Geranium robertianum

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Geranium robertianum
Herb-Robert 800.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Geraniales
Family: Geraniaceae
Genus: Geranium
Species:
G. robertianum
Binomial name
Geranium robertianum
Synonyms

Robertiella robertiana

Geranium robertianum, commonly known as herb-Robert,[1] red robin, death come quickly, storksbill, fox geranium, stinking Bob, squinter-pip (Shropshire), crow's foot, or (in North America) Roberts geranium, is a common species of cranesbill native to Europe and parts of Asia, North America, and North Africa.[2]

Description[edit]

The typical leaf structure

It grows as a procumbent to erect annual or biennial plant, up to fifty centimetres high, producing small, pink, five-petalled flowers (8–14 mm in diameter)[3] from April until the autumn. The leaves are deeply dissected, ternate to palmate,[3][4] and the stems often reddish; the leaves also turn red at the end of the flowering season.

Distribution[edit]

Its main area of distribution is Europe from the north Mediterranean coast to the Baltic and from the British Isles in the west to the Caucasus in the east, and eastern North America and western Washington state, where it has escaped from cultivation and is regarded as an invasive species. [5][6] Geranium robertianum is common throughout Great Britain and Ireland in woodland, hedgerows, scree and maritime shingle.[3] It grows at altitudes from sea level to 710 metres (2,329 ft) in Teesdale, England and above 2,100 metres (6,890 ft) in parts of mainland Europe on calcareous alpine screes.[7]

Studies and Uses[edit]

Herb Robert has been studied in multiple papers, one of which summarizes its properties [8] by: "the confirmation of the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic and cytotoxic activities of Geranium Robertianum, closely related to the high content of phenolic compounds, has come to corroborate to some extent the recognized beneficial proprieties of this medicinal plant."

A study on rats [9] found that oral administration of leaf decoctions over a period of four weeks lowered the plasma glucose levels in diabetic rats. The work in [10] finds that "the strong scavenging effects displayed by the herb Robert stem extract suggest that its anti-inflammatory activity may partially result from its anti-radical capacities towards nitric oxide".

Herb Robert has been used in the folk medicine of several countries, including as a remedy for diarrhea, to improve functioning of the liver and gallbladder [11], for toothache and nosebleeds [12], and as a vulnerary (used for or useful in healing wounds).[13] The name has been explained as a reference to abbot and herbalist Robert of Molesme. Freshly picked leaves have an odor resembling burning tires when crushed, and if they are rubbed on the body the smell is said to repel mosquitoes.[13] The active ingredients are tannins, a bitter compound called geraniin, and essential oils. It was carried to attract good luck, and due to its analogical association with storks, to enhance fertility.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BSBI List 2007, Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland, archived from the original (xls) on 2014-10-23, retrieved 2014-10-17
  2. ^ BONAP’s Taxonomic Data Center (TDC) North American Vascular Flora
  3. ^ a b c Stace, C. A. (2010), New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.), Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, p. 348, ISBN 9780521707725
  4. ^ Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003), Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora., London: A & C Black, p. 174, ISBN 978-1408179505
  5. ^ https://www.kingcounty.gov/services/environment/animals-and-plants/noxious-weeds/weed-identification/herb-robert.aspx
  6. ^ Anderberg, Arne, "Geranium robertianum L.", Den Virtuella Floran, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden
  7. ^ Tofts, R.J. (2004), "Biological flora of the British isles No. 234 Geranium robertianum L", Journal of Ecology, 92 (3): 537–555, doi:10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00892.x
  8. ^ Graça, Vânia C.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.; Santos, Paulo F. (2016-09). "Phytochemical composition and biological activities of Geranium robertianum L.: A review". Industrial Crops and Products. 87: 363–378. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.04.058. ISSN 0926-6690. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  9. ^ Ferreira, Fernanda M; Peixoto, Francisco; Nunes, Elsa; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel; Santos, Maria Sancha (2010-11-01). ""MitoTea": Geranium robertianum L. decoctions decrease blood glucose levels and improve liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats". Acta Biochimica Polonica. 57 (4). doi:10.18388/abp.2010_2424. ISSN 1734-154X.
  10. ^ Catarino, Marcelo D.; Silva, Artur M. S.; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Cardoso, Susana M. (2017). "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Geranium robertianum L. decoctions". Food & Function. 8 (9): 3355–3365. doi:10.1039/c7fo00881c. ISSN 2042-6496.
  11. ^ "Herb Robert: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning". www.webmd.com. Retrieved 2019-09-22.
  12. ^ Foster, Steven (2006), Desk Reference To Nature's Medicine, Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, pp. 210–11, ISBN 0-7922-3666-1
  13. ^ a b Milliken, W.; Bridgewater, S. (2004), Flora Celtica, Edinburgh, U.K.: Birlinn Ltd., p. 221, ISBN 1841583030

Bibliography[edit]

Geranium robertianum flower buds
Geranium robertianum

External links[edit]