Gerardo Beni

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Gerardo Beni is a professor of electrical engineering at University of California, Riverside who, with Jing Wang, is known as the originator of the term 'swarm intelligence' [1][2] in the context of cellular robotics and the concept of 'electrowetting' ,[3] with Susan Hackwood. He also devised, with Xuan-Li Xie, the Xie-Beni Index [4] for measuring the validity of fuzzy clustering.

He is the author of 'From Swarm Intelligence to Swarm Robotics' in the book Swarm Robotics[5]

Beni is married to Susan Hackwood. They have two children.


In 1970 Beni was admitted to the Laurea in physics at the University of Florence, Florence, Italy.[6]

In 1974, he received his PhD in theoretical physics at UCLA.[6]

Academic career[edit]

Beni has research interests in swarm intelligence, 3D animation, and financial engineering.[7]

Before moving to UC Riverside, he worked at UC Santa Barbara and AT&T Bell Laboratories.[6]

He helped found the Journal of Robotic Systems, and between 1982 and 2005 he was also its director. The journal won the Journal of the Year Award in 1984.[6]

In 1982, Beni was made a Fellow of the American Physical Society. In 1999 he became a Fellow of the AAAS.[6]


Beni has been issued, either alone or in conjunction with other inventors, several patents from the USPTO:[8]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Beni, G., Wang, J. Swarm Intelligence in Cellular Robotic Systems, Proceed. NATO Advanced Workshop on Robots and Biological Systems, Tuscany, Italy, June 26–30 (1989)
  3. ^ Beni,G. and Hackwood,S.,Electrowetting Displays,Applied Physics Letter, 38,4,pp.207-209,1982
  4. ^ Xie, X.L., and Beni,G. A Validity Measure for Fuzzy Clustering, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 13, pp. 841-847, (1991)
  5. ^ ISBN 978-3-540-24296-3, DOI 10.1007/b105069, Springer.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Electrical Engineering: Gerardo Beni". Archived from the original on 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
  7. ^ Gerardo Beni
  8. ^ Patent Database Search Results: IN/Gerardo AND IN/Beni in US Patent Collection

External links[edit]