German Army (German Empire)
|Role||Protecting the German Empire and its interests by using ground and air assets.|
500,000 (Normal) (1871)13,500,000 (World War I)
|Engagements||Samoan Civil War
Second Samoan Civil War
Herero and Namaqua Genocide
World War I
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces — not including the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Kaiserliche Marine — of the German Empire. The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871, and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.
- 1 Formation and name
- 2 Command
- 3 Structure
- 4 Reserve system
- 5 Industrial base
- 6 Air Force
- 7 Ranks of the Imperial German Army
- 7.1 Enlisted (Mannschaften/Gemeine) ranks
- 7.2 Non-commissioned officers and warrant officers / Unteroffiziere
- 7.3 Warrant Officers and Officer Cadets
- 7.4 Officer corps
- 8 Dissolution
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Formation and name
The states which made up the German Empire each had their own separate armies. Within the German Confederation, formed after the Napoleonic Wars, each state was responsible for maintaining certain units to be put at the disposal of the Confederation in case of conflict. When operating together, these units were known as the Federal Army (Bundesheer). The Federal Army system functioned during various conflicts of the 19th century, such as the First Schleswig War in 1848–50, but by the time of the Second Schleswig War of 1864, strains were showing, mainly between the major powers of the confederation, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. The end of the German Confederation was sealed by the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.
After this war, a victorious and much enlarged Prussia formed a new confederation, the North German Confederation, which included the states of northern Germany. The treaty that formed the North German Confederation provided for the maintenance of a Federal Army and a Federal Navy (Bundesmarine or Bundeskriegsmarine). Further laws on military duty also used these terms. Conventions (some later amended) were entered into between the North German Confederation and its member states, effectively subordinating their armies to Prussia's in time of war, and giving the Prussian Army control over training, doctrine and equipment.
Shortly after the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the North German Confederation also entered into conventions on military matters with states that were not members of the confederation: Bavaria, Württemberg, and Baden. Through these conventions and the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire, an Army of the Realm (Reichsheer) was born. The contingents of the Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg kingdoms remained semi-autonomous, while the Prussian Army assumed almost total control over the armies of the other states of the Empire. The Constitution of the German Empire, dated April 16, 1871, changed references in the North German Constitution from Federal Army to either Army of the Realm ("Reichsheer") or German Army ("Deutsches Heer").
Even after 1871 the peacetime armies of the four kingdoms remained relatively distinct. "German Army" was used in various legal documents such as the Military Penal Code, but otherwise the Prussian, Bavarian, Saxon and Württemberg armies maintained distinct identities. Each kingdom had its own War Ministry. Bavaria and Saxony published their own rank and seniority lists for their officers and Württemberg's list was a separate chapter of the Prussian army rank lists. Württemberg and Saxon units were numbered according to the Prussian system, but Bavarian units maintained their own numbering system (thus, the 2nd Württemberg Infantry Regiment was Infantry Regiment No. 120 under the Prussian system).
The overall commander of the Imperial German Army, less the Bavarian contingent, was the Kaiser. He was assisted by a German Imperial Military Cabinet, and exercised control through the Prussian Ministry of War and the Great General Staff. The Chief of the General Staff became the Kaiser's main military advisor and effectively the most powerful military figure in the Empire. Bavaria maintained its own Ministry of War and its own Royal Bavarian Army General Staff, but coordinated planning with the Prussian Great General Staff. Saxony also maintained its own Ministry of war and the Ministry of War of Württemberg also continued to exist.
The command and control system of the Prussian Army had been heavily reformed in the wake of the defeats suffered by Prussia in the Napoleonic Wars. Rather than rely primarily on the martial skills of the individual members of the German nobility, who dominated the military profession, the Prussian Army instituted a series of reforms to ensure excellence in leadership, organization and planning at all levels of command. The General Staff system, an institution that sought to institutionalize military excellence, was the main result. It sought to identify military talent at the lower levels and develop it thoroughly through academic training and practical experience as planners on division, corps and higher staffs, up to the Great General Staff, the senior planning body of the army. It provided effective planning and organizational work during peacetime and wartime. The Prussian General Staff, proven in battle in the Wars of Unification, became effectively the German General Staff upon formation of the German Empire, given Prussia's leading role in the German Army.
Chiefs of the German General Staff (1871–1919)
- Helmuth von Moltke the Elder 7 October 1857 – 10 August 1888
- Alfred von Waldersee 10 August 1888 – 7 February 1891
- Alfred von Schlieffen 7 February 1891 – 1 January 1906
- Helmuth von Moltke the Younger 1 January 1906 – 14 September 1914
- Erich von Falkenhayn 14 September 1914 – 29 August 1916
- Paul von Hindenburg 29 August 1916 – 3 July 1919
- Wilhelm Groener 3 July 1919 – 7 July 1919
- Hans von Seeckt 7 July 1919 – 15 July 1919
The basic peacetime organizational structure of the Imperial German Army was based around the Army inspectorate (Armee-Inspektion), the army corps (Armeekorps), the division, and the regiment. During wartime, the staff of the Army inspectorates formed field army commands, which controlled the corps and subordinate units. During World War I, a higher command level, the army group (Heeresgruppe) was created. Each army group controlled several field armies.
Germany was divided into army inspectorates, each of which oversaw three or four corps. There were five in 1871, with three more added between 1907 and 1913.
- I Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Danzig, became the 8th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- II Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Berlin, became the 3rd Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- III Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Hannover, became the 2nd Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- IV Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Munich, became the 6th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- V Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Karlsruhe, became the 7th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- VI Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Stuttgart, became the 4th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- VII Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Berlin, became the 5th Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
- VIII Army Inspectorate: Headquartered in Saarbrücken, became the 1st Army on mobilisation (2 August 1914)
The basic organizational formation was the army corps (Armeekorps). The corps consisted of two or more divisions and various support troops, and covered a specific geographical area. The corps was also responsible for maintaining the reserves and Landwehr in the corps area. By 1914, there were twenty-one army corps areas under Prussian jurisdiction and three Bavarian army corps. Besides the regional corps, there was also a Guard Corps (Gardecorps), which controlled Prussia's elite Guard units. Besides the divisions, a corps generally included a light infantry (Jäger) battalion, a heavy artillery (Fußartillerie) battalion, an engineer battalion, a telegraph battalion and a trains battalion. Some corps areas also disposed of fortress troops; each of the 25 corps had a Field Aviation Unit (Feldflieger Abteilung) attached to it.
In wartime, the army corps became a mobile tactical formation. Additionally four Higher Cavalry Commands were formed from the Cavalry Inspectorate, these were the equivalent of corps, each being made up of two divisions of cavalry.
The areas formerly covered by the corps each became the responsibility of a Wehrkreis (Military Districts, sometimes translated as Corp Areas). The primary purpose of the Military Districts was to supervise the training and enlisted of reservists and new recruits. Originally each Military District was linked to an army corps; thus Wehrkreis I took over the area that I. Armeekorps had been responsible for and sent replacements to the same formation. The first sixteen Reserve Corps raised followed the same pattern; X. Reserve-Korps was made up of reservists from the same area as X. Armeekorps. These links between rear areas and front line units were broken as the war went on however and later corps were raised with troops from all over Germany.
The basic tactical formation was the division. A standard Imperial German division consisted of two infantry brigades of two regiments each, a cavalry brigade of two regiments, and an artillery brigade of two regiments. One of the divisions in a corps area usually also managed the corps Landwehr region (Landwehrbezirk). In 1914, besides the Guard Corps (two Guard divisions and a Guard cavalry division), there were 42 regular divisions in the Prussian Army (including four Saxon divisions and two Württemberg divisions), and six divisions in the Bavarian Army.
These divisions were all mobilized in August 1914. They were reorganized, receiving engineer companies and other support units from their corps, and giving up most of their cavalry to form cavalry divisions. Reserve divisions were also formed, Landwehr brigades were aggregated into divisions, and other divisions were formed from replacement (Ersatz) units. As World War I progressed, additional divisions were formed, and by wars' end, 251 divisions had been formed or reformed in the German Army's structure.
The regiment was the basic combat unit as well as the recruiting base for soldiers. When inducted, a soldier entered a regiment, usually through its replacement battalion, and received his basic training. There were three basic types of regiment: infantry, cavalry and artillery. Other specialties, such as pioneers (combat engineers) and signal troops, were organized into smaller support units. Regiments also carried the traditions of the army, in many cases stretching back into the 17th and 18th centuries. After World War I, regimental traditions were carried forward in the Reichswehr and its successor, the Wehrmacht, but the chain of tradition was broken in 1945 as West German and East German units did not carry forward pre-1945 traditions.
When the British decided to reform their army in the 1860s, they surveyed the major European forces and decided that the Prussian system was the best one. That system was continued into the Imperial Army after 1871 and resulted in a modest cadre of professional officers and sergeants, and a large reserve force that could be quickly mobilised at the start of a war. The British could not use the system because they rejected conscription. The Japanese, however, were also observing the reserve system and, unlike the British, decided to copy the Prussian model. Barnett explains that every young man was drafted at age 18, with the upper-class becoming officers:
- the Prussian system... was based on service of only three years with the colors... and four years in the reserve. The Prussian standing army had become simply a training cadre for the intake of conscripts. The Prussian army's organization for peace and war was virtually the same. Prussia was divided into army-corps districts for the purposes both of administration and of recruitment. On the outbreak of war the command organizations of the district became that of a corps in the field. Localization of the Army and its recruitment gave the districts pride and interest in their 'own' corps.
Germany had the largest industrial base in Europe, surpassing Britain by 1900. The Army closely cooperated with industry, especially in the World War, with particular focus on the very rapidly changing aircraft industry. The Army set prices and labor exemptions, regulated the supply of credit and raw materials, limited patent rights so as to allow cross-licensing among firms, and supervised management–labor relationships. The result was very rapid expansion and a high output of high quality aircraft, as well as high wages that attracted the best machinists. Apart from aircraft the Army's regulation of the rest of the war economy was inefficient.
The Deutsche Luftstreitkräfte, known before 1916 as Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches (Imperial German Flying Troops), was the over-land air arm of the German military during World War I (1914–1918). Although its name actually means something very close to "The German Air Force" it remained an integral part of the German army for the duration of the war.
Ranks of the Imperial German Army
The German Army from 1871 to 1914 inherited the various traditions and military ranks of its constituent states, thus becoming a truly federal armed service.
Enlisted (Mannschaften/Gemeine) ranks
- Musketeer (Musketier – Prussian army infantry regiments), Infantryman (Infanterist – Bavarian army infantry regiments), Soldier (Soldat – Saxon army infantry regiments), Gunner (Kanonier – foot artillery), Pioneer (Pionier – pioneer branch). Other unit-specific enlisted ranks were: Fusilier (Füsilier), Grenadier (Grenadier), Huntsman otherwise Light-Infantryman (Jäger), Dragoon (Dragoner), Hussar (Husar), Cuirassier (Kürassier), Uhlan (Ulan), Fusilier Guard (Garde-Füsilier), Grenadier Guard (Garde-Grenadier), etc.
- Lance Corporal (Gefreiter); up until 1918 the only rank (with exception of Obergefreiter in the foot artillery) to which an enlisted soldier could be promoted, the rank was a deputy rank to the Corporal (Unteroffizier) rank.
- Senior Lance Corporal (Obergefreiter); established in the Prussian Army from 1846 to 1853, reestablished in 1859, then in foot artillery only, replacing the in 1730 introduced artillery Bombardier rank.
Additionally, the following voluntary enlistees were distinguished:
- One-Year Volunteer Enlistee (Einjährig-Freiwilliger): despite the name, one-year volunteers were actually conscripts who served a short-term form of active military service, open for enlistees up to the age of 25. Such enlisted soldiers were usually high school graduates (Matura, Abitur), who would opt to serve a one-year term rather than the regular two or three-year conscription term, with free selection of their chosen military service branch and unit, but throughout were obligated to equip and subsist themselves at entirely their own cost. In today's monetary value this could at bare minimum cost some 10,000 Euro, which purposely reserved this path open to officer-material sons from mostly affluent social class families wishing to pursue the Reserve-Officer path; it was the specific intention of Wilhelm II that such Reserve-Officer career path should only be open to members of so-called "officer-material" social classes. On absolving their primary recruit training and shorter military service term, those aspiring to become Reserve-Officers would have to qualify and achieve suitability for promotion to the Gefreiter rank and then would continue to receive further specialized instruction until the end of their one-year term, usually attaining and leaving as surplus Corporals (überzählige Unteroffiziere) (Reservists), with the opportunity to advance further as reservists. Enlistees who did not aspire to officer grade would leave at the end of their one-year term as Gemeine (Ordinary soldier) enlisted rank (for example Musketier or Infanterist) and a six-year reserve duty obligation. Eligibility for this specific one-year path of military service was a privilege approved upon examining the enlistee's suitability and academic qualifications.
- Long-Term Volunteer Enlistee "Capitulant" (Kapitulant): enlisted soldiers who had already absolved their regular two or three-year military conscription term and had now volunteered to continue serving for further terms, minimum was 4 years, generally up to 12 years.
Note: Einjährig-Freiwilliger and Kapitulant were not ranks as such during this specific period of use, but voluntary military enlistee designations. They however, wore a specific uniform distinction (twisted wool piping along their shoulder epaulette edging for Einjährig-Freiwilliger, the Kapitulant a narrow band across their lower shoulder epaulette) in the colours of their respective nation state. This distinction was never removed throughout their military service nor during any rank grade advancements.
Non-commissioned officers and warrant officers / Unteroffiziere
Junior NCOs (NCOs without the lanyard) / Unteroffizier ohne Portepee
Senior NCOs (NCOs with the lanyard) / Unteroffizier mit Portepee
- Deputy Sergeant-Major (Infantry: Vizefeldwebel/Vice-Feldwebel, Cavalry and Artillery: Vizewachtmeister/Vice-Wachtmeister) – rank often held by reserve officer candidates after their passed lieutenant's examination
- Sergeant-Major (Infantry: Feldwebel (i.e. Etatmäßiger Feldwebel: CSM officially listed on the regiment's payroll, i.e. Etat), Cavalry and Artillery: (Etatmäßiger) Wachtmeister)
Warrant Officers and Officer Cadets
- Cadet (Fahnenjunker, ranking between Sergeant and Vizefeldwebel) – served as cadets in the various military academies and schools.
- Ensign (Fähnrich, ranking between Vize-Feldwebel and Etatmäßiger Feldwebel)
- Deputy Officer (Offizierstellvertreter, ranking above Etatmäßiger Feldwebel)
- Acting Lieutenant (Feldwebelleutnant, ranking as youngest 2nd Lieutenant, but without officer's commission and still member of the NCO's Mess until 1917)
Critics long believed that officer corps of the Army was heavily dominated by Junker aristocrats, so that commoners were shunted into low-prestige branches such as the heavy artillery or supply. However, by the 1890s the top ranks were opened to highly talented commoners.
Subalterns / Subalternoffiziere
- 2nd Lieutenant (Leutnant in the infantry, cavalry and other arms, Feuerwerksleutnant in the artillery)
- First Lieutenant (Oberleutnant, Feuerwerksoberleutnant)
- Staff Captain (Infantry and Artillery: Hauptmann/Kapitän II Klasse, Cavalry: Rittmeister II Klasse)
- Captain (Infantry and Artillery: Hauptmann/Kapitän I Klasse, Cavalry: Rittmeister I Klasse)
Staff Officers / Stabsoffiziere
General Officers / Generäle
- Major General (Generalmajor)
- Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant)
- General of the Infantry, General of the Cavalry, General of the Artillery (General der Infanterie, General der Kavallerie, General der Artillerie)
- Colonel General (Generaloberst)
- Colonel General in the rank of General Field Marshal (Generaloberst mit dem Rang als Generalfeldmarschall)
- General Field Marshal (Generalfeldmarschall)
- German General Staff
- Oberste Heeresleitung
- German Army
- Prussian Army
- Bavarian Army
- German Army order of battle (1914)
- German Army order of battle, Western Front (1918)
- All Quiet on the Western Front (novel set in World War I about German Army comrades)
- documentArchiv.de – Verfassung des Norddeutschen Bundes (16.04.1867)
- documentArchiv.de – Gesetz, betreffend die Verpflichtung zum Kriegsdienste (09.11.1867)
- The conventions were:
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde (bzw. Preußen) und Sachsen vom 7. Februar 1867
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Hessen vom 13. Juni 1871 (Ersatz für die vom 7. April 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Mecklenburg-Schwerin vom 19. Dezember 1872 (Ersatz für die von 24. Juni 1868)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Mecklenburg-Strelitz vom 23. Dezember 1872 (Ersatz für die vom 9. November 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Oldenburg vom 15. Juni 1867
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Braunschweig vom9./18. März 1886
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde einerseits und Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Sachsen-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha, Sachsen-Meiningen, Reuß ältere Linie, Reuß jüngere Linie und Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt vom 15. September 1873
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Anhalt vom 16. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 28. Juni 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Schwarzburg-Sondershausen vom 17. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 28. Juni 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Lippe vom 14. November 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 26. Juni 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Schaumburg-Lippe vom 25. September 1873 (Ersatz für die vom 30. Juni 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Waldeck vom 24. November 1877 (Ersatz für die vom 6. August 1867)
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Lübeck vom 27. Juni 1867
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Bremen vom 27. Juni 1867
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Hamburg vom 23. Juli 1867
- The conventions were:
- Artikel III. § 5 of the Bundesvertrag vom 23. November 1870 mit Bayern
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Baden vom 25. November 1870
- Militärkonvention zwischen dem Norddeutschen Bunde und Württemberg vom 25. November 1870
- documentArchiv.de – Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs
- Militär-Strafgesetzbuch für das Deutsche Reich
- Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815–1939. (Biblio Verlag, Osnabrück, 1993), Bd. 1, pp.33–36
- van Wyngarden, G (2006). Early German Aces of World War I, Osprey Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-84176-997-5
- Xavier Bara, Xavier, "The Kishū Army and the Setting of the Prussian Model in Feudal Japan, 1860–1871," War in History (2012) 19#2 pp 153–171
- Correlli Barnett, "Britain and her Army 1509–1970: A Military, Political and Social Survey" (1970) p. 285
- John H. Morrow Jr., "Industrialization Mobilization in World War I: The Prussian Army and the Aircraft Industry," Journal of Economic History (1977) 37#1 pp 3651 in JSTOR
- Grey and Thetford, P.xxix
- Duden; Origin and meaning of "Korporal", in German. 
- "Gefreiter" – Allgemeine Encyclopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, Erste Section, A-G, (Universal Encyclopaedia of the Sciences and Arts, First Section, A-G), Author: Johann Samuel Ersch and Johann Gottfried Gruber, Publisher: F. A. Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1852, Page 471-472, in German. 
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, 4th Edition, Volume 6, Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1885–1892, Page 659. in German
- Duden; Definition of "Gemeine", in German. 
- Duden; Definition of "Kapitulant", in German. 
- Ulrich Trumpener, "Junkers and Others: The Rise of Commoners in the Prussian Army, 1871–1914," Canadian Journal of History (1979) 14#1 pp 29–47
- Dennis E. Showalter, "The Political Soldiers of Bismarck's Germany: Myths and Realities," German Studies Review (1994) 17#1 pp. 59–77 in JSTOR
- Edmonds, James (1987). The Occupation of the Rhineland. London: HMSO. p. 213. ISBN 0-11-290454-8.
- Brose, Eric Dorn. The Kaiser's army: the politics of military technology in Germany during the machine age, 1870–1918 (Oxford University Press, 2004) online
- Citino, Robert Michael. The German way of war: from the Thirty Years' War to the Third Reich (University Press of Kansas, 2005)
- Clemente, Steven E. For King and Kaiser! The Making of the Prussian Army Officer, 1860–1914 (1992) online
- Coetzee, Marilyn Shevin. The German Army League: Popular Nationalism in Wilhelmine Germany (Oxford University Press, 1990)
- Craig, Gordon A. The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640–1945 (Oxford University Press, 1964)
- Demeter, K. The German Officer Corps in Society and State 1650–1945 (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965)
- Feldman, Gerald. Army, Industry and Labour in Germany, 1914–1918 (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014)
- Foley, Robert T. "Institutionalized innovation: The German army and the changing nature of war 1871–1914." RUSI Journal 147.2 (2002): 84–90. online
- Herrera, Geoffrey L. "Inventing the Railroad and Rifle Revolution: Information, Military Innovation and the Rise of Germany." Journal of Strategic Studies (2004) 27#2 pp: 243–271. online
- Hull, Isabel V. Absolute destruction: Military culture and the practices of war in imperial Germany (Cornell University Press, 2004)
- Jackman, Steven D. "Shoulder to Shoulder: Close Control and" Old Prussian Drill" in German Offensive Infantry Tactics, 1871–1914." Journal of Military History 68.1 (2004): 73–104. online
- Kitchen, Martin. A Military History of Germany: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present Day (Indiana University Press, 1975)
- Kitchen, Martin. The German Officer Corps (Oxford UP, 1968)
- Mitchell, Allan. The great train race: railways and the Franco-German rivalry, 1815–1914 (Berghahn Books, 2000)
- Murphy, Patrick. "The Effect of Industrialization and Technology on Warfare: 1854–1878." (2006) online
- Muth, Jörg. Command Culture: Officer Education in the US Army and the German Armed Forces, 1901–1940, and the Consequences for World War II (University of North Texas Press, 2011)
- Showalter, Dennis. "From Deterrence to Doomsday Machine: The German Way of War, 1890–1914." Journal of Military History (2000) 64#3 pp: 679–710. in JSTOR
- Showalter, Dennis E. Railroads and rifles: soldiers, technology, and the unification of Germany (Archon Books, 1975)
- Showalter, Dennis E. "Army and Society in Imperial Germany: The Pains of Modernization." Journal of Contemporary History (1983): 583–618. in JSTOR
- Stevenson, David. "Fortifications and the European Military Balance before 1914." Journal of Strategic Studies (2012) 35#6 pp: 829–859.
- Stone, James. The war scare of 1875: Bismarck and Europe in the mid-1870s (Steiner, 2010)
- Stone, James. "Spies and diplomats in Bismarck’s Germany: collaboration between military intelligence and the Foreign Office, 1871–1881." Journal of Intelligence History (2014) 13#1 pp: 22–40.
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