Schröder in 2014
|Chancellor of Germany|
27 October 1998 – 22 November 2005
|Vice Chancellor||Joschka Fischer|
|Preceded by||Helmut Kohl|
|Succeeded by||Angela Merkel|
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party|
12 March 1999 – 21 July 2004
|General Secretary||Franz Müntefering|
|Preceded by||Oskar Lafontaine|
|Succeeded by||Franz Müntefering|
|President of the Bundesrat|
1 November 1997 – 27 October 1998
|Preceded by||Erwin Teufel|
|Succeeded by||Hans Eichel|
|Minister President of Lower Saxony|
21 June 1990 – 27 October 1998
|Preceded by||Ernst Albrecht|
|Succeeded by||Gerhard Glogowski|
|Member of the Bundestag|
for Lower Saxony
26 October 1998 – 24 November 2005
29 March 1983 – 1 July 1986
|Member of the Bundestag|
for Hannover-Land I
4 November 1980 – 29 March 1983
|Preceded by||Constituency established|
|Succeeded by||Dietmar Kansy|
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder
7 April 1944
Blomberg, Free State of Lippe, Nazi Germany
|Political party||Social Democratic Party|
(m. 1968; div. 1972)
(m. 1972; div. 1984)
(m. 1984; div. 1997)
(m. 1997; div. 2018)
Kim So-Yeon (m. 2018)
|Alma mater||University of Göttingen|
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder (German: [ˈɡɛɐ̯haɐ̯t fʁɪts kʊɐ̯t ˈʃʁøːdɐ] (listen); born 7 April 1944) is a German politician who served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005, during which his most important political initiative was Agenda 2010. As a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens.
Before becoming a full-time politician, he was a lawyer, and before becoming Chancellor he served as Prime Minister of Lower Saxony (1990–1998). Following the 2005 federal election, which his party lost, after three weeks of negotiations he stood down as Chancellor in favour of Angela Merkel of the rival Christian Democratic Union. He is currently the chairman of the board of Nord Stream AG and of Rosneft, after having been hired as a global manager by investment bank Rothschild, and also the chairman of the board of football club Hannover 96.
Early life and education
Schröder was born in Blomberg, Lippe, Greater German Reich. His father, Fritz Schröder, a lance corporal in the Wehrmacht, was killed in action in World War II in Romania on 4 October 1944, almost six months after Gerhard's birth. His mother, Erika (née Vosseler), worked as an agricultural laborer so that she could support herself and her two sons.
Schröder completed an apprenticeship in retail sales in a Lemgo hardware shop from 1958 to 1961 and subsequently worked in a Lage retail shop and after that as an unskilled construction worker and a sales clerk in Göttingen while studying at night school for a general qualification for university entrance (Abitur). He did not have to do military service because his father had died in the war. In 1966, Schröder secured entrance to a university, passing the Abitur exam at Westfalen-Kolleg, Bielefeld. From 1966–71 he studied law at the University of Göttingen. From 1972 onwards, Schröder served as teaching assistant at the university. In 1976, he passed his second law examination, and he subsequently worked as a lawyer until 1990.
Among his more controversial cases, Schröder helped Horst Mahler, a founding member of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, to secure both an early release from prison and permission to practice law again in Germany.
Early political career
Schröder joined the Social Democratic Party in 1963. In 1978 he became the federal chairman of the Young Socialists, the youth organisation of the SPD. He spoke for the dissident Rudolf Bahro, as did President Jimmy Carter, Herbert Marcuse, and Wolf Biermann.
Member of the German Bundestag, 1980–1986
In 1980, Schröder was elected to the German Bundestag (federal parliament), where he wore a sweater instead of the traditional suit. Under the leadership of successive chairmen Herbert Wehner (1980–83) and Hans-Jochen Vogel (1983–86), he served in the SPD parliamentary group. He also became chairman of the SPD Hanover district.
Considered ambitious from early on in his political career, it was widely reported and never denied, that in 1982, a drunken Schröder stood outside the West German federal chancellery yelling: "I want to get in." That same year, he wrote an article on the idea of a red/green coalition for a book at Olle & Wolter, Berlin; this appeared later in "Die Zeit". Chancellor Willy Brandt, the SPD and SI chairman, who reviewed Olle & Wolter at that time, had just asked for more books on the subject.
Minister-President of Lower Saxony, 1990–1998
After the SPD won the state elections in June 1990, Schröder became Minister-President of Lower Saxony as head of an SPD-Greens coalition; in this position, he also won the 1994 and 1998 state elections. He was subsequently also appointed to the supervisory board of Volkswagen, the largest company in Lower Saxony and of which the state of Lower Saxony is a major stockholder.
Following his election as Minister-President in 1990, Schröder also became a member of the board of the federal SPD. In 1997 and 1998, he served as President of the Bundesrat. Between 1994 and 1998, he was also chairman of Lower Saxonian SPD.
During Schröder's time in office, first in coalition with the environmentalist Green Party, then with a clear majority, Lower Saxony became one of the most deficit-ridden of Germany's 16 federal states and unemployment rose higher than the national average of 12 percent. Ahead of the 1994 elections, SPD chairman Rudolf Scharping included Schröder in his shadow cabinet for the party's campaign to unseat incumbent Helmut Kohl as Chancellor. During the campaign, Schröder served as shadow minister of economic affairs, energy and transport.
In 1996, Schröder caused controversy by taking a free ride on the Volkswagen corporate jet to attend the Vienna Opera Ball, along with Volkswagen CEO Ferdinand Piëch. The following year, he nationalized a big steel mill in Lower Saxony to preserve jobs.
In the 1998 state elections, Schöder's Social Democrats increased their share of the vote by about four percentage points over the 44.3 percent they recorded in the previous elections in 1994 – a postwar record for the party in Lower Saxony that reversed a string of Social Democrat reversals in state elections elsewhere.
Chancellor of Germany, 1998–2005
First term, 1998–2002
Following the 1998 national elections, Schröder became Chancellor as head of an SPD-Green coalition. Throughout his campaign for Chancellor, he portrayed himself as a pragmatic new Social Democrat who would promote economic growth while strengthening Germany's generous social welfare system.
After the resignation of Oskar Lafontaine as SPD Chairman in March 1999, in protest at Schröder's adoption of a number of what Lafontaine considered "neo-liberal" policies, Schröder took over his rival's office as well. In a move meant to signal a deepening alliance between Schröder and Prime Minister Tony Blair of the United Kingdom, the two leaders issued an eighteen-page manifesto for economic reform in June 1999. Titled Europe: The Third Way, or Die Neue Mitte in German, it called on Europe's centre-left governments to cut taxes, pursue labour and welfare reforms and encourage entrepreneurship. The joint paper said European governments needed to adopt a "supply-side agenda" to respond to globalisation, the demands of capital markets and technological change.
Schröder's efforts backfired within his own party though, where the traditional left-wing rejected the Schröder-Blair call for cutbacks to the welfare state and pro-business policies. Instead, the paper took part of the blame for a succession of six German state election losses in 1999 for the Social Democratic Party. Only by 2000, Schröder managed to capitalise on the donations scandal of his Christian Democratic opposition to push through a landmark tax reform bill and re-establish his dominance of the German political scene.
In May 2001, Schröder moved to his new official residence, the Chancellery building in Berlin, almost two years after the city became the seat of the German Government. He had previously been working out of the building in eastern Berlin used by the former leaders of East Germany.
Second term, 2002–2005
Throughout the build-up to the 2002 German election, the Social Democrats and the Green Party trailed the centre-right candidate Edmund Stoiber until the catastrophe caused by rising floodwater in Germany gave him a chance to monopolise the media and save his poll ratings. Lastly, his popular opposition to a war in Iraq dominated campaigning in the run-up to the polls. At 22 September vote, he secured another four-year term, with a narrow nine-seat majority (down from 21).
In February 2004, Schröder resigned as chairman of the SPD amid growing criticism from across his own party of his reform agenda; Franz Müntefering succeeded him as chairman. On 22 May 2005, after the SPD lost to the Christian Democrats (CDU) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Gerhard Schröder announced he would call federal elections "as soon as possible". A motion of confidence was subsequently defeated in the Bundestag on 1 July 2005 by 151 to 296 (with 148 abstaining), after Schröder urged members not to vote for his government in order to trigger new elections. In response, a grouping of left-wing SPD dissidents and the neo-communist Party of Democratic Socialism agreed to run on a joint ticket in the general election, with Schröder's rival Oskar Lafontaine leading the new group.
The 2005 German federal elections were held on 18 September. After the elections, neither Schröder's SPD-Green coalition nor the alliance between CDU/CSU and the FDP led by Angela Merkel achieved a majority in parliament, but the CDU/CSU had a stronger popular electoral lead by one percentage point. Since the SPD had been trailing the CDU by more than 15 points only weeks before the election, this outcome was a surprise and was mainly attributed to Schröder's charisma and prowess as a campaigner; polls consistently showed that he was much more popular with the German people than Merkel. On election night, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory and chancellorship, but after initially ruling out a grand coalition with Merkel, Schröder and Müntefering entered negotiations with her and the CSU's Edmund Stoiber. On 10 October, it was announced that the parties had agreed to form a grand coalition. Schröder agreed to cede the chancellorship to Merkel, but the SPD would hold the majority of government posts and retain considerable control of government policy. Merkel was elected chancellor on 22 November.
On 11 October 2005, Schröder announced that he would not take a post in the new Cabinet and, in November, he confirmed that he would leave politics as soon as Merkel took office. On 23 November 2005, he resigned his Bundestag seat.
On 14 November 2005, at a SPD conference in Karlsruhe, Schröder urged members of the SPD to support the proposed coalition, saying it "carries unmistakably, perhaps primarily, the imprint of the Social Democrats". Many SPD members had previously indicated that they supported the coalition, which would have continued the policies of Schröder's government, but had objected to Angela Merkel replacing him as Chancellor. The conference voted overwhelmingly to approve the deal.
During Schröder's time in office, economic growth slowed to only 0.2% in 2002 and Gross Domestic Product shrank in 2003, while German unemployment was over the 10% mark. Most voters soon associated Schröder with the Agenda 2010 reform program, which included cuts in the social welfare system (national health insurance, unemployment payments, pensions), lower taxes, and reformed regulations on employment and payment. He also eliminated capital gains tax on the sale of corporate stocks and thereby made the country more attractive to foreign investors.
After the 2002 election, the SPD steadily lost support in opinion polls. Many increasingly perceived Schröder's Third Way program to be a dismantling of the German welfare state. Moreover, Germany's high unemployment rate remained a serious problem for the government. Schröder's tax policies were also unpopular; when the satirical radio show The Gerd Show released "Der Steuersong", featuring Schröder's voice (by impressionist Elmar Brandt) lampooning Germany's indirect taxation with the lyrics "Dog tax, tobacco tax, emissions and environmental tax, did you really think more weren't coming?", it became Germany's 2002 Christmas #1 hit and sold over a million copies. The fact that Schröder served on the Volkswagen board (a position that came with his position as minister-president of Lower Saxony) and tended to prefer pro-car policies led to him being nicknamed the "Auto-Kanzler" (car chancellor).
In 1997, Schröder joined the ministers-president of two other German states, Kurt Biedenkopf and Edmund Stoiber, in making the case for a five-year delay in Europe's currency union. After taking office, he made his first official trip overseas to France for meetings with President Jacques Chirac and Prime Minister Lionel Jospin in October 1998. A 2001 meeting held by both leaders in Blaesheim later gave the name to a regular series of informal meetings between the French President, the German Chancellor, and their foreign ministers. The meetings were held alternately in France and Germany. At the fortieth anniversary of the Elysée Treaty, both sides agreed that rather than summits being held twice a year, there would now be regular meetings of a council of French and German ministers overseen by their respective foreign affairs ministers. In an unprecedented move, Chirac formally agreed to represent Schröder in his absence at a European Council meeting in October 2003.
In his first months in office, Schröder vigorously demanded that Germany's net annual contribution of about $12,000,000,000 to the budget of the European Union be cut, saying his country was paying most for European "waste." He later moderated his views when his government held the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 1999.
In 2003, Schröder and Chirac agreed to share power in the institutions of the European Union between a President of the European Commission, elected by the European Parliament, and a full-time President of the European Council, chosen by heads of state and government; their agreement later formed the basis of discussions at the Convention on the Future of Europe and became law with the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. Ahead of the French referendum on a European Constitution, Schröder joined Chirac in urging French voters to back the new treaty, which would have enshrined new rules for the expanded EU of 25 member states and widened the areas of collective action.
Also in 2003, both Schröder and Chirac forced a suspension of sanctions both faced for breaching the European Union's fiscal rules that underpin the euro – the Stability and Growth Pact – for three years in a row. Schröder later called for a revision of the Lisbon Strategy and thereby a retreat from Europe's goal of overtaking the United States as the world's most competitive economy by 2010. Instead, he urged the EU to reform the Pact to encourage growth, and to seek the reorientation of the €100,000,000,000 annual EU budget towards research and innovation. By 2005, he had successfully pushed for an agreement on sweeping plans to rewrite the Pact, which now allowed EU members with deficits above the original 3% of GDP limit to cite the costs of "the reunification of Europe" as a mitigating factor.
Schröder was regarded a strong ally of Prime Minister Leszek Miller of Poland and supporter of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union. On 1 August 2004, the sixtieth anniversary of the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, he apologised to Poland for "the immeasurable suffering" of its people during the conflict; he was the first German Chancellor to be invited to an anniversary of the uprising. Both Schröder and Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer also supported the accession of Turkey to the European Union.
Marking a clear break with the caution of German foreign policy since World War II, Schröder laid out in 1999 his vision of the country's international role, describing Germany as "a great power in Europe" that would not hesitate to pursue its national interests.
Schröder also began seeking a resolution ways to compensate Nazi-era slave labourers almost as soon as he was elected Chancellor. Reversing the hard-line stance of his predecessor, Helmut Kohl, he agreed to the government contributing alongside industry to a fund that would compensate people forced to work in German factories by the Nazi regime and appointed Otto Graf Lambsdorff to represent German industry in the negotiations with survivors' organisations, American lawyers and the U.S. government.
Schröder sent forces to Kosovo and to Afghanistan as part of NATO operations. Until Schröder's chancellorship, German troops had not taken part in combat actions since World War II. With Germany having a long experience with terrorism itself, Schröder declared solidarity with the United States after the September 11 attacks in 2001. When Schröder left office, Germany had 2,000 troops in Afghanistan, the largest contingent from any nation other than the United States, UK, France, Canada and after two years Afghanistan.
Relations with the Middle East
During their time in government, both Schröder and his foreign minister Joschka Fischer were widely considered sincerely, if not uncritically, pro-Israel. Schröder represented the German government at the funeral service for King Hussein of Jordan in Amman on 9 February 1999.
When British planes joined United States forces bombing Iraq without consulting the United Nations Security Council in December 1998, Schröder endorsed the military action unequivocally. Along with French President Jacques Chirac and many other world leaders, Schröder later spoke out strongly against the 2003 invasion of Iraq and refused any military assistance in that enterprise. Schröder's stance caused political friction between the US and Germany, in particular because he used this topic for his 2002 election campaign. Schröder's stance set the stage for alleged anti-American statements by members of the SPD. The parliamentary leader of the SPD, Ludwig Stiegler, compared US President George W. Bush to Julius Caesar while Schröder's Minister of Justice, Herta Däubler-Gmelin, likened Bush's foreign policy to that of Adolf Hitler. Schröder's critics accused him of enhancing, and campaigning on, anti-American sentiments in Germany. After his 2002 re-election, Schröder and Bush rarely met and their animosity was seen as a widening political gap between the US and Europe. Bush stated in his memoirs that Schröder initially promised to support the Iraq war but changed his mind with the upcoming German elections and public opinion strongly against the invasion, to which Schröder responded saying that Bush was "not telling the truth". When asked in March 2003 if he were at all self-critical about his position on Iraq, Schröder replied, "I very much regret there were excessive statements" from himself and former members of his government (which capitalised on the war's unpopularity).
Relations with Russia
On his first official trip to Russia in late-1998, Schröder suggested that Germany was not likely to come up with more aid for the country. He also sought to detach himself from the close personal relationship that his predecessor, Helmut Kohl, had with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, saying that German-Russian relations should "develop independently of concrete political figures." Soon after, however, he cultivated close ties with Yeltsin's successor, President Vladimir Putin, in an attempt to strengthen the "strategic partnership" between Berlin and Moscow, including the opening of a gas pipeline from Russian Dan Marino-Pipelines over the Baltic Sea exclusively between Russia and Germany (see "Gazprom controversy" below). During his time in office, he visited the country five times.
Schröder was criticised in the media, and subsequently by Angela Merkel, for calling Putin a "flawless democrat" on 22 November 2004, only days before Putin prematurely congratulated Viktor Yanukovich during the Orange Revolution. In 2005, Schröder suggested at the ceremonial introduction of the Airbus A380 in Toulouse that there was still "room in the boat" of EADS for Russia.
Only a few days after his chancellorship, Schröder joined the board of directors of the joint venture. Thus bringing about new speculations about his prior objectivity. In his memoirs Decisions: My Life in Politics, Schröder still defends his friend and political ally, and states that "it would be wrong to place excessive demands on Russia when it comes to the rate of domestic political reform and democratic development, or to judge it solely on the basis of the Chechnya conflict."
Relations with China
During his time in office, Schröder visited China six times. He was the first Western politician to travel to Beijing and apologise after NATO jets had mistakenly bombed the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade in 1999. In 2004, he and Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao established a secure, direct telephone line. He also pressed for the lifting of the EU arms embargo on China.
Life after politics
Schröder rents an apartment in Berlin while retaining his primary residence in Hanover. As a former Chancellor, he is entitled to a permanent office, also situated in Berlin. In late 2005, he spent time in the UK improving his English language skills.
After leaving public office, Schröder represented Germany at the funeral services for Boris Yeltsin in Moscow (jointly with Horst Köhler and Helmut Kohl, 2007) and Fidel Castro in Santiago de Cuba (2016).
Schröder and Kurt Biedenkopf served as mediators in a conflict over privatization plans at German railway operator Deutsche Bahn; the plans eventually fell through. In 2016, he was appointed by Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel to mediate (alongside economist Bert Rürup) in a dispute between two of Germany's leading retailers, Edeka and REWE Group, over the takeover of supermarket chain Kaiser's Tengelmann.
Following the release of German activist Peter Steudtner from a Turkish prison in October 2017, German media reported that Schröder had acted as mediator in the conflict and, on the request of Gabriel, met with President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to secure the release. After the 2018 elections in Turkey, he represented the German government at Erdoğan's swearing-in ceremony in Ankara.
Schröder's plans after leaving office as Chancellor and resigning his Bundestag seat included resuming his law practice in Berlin, writing a book, and implementing plans for twin pipelines for Gazprom, Russia's leading energy company. He was subsequently retained by the Swiss publisher Ringier AG as a consultant. Other board memberships include the following:
- Herrenknecht, Deputy Chairman of the Supervisory Board (since 2017)
- Nord Stream, Chairman of the Shareholders’ Committee (since 2006)
- CargoBeamer, Member of the Advisory Board
- N M Rothschild & Sons, Member of the European Advisory Council (since 2006)
- Hannover 96, Chairman of the Supervisory Board (2016-2019)
- TNK-BP, Member of the International Advisory Board (2009)
In addition, Schröder has held several other paid and unpaid positions since his retirement from German politics, including:
- Berggruen Institute, Member of the Council for the Future of Europe and the 21st Century Council.
- Bundesliga Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees
- German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Member of the Advisory Council
- Dresden Frauenkirche, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES), Member
- Mädchenchor Hannover Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees
- Museum Berggruen, Member of the International Council
- German Near and Middle East Association (NUMOV), Honorary Chairman of the Board
- Wilhelm Busch Museum, Chairman of the Board of Trustees (since 2013)
- InterAction Council of Former Heads of State and Government, Member
- International Willy Brandt Prize, Member of the Jury
Criticism and controversies
Relationship with Gazprom and Rosneft
As Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder was a strong advocate of the Nord Stream pipeline project, which aims to supply Russian gas directly to Germany, thereby bypassing transit countries.
In 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin’s friend Schroeder hastily signed the deal just as he was departing the office from which he had been voted out days earlier. Within weeks, he started to oversee the project implementation himself, leading the Nord Stream AG’s shareholder committee.
On 24 October 2005, just a few weeks before Schröder stepped down as Chancellor, the German government guaranteed to cover 1 billion euros of the Nord Stream project cost, should Gazprom default on a loan. However, this guarantee had never been used. Soon after stepping down as chancellor, Schröder accepted Gazprom's nomination for the post of the head of the shareholders' committee of Nord Stream AG, raising questions about a potential conflict of interest.
German opposition parties expressed concern over the issue, as did the governments of countries over whose territory gas is currently pumped. In an editorial entitled Gerhard Schroeder's Sellout, the American newspaper The Washington Post also expressed sharp criticism, reflecting widening international ramifications of Schröder's new post. Democrat Tom Lantos, chairman of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, likened Schröder to a "political prostitute" for his recent behaviour. In January 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Schröder would join the board of the oil company TNK-BP, a joint venture between oil major BP and Russian partners.
In 2017, Russia nominated Schröder to also serve as an independent director of the board of its biggest oil producer Rosneft. At the time, Rosneft was under Western sanctions over Russia's role in the Ukraine crisis. Schröder told Blick that he would be paid about $350,000 annually for the part-time post. His decision caused an outcry in Germany and abroad, especially in a climate of fear about any potential Russian interference in the 2017 German elections. German Chancellor Angela Merkel criticized her predecessor, saying "I do not think what Mr Schröder is doing is okay".
In April 2002, Schröder sued the DDP press agency for publishing an opinion of public relations consultant Sabine Schwind saying that he "would be more credible if he didn't dye his gray hair". The court decided to ban the media from suggesting that he colours his hair. The Chancellor's spokesman said: "This is not a frivolous action taken over whether he does or doesn't dye his hair, but is a serious issue regarding his word." The agency's lawyer said that they could not accept a verdict which "does not coincide with freedom of the press".
Dispute over Estonian war memorial
During a heated dispute between Russia and Estonia in May 2007 over the removal of a Soviet-era war memorial from the centre of the Estonian capital Tallinn to a military cemetery, Schröder defended the Kremlin's reaction. He remarked that Estonia had contradicted "every form of civilised behaviour". Consequently, the Estonian government cancelled a planned visit by Schröder in his function as chairman of Nord Stream AG, which promotes the petroleum pipeline from Russia to Germany.
Comments on Kosovo independence
Schröder has criticised some European countries' swift decision to recognise Kosovo as an independent state after it declared independence in February 2008. He believes the decision was taken under heavy pressure from the US government and has caused more problems, including the weakening of the so-called pro-EU forces in Serbia. In August 2008, Schröder laid the blame for the 2008 South Ossetia war squarely on Mikhail Saakashvili and "the West", hinting at American foreknowledge and refusing to criticize any aspect of Russian policy which had thus far come to light.
Comments on Crimean crisis
In March 2014, Schröder likened Russia's intervention in Crimea with NATO's intervention in Kosovo, citing both cases as violations of international law and the UN Charter. He further stated that there had been "unhappy developments" on the outskirts of the former Soviet Union since the end of the Cold War, leading Putin to develop justifiable "fears about being encircled". On 13 March 2014, an attempt by the German Green Party to ban Schröder from speaking in public about Ukraine was narrowly defeated in the European parliament. His decision to celebrate his 70th birthday party with Putin in Saint Petersburg's Yusupov Palace in late April elicited further criticism from several members of Merkel's grand coalition, including human rights spokesperson Christoph Strässer.
In November 2017, an investigation conducted by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalism cited his name in the list of politicians named in "Paradise Papers" allegations.
Schröder has been married five times:
- Eva Schubach (married 1968, divorced 1972);
- Anne Taschenmacher (married 1972, divorced 1984);
- Hiltrud Hampel ("Hillu"; married 1984, divorced 1997);
- Doris Köpf (married 1997, divorced 2018);
- Kim So-yeon (married 2018)
Doris Köpf had a daughter from a previous relationship with a television journalist. She lived with the couple. In July 2004, Schröder and Köpf adopted a child from Saint Petersburg. In 2006, they adopted another child from Saint Petersburg.
Schröder identifies himself as a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany, but does not appear to be religious. He did not add the optional phrase So wahr mir Gott helfe ("so help me God") when sworn in as chancellor for his first term in 1998.
Schröder is known to be an avid art collector. He chose his friend Jörg Immendorff to paint his official portrait for the German Chancellery. The portrait, which was completed by Immendorff's assistants, was revealed to the public in January 2007; the massive work has ironic character, showing the former Chancellor in stern heroic pose, in the colors of the German flag, painted in the style of an icon, surrounded by little monkeys. These "painter monkeys" were a recurring theme in Immendorff's work, serving as an ironic commentary on the artist's practice. On 14 June 2007, Schröder gave a eulogy at a memorial service for Immendorf at the Alte Nationalgalerie in Berlin.
Awards and honours
- Order of the White Eagle (Poland, 2002)
- Schröder has been awarded honorary doctorates by
- Honorary citizen of Hanover (24 February 2006)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of Queen Jelena 24 April 2007, "for exceptional merit in the recognition of Croatia and the support of Croatia on the road to the EU".
- Quadriga Prize (2007)
- Elected a corresponding member of the Department of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (28 May 2008)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania
- Order of the White Lion (Czech Republic, 2017)
- Order of the Golden Fleece (Georgia)
- Béla Anda, Rolf Kleine: Gerhard Schröder. Eine Biographie. Ullstein, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-550-07092-6 (updated 2nd edition Ullstein, 2002, ISBN 3-548-36387-3).
- de:Jürgen Hogrefe: Gerhard Schröder: Ein Porträt. Siedler Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-88680-757-6.
- de:Reinhard Urschel: Gerhard Schröder. DVA, 2002, ISBN 3-421-05508-4.
- Gerhard Schröder and Ulrich Wickert: Deutschland wird selbstbewusster. Hohenheim-Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-89850-010-1.
- de:Gregor Schöllgen: Gerhard Schröder. Die Biographie. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2015, ISBN 978-3421046536.
- "Altkanzler: Gerhard Schröder und seine Mutter Erika Vosseler - Bilder & Fotos - DIE WELT". Welt.de. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- "Zivildienst: Hat sich Joschka Fischer gedrückt?". Spiegel.de. 17 April 2001. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Thaler, Thorsten (8 May 1998). "Gerhard-Schröder-Biographie: Horst Mahler stellt das Buch eines Konservativen vor Hoffnung keimt im Verborgenen". Junge Freiheit (in German). Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- Would-be chancellor Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine European Voice, 25 February 1998.
- Alan Cowell (3 March 1998), To Battle Kohl, a Socialist Who's Pro-Business Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Ferdinand Protzman (August 30, 1994), German Opposition Names Shadow Cabinet in Hopes of Votes Archived 4 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Alan Cowell (1 March 1998), Kohl's Rival Faces a Vote That's Make Or Break Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Alan Cowell (2 March 1998), German Social Democrat Triumphs in Key State Election Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Edmund L. Andrews (20 October 1998), Choice for Economics Post Spurns Offer by Schroder Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Rachel Sylvester (29 May 1999), We say Third Way, you say die neue mitte Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Independent.
- Tony Blair and Gerhard Schroeder, (19 Aug 1999) https://web.archive.org/web/19990819090124/http://www.labour.org.uk/views/items/00000053.html Europe: The Third Way/Die Neue Mitte]
- Edmund L. Andrews (20 October 1998), British-German Agenda Marks Break With Left : Manifesto Maps Out 'Third Way' Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine International Herald Tribune.
- Tom Buerkle and John Schmid (22 July 2000), The Third Way: Schroeder Soars but Blair Stalls Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine International Herald Tribune.
- Schroeder gets new home Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 2 May 2001.
- Schroeder buoyed by flood disaster Archived 8 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 23 August 2002.
- Schroeder wins second term Archived 23 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine CNN, 23 September 2002.
- Schröder resigns SPD chairmanship Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Telegraph, 6 February 2004.
- A resigning matter Archived 2 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Economist, 12 February 2004.
- Richard Milne (11 June 2005), New leftwing alliance to challenge SPD[permanent dead link] Financial Times.
- "Merkel named as German chancellor". BBC News. 10 October 2005. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 11 January 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Schröder Urges Reform as SPD Celebrates 140th Anniversary Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle, 23 May 2002.
- Claus Christian Malzahn (14 October 2005), The Modern Chancellor: Taking Stock of Gerhard Schröder Archived 23 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Spiegel Online.
- John Schmid (July 28, 1997), Another German Premier Seeks Delay on the Euro Archived 1 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine International Herald Tribune.
- Craig R. Whitney (1 October 1998), Germany's New Leader Gives France Reassurances About Ties Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- France and Germany hand in hand Archived 7 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Telegraph, 23 January 2003.
- Luke Harding, Jon Henley and Ian Black (16 October 2003), Schröder and Chirac flaunt love affair at summit Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian.
- Roger Cohen (27 March 1999), Statesmanlike Schroder Pulls Harmony From Europe's Hat Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Dana Spinant (15 January 2003), Paris and Berlin cook up shock deal over EU presidency Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine European Voice.
- John Thornhill and Martin Arnold (26 April 2005), Schröder echoes Chirac call for French Yes vote[permanent dead link] Financial Times.
- George Parker and Bertrand Benoit (3 November 2004), Schröder to urge economic rethink for Europe[permanent dead link] Financial Times.
- George Parker and Bertrand Benoit (21 March 2005), Sweeping rewrite of EU stability pact agreed[permanent dead link] Financial Times.
- Michal Jaranowski (5 May 2013), Leszek Miller: Schröder's role in Polish-German relations 'underestimated' Archived 2 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle.
- Toby Helm (5 September 2000), Schröder seeks to limit damage over EU growth 'gaffe' Archived 4 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Daily Telegraph.
- Roger Cohen (12 September 1999), A New German Assertiveness On Its Foreign Policy Stance Archived 16 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Edmund L. Andrews (9 December 1999), Schroder Dismisses Demands To Enlarge Fund for Nazi Slaves Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- "German troops to join war effort". www.theguardian.com. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- Steven Erlanger (7 April 2002), The World: The Jewish Question; Europe Knows Who's to Blame in the Middle East Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- John M. Broder (9 February 1999), Clinton Lauds King Hussein As Man of Vision and Spirit Archived 15 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Craig R. Whitney (18 December 1998), Critics From Paris to Kuwait, but a Friend in London Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Khan, Adnan R. (24 November 2010). "The Schröder-Bush dust-up – World". Macleans.ca. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- John Vinocur (5 March 2003), Schroeder is edging closer to Blair views Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Celestine Bohlen (17 November 1998), Russia: German Aid Likely To End Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- Roger Cohen (17 June 2000), Putin Discovers A New Rapport With Germany Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine New York Times.
- "Gerhard Schroeder's Dangerous Liaison". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 29 April 2007.[permanent dead link]
- Nicola Clark (September 14, 2006), Airbus parent rebuffs Russia bid for influence International Herald Tribune.
- "It Would Be Wrong to Place Excessive Demands". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Schröder in China to Promote Business Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle, 1 December 2003.
- Michael Laris (13 May 1999), Schroeder Apologizes to Chinese Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Washington Post.
- Andreas Lorenz (6 November 2009), Hugging the Panda: Gerhard Schröder Opens Doors for German Companies in China Archived 13 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine Spiegel Online.
- Schröder Has Hotline to China Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle, 24 November 2004.
- Andreas Lorenz (8 December 2004), Chinese Weapons Ban: Gerhard's Comrade Spiegel Online.
- "Schroeder's Welsh English course". BBC News. 8 December 2005. Archived from the original on 14 June 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Schröder vertritt Deutschland bei Trauerfeier Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Spiegel Online, 28 November 2016.
- Schröder und Biedenkopf legen Schlichtungsvorschlag bei Bahn vor Rheinische Post, 11 September 2006.
- Florian Kolf and Dana Heide (26 October 2016), Mediation Man Schröder Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Handelsblatt.
- Dieter Wonka (26 October 2017), Treffen mit Erdogan: Schröder erwirkte Freilassung Steudtners Archived 26 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Hannoversche Allgemeine.
- Riham Alkousaa (26 October 2017), Turkey's release of German citizen sign of thawing ties: Gabriel Archived 26 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
- Christiane Schlötzer (9 July 2018), Türkischer Präsident Erdoğan: Er und nur er Archived 10 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine Süddeutsche Zeitung.
- "Ringier". Ringier.ch. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-17.
- Jörg Braun (8 April 2017), Schröder hilft jetzt Herrenknecht Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Lahrer Zeitung.
- Shareholders' Committee Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Nord Stream.
- Schröder berät die Investmentbank Rothschild Archived 27 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 24 March 2006.
- Aufsichtsrat der KGaA: Gerhard Schröder hört auf Archived 13 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine Hannover 96, press release of June 4, 2019.
- Rebecca Staudenmaier (5 November 2017), Paradise Papers expose tax schemes of global elite Archived 4 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine Deutsche Welle.
- Governance Center: Gerhard Schröder Archived 27 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Berggruen Institute.
- Advisory Council Archived 27 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ).
- Board of Trustees Archived 22 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Dresden Frauenkirche.
- Members Archived 29 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES).
- Board of Trustees Archived 2 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine Mädchenchor Hannover Foundation.
- International Council Archived 31 March 2019 at the Wayback Machine Museum Berggruen.
- Board Archived 19 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine German Near and Middle East Association (NUMOV).
- Members[permanent dead link] InterAction Council of Former Heads of State and Government.
- International Willy Brandt Prize Archived 3 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Social Democratic Party of Germany.
- Noak, Rick (11 July 2018). "The Russian pipeline to Germany that Trump is so mad about, explained". The Washington Post. Berlin. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Buck, Tobias; Benoit, Bertrand (8 May 2006). "EU to probe German gas pipeline guarantee". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2007.
- "Schroeder attacked over gas post". BBC News. 10 December 2005. Archived from the original on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- "Gerhard Schroeder's Sellout". Washington Post. 13 December 2005. Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Dunphy, Harry (13 June 2007). "Lantos Raps Former European Leaders". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 13 June 2007.
- Herron, James (16 January 2009). "WSJ, Schröder to join TNK-BP board, 19 January 2009". Online.wsj.com. Archived from the original on 20 August 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2013.
- Stefan Wagstyl (17 August 2017), Germany’s SPD criticised over Schröder’s post at Rosneft Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Financial Times.
- Maria Kiselyova (12 August 2017), Russia nominates German ex-chancellor Schroeder to Rosneft board Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
- Maria Kiselyova (12 August 2017), Russia nominates German ex-chancellor Schroeder to Rosneft board Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
- Stefan Wagstyl (8 August 2017), Germany’s SPD criticised over Schröder’s post at Rosneft Archived 20 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Financial Times.
- Holger Hansen (17 August 2017), German ex-chancellor Schroeder hits back in Russia row before vote Archived 28 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
- Paul Carrel (21 August 2017), Merkel hits out at predecessor in Russia row before election Archived 27 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Reuters.
- Finn, Peter (18 May 2002). "Court: Stay Out of Schroeder's Hair". Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- "How to fight back". The Economist. 10 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- "Schroeder: Kosovo recognition "against Europe's interests"". B92. 5 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008.
- "Serious Mistakes by the West". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 24 August 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- "Putin verstehen mit Gerhard Schröder" (in German). Die Zeit. 9 March 2014. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "Gerhard Schröder nennt Putins Vorgehen völkerrechtswidrig" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 9 March 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- Paterson, Tony (14 March 2014). "Merkel fury after Gerhard Schroeder backs Putin on Ukraine". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 25 August 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- Paterson, Tony (14 March 2014). "telegraph.co.uk: "Merkel fury after Gerhard Schroeder backs Putin on Ukraine" 14 Mar 2014". Archived from the original on 23 February 2018. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Paterson, Tony (29 April 2014). "Gerhard Schroeder's birthday party with Vladimir Putin angers Germany". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
- "Explore The Politicians in the Paradise Papers - ICIJ". ICIJ. Archived from the original on 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- "Die Trennung der Schröders ist endgültig". Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "Schröder nimmt noch ein Kind auf". Die Welt (in German). 17 August 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Gerhard Schröder besitzt Ferienhaus in Berggruen-Siedlung Archived 7 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Bunte, 3 April 2013.
- Gerhard Schröder kauft Haus in der Türkei Archived 5 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Rheinische Post, 5 April 2013.
- Brett, Oliver (15 January 2009). "What's in a nickname?". BBC. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Connolly, Kate (15 September 2002). "The Audi man". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- Moore, Charles. "The 'Audi Man' is not quite ready to concede defeat". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 29 April 2007.
- "Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder to Wed For Fifth Time". Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
- "Former German chancellor 'sued for affair'". BBC News. 30 April 2018. Archived from the original on 2 July 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Schroeder Takes Germany's Helm Social Democrat Sworn In As Chancellor Tuesday". CBS News. 27 October 1998. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2008.
- Der goldene Gerd Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Hamburger Abendblatt, 20 January 2007. (in German)
- Gabriela Walde (14 June 2007), Bewegende Trauerfeier für Jörg Immendorff Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Die Welt.
- "Tschechischer Präsident zeichnet Altkanzler Schröder aus". Hamburger Abendblatt (in German). dpa. 28 October 2017. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 28 October 2017.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Gerhard Schröder|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gerhard Schröder.|
- Official Homepage of Gerhard Schröder
- Gerhard Schröder's presence on facebook
- Gerhard Schröder at the Encyclopædia Britannica
- (in German) Pictures "Spuren der Macht"
- From Ironmonger's Apprentice to Chancellor, Deutsche Welle, July 2005
- Profile: Gerhard Schroeder, BBC News, July 2005
- The Modern Chancellor: Taking Stock of Gerhard Schröder, Der Spiegel Online, 14 October 2005
- Gerhard Schröder: The Man Who Rescued the German Economy by Raymond Zhong, Wall Street Journal, 7 July 2012
- Appearances on C-SPAN
| Prime Minister of Lower Saxony
| President of the Bundesrat
| Chancellor of Germany
|Party political offices|
| Leader of the Social Democratic Party
| Chairperson of the Group of 8