Gerindra Party

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Great Indonesia Movement Party
Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya
AbbreviationGerindra
General ChairmanPrabowo Subianto
Secretary-GeneralAhmad Muzani
DPR group leaderAhmad Muzani
Founded6 February 2008; 16 years ago (6 February 2008)
Split fromGolkar
HeadquartersJakarta
Youth wingTIDAR (Great Indonesia Bud)
Women's wingPIRA (Great Indonesia Women)
Muslim wingGEMIRA (Great Indonesia Muslim Movement)
Christian wingGEKIRA (Great Indonesia Christian Movement)
Hindu-Buddhist wingGEMA SADHANA (Sanatana Dharma Nusantara Society Movement)
Labour wingSEGARA (Great Indonesia Labor Movement Center)
Membership (2022)498,963[1]
IdeologyPancasila
Indonesian nationalism
Social conservatism
Right-wing populism[2][3][4]
Political positionRight-wing[5][6]
National affiliationOnward Indonesia Coalition
Advanced Indonesia Coalition
Ballot number2
DPR seats
78 / 575
DPRD I seats
288 / 2,232
DPRD II seats
1,970 / 17,340
Website
gerindra.id

The Great Indonesia Movement Party (Indonesian: Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya), better known as the Gerindra Party, is a nationalist, right-wing populist political party in Indonesia. Since 2014, it has been the third-largest party in the House of Representatives (DPR), having secured 86 seats in the last election. It is led by the former army general and the president-elect of Indonesia Prabowo Subianto.

Formed in 2008, Gerindra serves as the political vehicle for Prabowo. The party first participated in the 2009 legislative election and secured 26 seats in the DPR. In the presidential election, Prabowo ran as the vice-presidential candidate for Megawati Soekarnoputri of PDI-P, but they were defeated by the incumbent president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY). Gerindra then became the opposition to the SBY administration. In 2014, Gerindra placed third in the legislative election, and Prabowo ran with Hatta Rajasa against Joko Widodo (Jokowi) in the presidential election, but they lost. Gerindra once again became the opposition to the government. In the 2019 legislative election, Gerindra won the second-highest majority of votes. Prabowo ran with Sandiaga Uno against Jokowi and lost again. After Prabowo reconciled with Jokowi in July 2019, Gerindra joined the government coalition and was later appointed the Minister of Defense. In 2024, Prabowo ran with Gibran Rakabuming Raka and won the presidential election in the first round.

History

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After coming last in Golkar's presidential convention on 21 April 2004, Prabowo served as a member of Golkar's Advisory Board until his resignation on 12 July 2008. Gerindra was formed on 6 February 2008 at the suggestion of Prabowo's younger brother, Hashim Djojohadikusumo, who helped pay for party's prime-time TV advertising campaign.[7] Prabowo was appointed chairman of the party's Founding Board.

Gerindra's provincial level election teams were formed in February 2009. The party then claimed a membership of approximately 15 million, with its support base coming from across Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan and Sulawesi.[8]

The party won 4.5% of the vote in the 2009 legislative election, and was awarded 26 seats in the People's Representative Council.[9]

The Reform Star Party (PBR) was merged into Gerindra in February 2011.[10]

In the national legislative election on 9 April 2014, the party's vote share jumped to 11.8%, making it the third-most popular party in Indonesia.[11] Gerindra almost trebled the number of seats it won from 26 seats in 2009 to 73 seats in 2014.

Following the death of Gerindra chairman Suhardi on 28 August 2014, Prabowo was appointed general chairman on 20 September 2014.[12]

Political identities

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Ideology

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The 2008 Law on Political Parties states that political parties are allowed to include specific characteristics that reflect their political aspirations, as long as they do not contradict Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.[13] As per Articles 5 and 7 of its constitution and bylaws (AD/ART), Gerindra is founded on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution, while its identity is rooted in nationalism, populism, religion, and social justice.[14] In February 2019, the party's central board member Andre Rosiade described Gerindra as a "nationalist-religious" party.[15] Outsider views on the party's political orientation vary. Academics and domestic observers classified Gerindra as a nationalist party,[16] while their international counterparts described it as a secular party with hard nationalist stance,[17] ultranationalist,[18] or "militant nationalist" party.[19] Tom Power disagrees with labeling Gerindra as a secular party and categorizes it as a "inclusivist-nationalist" party, due to its perceived willingness to compromise on Islamic political agendas.[20] Its political leaning has been described as right-wing[6][21] or right-wing populist.[2][22][3][4]

Political positions

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In its political manifesto, Gerindra has taken positions on several issues. On politics, Gerindra seeks to overhaul Indonesia's political system, rejecting liberal democracy as counterproductive. It advocates a culturally aligned democracy, emphasizing robust national leadership based on Pancasila and the constitution.[23] In the economic field, Gerindra advocates economic populism, criticizing post-Suharto Indonesia's liberal economy. It seeks increased state involvement, rejects rising foreign debt, opposes the privatization of state-owned enterprises (BUMN), calls for the reevaluation of laws favoring foreign entities (such as the Oil and Gas Law and the Investment Law), and favors reintroducing Broad Outlines of State Policy (GBHN). Gerindra rejects a free-market system and supports protectionist measures.[24] Gerindra follows a populist and nationalist economic platform, targeting the lower middle class such as farmers and fishers, though its supporters in the 2014 general election were disproportionately urban dwellers.[25]

In foreign policy, Prabowo has expressed a desire for closer diplomatic ties with China and India, while calling for distance from the West.[26] He has proposed a peace plan to end the Russo-Ukrainian War, involving holding referendums in disputed areas between the two countries, which was subsequently condemned by Ukraine.[27] In January 2022, Prabowo expressed openness to the normalization of Indonesia–Israel relations.[28]-->

Leadership structure

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The following leadership structure of the party are as follows (2020-2025)[29]

Leader of the Advisory Council: General (Hon.) H. Prabowo Subianto Djojohadikusumo

Deputy Leader of the Advisory Council

Secretary of the Advisory Council: Sugiono

Vice Secretary of the Advisory Council: Prasetyo Hadi

General Chairman: General (Hon.) H. Prabowo Subianto Djojohadikusumo

Vice Chairman

  • Deputy General Chairperson for Organization, Cadre Generation, Membership and Election Victory: Sufmi Dasco Ahmad
  • Deputy General Chair for Foreign Affairs: Fadli Zon
  • Deputy General Chair for Ideology, Politics, Government, Party Discipline and Strategic Information: Sugiono
  • Deputy General Chairperson for Economic and Environmental Affairs: Budi Djiwandono
  • Deputy Chairman of the General Chair for Defense and Security: Major General TNI (Ret.) Musa Bangun
  • Deputy Chairperson General Chairperson for Network Potential Empowerment, Cooperatives and MSMEs: Ferry Joko Yuliantono
  • Deputy Chairperson for Health and Employment Affairs: Drg. Putih Sari
  • Deputy Chairperson of the General Chair for Youth, Women and Children: Rahayu Saraswati Djojohadikusumo
  • Deputy Chairperson for Legal and Advocacy: Habiburokhman
  • Deputy Chairperson for Community Service and People's Welfare: Sumaryati Amin Aryoso
  • Deputy Chairperson for Education and Infrastructure: Susi Marleny Bachsin
  • Deputy Chairman of the General Chair for Religious Affairs: Mochamad Irfan Yusuf

Secretary General: Ahmad Muzani

Treasurer: Thomas Aquinas Djiwandono

Wing organizations

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Gerindra's wing organizations include:

  • TIDAR (Tunas Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Bud)
  • PIRA (Perempuan Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Woman)
  • GEMIRA (Gerakan Muslim Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Muslim Movement)
  • GEKIRA (Gerakan Kristiani Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Christian Movement); formerly named KIRA (Kristen Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Christians).
  • GEMA SADHANA (Gerakan Masyarakat Sanathana Dharma Nusantara, Sanathana Dharma Nusantara Society Movement); for Hindus and Buddhists.
  • PETIR (Persatuan Tionghoa Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Chinese Association)
  • SATRIA (Satuan Relawan Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Volunteer Unit)
  • SEGARA (Sentral Gerakan Buruh Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Labor Movement Center; for labour movements)
  • KESIRA (Kesehatan Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia Health; for health workers)
  • BGM (Barisan Garuda Muda, Young Garuda Front)
  • GMI (Garuda Muda Indonesia, Indonesia Young Garudas)
  • Jari Raya (Jaringan Rakyat Indonesia Raya, Great Indonesia People's Network)

Election results

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Legislative election results

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Election Ballot number Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Party leader
2009 5
26 / 560
4,642,795 4.46%[30] Increase26 seats, Opposition Prabowo Subianto (Founding board chair)
Suhardi (General chair)
2014 6
73 / 560
14,760,371 11.81%[31] Increase47 seats, Opposition Prabowo Subianto (Founding board chair)
Suhardi (General chair)
2019 2
78 / 575
17,594,839 12.57%[32] Increase5 seats, Opposition (2019)
Governing coalition (2019-2024)
Prabowo Subianto
2024 2
86 / 580
20,071,708 13.22% Increase8 seats, Governing coalition Prabowo Subianto

Presidential election results

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Election Ballot number Pres. candidate Running mate 1st round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome 2nd round
(Total votes)
Share of votes Outcome
2009 1 Megawati Sukarnoputri Prabowo Subianto 32,548,105 26.79% Lost
2014 1 Prabowo Subianto[33] Hatta Rajasa 62,576,444 46.85% Lost
2019 2 Prabowo Subianto Sandiaga Uno 68,650,239 44.50% Lost
2024 2 Prabowo Subianto Gibran Rakabuming Raka 96,214,691 58.59% Elected

Note: Bold text suggests the party's member, or a former member who was still active in the party by the time of his nomination.

References

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  1. ^ "Info Pemilu - Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya". Komisi Pemilihan Umum RI. 22 December 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b Santoso 2009: "Today, another highly spirited right-wing populist political party has emerged. Its name, Gerindra, Gerakan Indonesia Raya, the Greater Indonesia Movement, signifies its fervour for revitalising the greatness of the nation."
  3. ^ a b van Klinken 2009, p. 157: "...although thus far without producing programmatic platforms beyond the vague right wing populism of the PDI-P (of former president Megawati Soekarnoputri) or of Gerindra (of retired Lieutenant-General Prabowo Subianto)."
  4. ^ a b Yilmaz & Shukri 2023, p. 143: "Subianto, a former general of the army and former son-in-law of Suharto, left his Golkar Party to form the Gerindra, a right-wing populist party."
  5. ^ Bourchier 2015, p. 254.
  6. ^ a b Kwok 2017: "...while Anies is backed by the right-wing Gerindra Party of Prabowo Subianto..."
  7. ^ "Prabowo nominated as presidential candidate by Gerindra Party". Jakarta Post. 14 July 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  8. ^ Demopoulos, Katherine (Mar 31, 2009). "Indonesia's dark-horse candidate". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on April 1, 2009.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  9. ^ "KPU Ubah Perolehan Kursi Parpol di DPR (KPU Changes Allocations of Parties' seats in the DPR)". Indonesian General Election Commission (in Indonesian). 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014.
  10. ^ "PBR Gabung ke Gerindra" [PBR merged into Gerindra]. Detik (in Indonesian). February 18, 2011. Archived from the original on February 5, 2022. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  11. ^ "KPU Successfully Set and Authorize Pileg Results On Time". indonesiaelectionportal.org. May 10, 2014. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  12. ^ Rafie, Barratut Taqiyyah, ed. (21 September 2014). "Prabowo replaces Suhardi as Gerindra chairman". Kontan.co.id. Archived from the original on 1 July 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  13. ^ Saifulloh 2016, pp. 178: "Akan tetapi, dalam Undang-Undang No.2 Tahun 2008 Tentang Partai Politik kembali dipertegas bahwa asas dan ciri partai politik merupakan penjabaran dari Pancasila dan UUD 1945." Translation: In Law No. 2 of 2008 on Political Parties, it is emphasized that the principles and characteristics of political parties derive from Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution.
  14. ^ Gerindra 2020, p. 13
  15. ^ Kuswandi 2019: "Kalau Gerindra ini partai nasionalis-religius..." Translation: Gerindra is a nationalist-religious party...
  16. ^ Lee & Paath 2019: "So-called nationalist parties such as the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), Prabowo Subianto's political machine the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra)..."
  17. ^ Bulkin 2013: "It is a secular party whose chief ideology appears to be fierce nationalism and defense of the unitary state."
  18. ^ Heiduk 2014: "Prabowo's coalition consisted of his own ultra-nationalist Gerindra..."
  19. ^ Bourchier 2015, p. 259: "Gerindra (Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya), Greater Indonesia Movement Party; a militant nationalist party formed in 2008."
  20. ^ Power 2014: Gerindra is listed as "Inclusivist-Nationalist (Centrist)" in the table.
    "Coupled with Prabowo's willingness to adopt a more 'Islamic' tone in his campaign, it seems there is sufficient evidence to doubt Gerindra's commitment to a 'secular' agenda. For these reasons, Gerindra cannot be included in the 'secular-nationalist' camp."
  21. ^ Meakem 2024: "Prabowo, who previously lost the presidency to Jokowi, belongs to the right-wing Gerindra Party and was a military officer under Suharto."
  22. ^ Soeriaatmadja 2023: "This is because Mr Prabowo, 71, chairman of right-wing populist Gerindra Party..."
  23. ^ Gerindra 2022, pp. 11–14
  24. ^ Gerindra 2022, pp. 14–20
  25. ^ Saiful Mujani; R. William Liddle; Kuskridho Ambardi (26 February 2018). Voting Behaviour in Indonesia since Democratization: Critical Democrats. Cambridge University Press. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-1-108-42179-9. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Indonesia's Prabowo slams West for double standards, lack of moral leadership: 'we don't really need Europe'". SCMP. 14 November 2023. Defence minister Prabowo calls for a 'rebalancing' whereby Indonesia should learn from countries including China and India rather than continue looking to the West
  27. ^ "Controversy surrounds Defense Minister Prabowo's peace plan for the Russia-Ukraine conflict | INSIDER". 13 June 2023.
  28. ^ "Prabowo Called for Normalization of RI-Israel Relations". CNN Indonesia. 14 January 2022.
  29. ^ "Ini Struktur Kepengurusan DPP Gerindra 2020-2025". merdeka.com (in Indonesian). 2020-09-19. Retrieved 2024-02-18.
  30. ^ "Bab V - Hasil Pemilu - KPU" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Komisi Pemilihan Umum Republik Indonesia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 April 2018. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  31. ^ "KPU sahkan hasil pemilu, PDIP nomor satu" (in Indonesian). BBC. 10 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
  32. ^ Zunita Putri (21 May 2019). "KPU Tetapkan Hasil Pileg 2019: PDIP Juara, Disusul Gerindra-Golkar". Detik.com (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 31 May 2019. Retrieved 31 May 2019.
  33. ^ Wardah, Fathiyah (19 May 2014). "6 Parpol Dukung Pasangan Prabowo-Hatta dalam Pilpres". Voice of America Indonesia (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 30 January 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2018.

Sources

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