German National Prize for Art and Science

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Pendant of the German National Order for Art and Science

Through statutes of 30 January 1937[1], the German National Order for Art and Science (German: Der Deutscher Nationalorden für Kunst und Wissenschaft)[1] was an award created by Adolf Hitler as a replacement for the Nobel Prize (he had forbidden Germans to accept the latter award in 1936 after an anti-Nazi German writer, Carl von Ossietzky, was awarded the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize). The prize was to be awarded each year to three outstanding German citizens who would receive 100,000 Reichsmarks which could be equally divided.[1] Along with the prize money the recipient also received a certificate with the Order.[2]

The Order, a round four pointed platinum star, with four gold National Eagles attached (It was designed by sculptor Müller-Erfurt, Berlin)[1] was to be worn on the left breast. In the centre is a medallion with a red enameled centre with the gold head of Pallas Athene. On an ivory coloured enameled background in gold letters was the inscription FÜR KUNST UND WISSENSCHAFT (For Art and Science). This was surrounded by diamonds set in a gold border.[2]

The total number of National Prizes awarded between 1937 and 1939 was nine, thus making it one of the rarest awards given in the Third Reich, even rarer than the German Order. Due to the outbreak of the Second World War, no further awards were made.

Awardees[edit]

The German National Prize was awarded to a total of nine people.

1937[edit]

The award announcement was held on September 7, 1937 and the award ceremony took place on January 30, 1938 by Adolf Hitler in the Reich Chancellery. The first five winners were:[3]

Birth Death Laureate Notes Posthumous? Shared monetary award?
1878 1934 Bundesarchiv Bild 102-15444, Paul Ludwig Troost.jpg Professor Paul Troost German architect.
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1893 1946 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-2005-0168, Alfred Rosenberg.jpg Dr Alfred Rosenberg Reichsleiter[2]
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1861 1949 August Bier.jpg Professor August Bier Surgeon and the first to perform spinal anesthesia and intravenous regional anesthesia. Shared the monetary award with Ferdinand Sauerbruch.[2]
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1875 1951 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R45871, Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Sauerbruch.jpg Professor Ferdinand Sauerbruch Surgeon and developer of the Sauerbruch chamber, a pressure chamber for operating on the open thorax, and new types of limb prostheses, which for the first time enabled simple movements to be executed with the remaining muscle of the patient. Shared the monetary award with August Bier.[2]
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1877 1957 Wilhelm Filchner.jpg Professor Wilhelm Filchner German explorer and discoverer of the Luitpold Coast and the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf.
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1938[edit]

The award announcement was made on 6 September 1938, the presentation by Adolf Hitler took place 30 January 1939 in the Chancellery. The winners of this second year were:.[4]

Birth Death Laureate Notes Posthumous? Shared monetary award?
1891 1942 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-146-01, Fritz Todt.jpg Dr Fritz Todt German engineer, Inspector General of the German Highway System and founder of the Organisation Todt.[2]
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1875 1951 Ferdinand Porsche.jpg Professor Ferdinand Porsche German automotive engineer and creator of the Volkswagen.[2]
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1888 1958 Ernst Heinkel.jpg Professor Ernst Heinkel German aircraft designer and producer of the Heinkel He 178, the world's first turbojet aircraft and the Heinkel He 176, the world's first rocket aircraft. Shared the monetary award with Willy Messerschmitt.[2]
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1898 1978 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1969-169-19, Willy Messerschmitt.jpg Professor Willy Messerschmitt German aircraft manufacturer and designer of the Messerschmitt Bf 109, the most produced fighter aircraft in history. Shared the monetary award with Ernst Heinkel.[2]
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See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Doehle 1943, p. 35.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Doehle 1943, p. 37.
  3. ^ Nimmergut 2001, p. 1915
  4. ^ Nimmergut 2001, p. 1916

References[edit]

  • Doehle, Heinrich (1943). Medals & Decorations of the Third Reich: Orders + Decorations +Badges. Reddick Enterprises. ISBN 0962488348.
  • Jörg Nimmergut: Deutsche Orden und Ehrenzeichen bis 1945. Band 4: Württemberg II – Deutsches Reich. Zentralstelle für Wissenschaftliche Ordenskunde, München 2001, ISBN 3-00-001396-2; S. 1910–1917.