elected governor in the first round with 11.5 million votes (50.63%) defeating Senator Aloizio Mercadante (PT) who obtained 8 million votes (35.23%).[14]

Third term as governor, 2011–2014[edit]

Alckmin assumed the government of São Paulo for the third time on January 1, 2011. The inauguration took place during a ceremony held at State Legislative Assembly.[15]

His administration in 2013 faces strikes in education and health.[16][17] After the readjustment in the passage of the metropolitan trains and the subway, great manifestations of protests began, that also happened in all Brazil. The readjustment was later suspended by Alckmin and the mayor of São Paulo, Fernando Haddad.[18]

Alckmin's reelection campaign for 2014 was officialized on June 29, 2014.[19] In the first round, on October 5, 2014, he was re-elected with 12.2 million votes (57.31%), being the second highest percentage of votes since the redemocratization of Brazil.[20]

Fourth term as governor, 2015–2018[edit]

Alckmin took office for the fourth time as governor of São Paulo on January 1, 2015.[21]

2018 presidential campaign[edit]

In a convention held on 9 December 2017, Alckmin was elected the PSDB's national president in a 470–3 vote, succeeding Minas Gerais senator Aécio Neves, and announced his pre-candidacy for next year's presidential race.[22] On the same day, Alckmin spoke negatively of a potential Lula da Silva candidacy, stating that: "After having broken Brazil, Lula says he wants to return to power, that is, he wants to return to the scene of the crime. We will defeat him at the polls. Lula will be condemned at the polls by the biggest recession in history."[23] On 23 February 2018, after Manaus mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto suspended his campaign, Alckmin became the sole candidate for the party's primary. His candidacy became official on 6 March 2018.[24]

Since resigning as governor and losing his legal immunity, Alckmin has been the target of a probe by electoral justice authorities for allegations that construction company Odebrecht illegally funneled R$10 million into his 2010 and 2014 campaign. He has denied wrongdoing, saying the funds were of "electoral nature" and that the allegation "does not proceed".[25]

In early May 2018, Alckmin announced his campaign communications team, which is headed by Luis Felipe d'Avila with Lula Guimarães as marketing director.[26] Later that month, he announced his economic advisorial team, which includes Plano Real economists Edmar Bacha and Persio Arida.[27] In late July, Alckmin negotiated a coalition with the "centrão" (big centre), a group of parties in Congress composed of DEM, PP, PR, PRB and SD.[28] On 2 August 2018, Rio Grande do Sul senator Ana Amélia Lemos, a member of PP, was confirmed as Alckmin's running mate in the general election.[29] As the candidate with the largest coalition, Alckmin has secured the longest slot for political ads on free-to-air television channels.[30] As candidate, Alckmin has proposed a smaller government and reduction of taxes, and has defended the labor reform that took place in the administration of President Michel Temer.[31]

2022 presidential election[edit]

Alckmin, during the affiliation ceremony to the PSB, March 2022

After his defeat in the 2018 elections, Alckmin considered running again for São Paulo governor in 2022. His former ally, São Paulo governor João Doria, launched his vice governor Rodrigo Garcia as the PSDB's candidate for the role.[32][33] Alckmin considered staying with the PSDB in the case of Eduardo Leite's victory against Doria in the party's presidential primaries. After Doria's victory in November 2021, Alckmin's departure from the party became inevitable.

On December 15, 2021, Alckmin formally announced his departure from the PSDB.[34] After his departure, there were speculations that he would join the Social Democratic Party (PSD) if he decided to run for the government of São Paulo in 2022, or the leftist Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) if he decided to run for vice president on former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's ticket in the 2022 presidential elections.[35]

In March 2022, Alckmin joined PSB to be Lula's running mate in the 2022 presidential election. The two were formerly rivals in the 2006 Brazilian presidential election, where Alckmin, then a PSDB member, was defeated by Lula in the second round.[4] On May 7, 2022 Alckmin and Lula officialized the Lula-Alckmin ticket,[36] and on July 29, he officially affiliated with the PSB and his candidacy for the vice-presidency was officialized.[37] Alckmin's candidacy as vice-president for his former rival, Lula da Silva, has been seen as an attempt by Lula to form a broad front against the re-election of Jair Bolsonaro.[38][39]

The Lula-Alckmin ticket won the second round of the 2022 elections, on October 30, defeating the ticket of incumbent President Jair Bolsonaro (PL). Alckmin will take the office of Hamilton Mourão (Republicans).[39]

Vice President of Brazil[edit]

Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade[edit]

On December 22, 2022, Alckmin was announced as the minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade in the second presidency of Lula da Silva.[40]

Following the election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva as President of Brazil, Alckmin assumed office as vice president of Brazil on January 1, 2023.[41]

Electoral history[edit]

Year Election Party Office Coalition Partners Votes Precent Result Ref.
1972 Municipal Elections of Pindamonhangaba MDB Councillor None 1,447 10.00% Elected
1976 Pindamonhangaba Mayoral Election Mayor None Thiers Fernandes Lobo (MDB) 23.80% Elected
1982 State Elections of São Paulo State Deputy None 96,232 0.91% Elected
1986 State Elections of São Paulo PMDB Federal Deputy 125,127 0.81% Elected
1990 State Elections of São Paulo PSDB Federal Deputy 55,639 0.32% Elected
1994 São Paulo Gubernatorial Election Vice-Governor Commitment to São Paulo
(PSDB, PFL)
Mário Covas (PSDB) 8,661,960 56.12% Elected
1998 São Paulo Gubernatorial Election Vice-Governor São Paulo on the Right Track
(PSDB, PTB, PSD)
Mário Covas (PSDB) 9,800,253 55.37% Elected
2000 São Paulo Mayoral Election Mayor Respect for São Paulo
(PSDB, PTB, PV, PSD, PRP)
Campos Machado (PTB) 952,890 17.26% Lost
2002 São Paulo Gubernatorial Election Governor São Paulo in Good Hands
(PSDB, PFL, PSD)
Cláudio Lembo (PFL) 12,008,819 58.64% Elected
2006 Brazilian Presidential Election President For a Decent Brazil
(PSDB, PFL)
José Jorge (PFL) 37,543,178 39.17% Lost
2º Round
2008 São Paulo Mayoral Election Mayor São Paulo in the Best Direction
(PSDB, PTB, PHS, PSL, PSDC)
Campos Machado (PTB) 1,431,670 22.48% Lost
2010 São Paulo Gubernatorial Election Governor United by São Paulo
(PSDB, DEM, PMDB, PPS, PSC, PHS, PMN)
Afif Domingos (DEM) 11,519,314 50.63% Elected
1º Round
2014 São Paulo Gubernatorial Election Governor This is São Paulo
(PSDB, PSB, DEM, PRB, Solidarity, PPS, PSC, PSL, PEN, PMN, PSDC, PTC, PTN, PTdoB)
Márcio França (PSB) 12,230,807 57.31% Elected
1º Round
2018 Brazilian Presidential Election President To Unite Brazil
(PSDB, PP, PTB, PSD, PRB, PR, DEM, Solidarity, PPS)
Ana Amélia (PP) 5,096,277 4.76% Lost
2022 Brazilian Presidential Election PSB Vice-President Brazil of Hope
(Brazil of Hope (PT, PCdoB, PV), PSOL-REDE Federation (PSOL, REDE), PSB, Solidarity, Avante, Act, PROS)
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (PT) 60,345,999 50.90% Elected
2º Round

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nicas, Jack (30 October 2022). "Brazil Election: Brazil Elects Lula, a Leftist Former Leader, in a Rebuke of Bolsonaro". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 30 October 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
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  36. ^ Fiuza, Marcello Sapio, Renan. "PT oficializa Lula e aprova Alckmin como vice em chapa à Presidência". CNN Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 23 March 2023. Retrieved 15 February 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  37. ^ "Em ato com Lula, PSB oficializa apoio ao petista e Alckmin como candidato a vice-presidente". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 7 August 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  38. ^ Cerqueira, Carolina. "Quem é Geraldo Alckmin, vice-presidente da República eleito". CNN Brasil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 4 January 2023. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  39. ^ a b "Ex-rival de Lula, Geraldo Alckmin agora sobe ao Planalto como vice do petista". G1 (in Brazilian Portuguese). Archived from the original on 31 October 2022. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  40. ^ "Brazil's incoming President Lula unveils more cabinet picks". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 22 December 2022. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  41. ^ "AO VIVO: Acompanhe cerimônia de posse de Lula e Geraldo Alckmin". ND Mais (in Brazilian Portuguese). 1 January 2023. Archived from the original on 1 January 2023. Retrieved 1 January 2023.

External links[edit]