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|Rentenmark ‹See Tfd›(in German)|
One Rentenmark note
|Banknotes||1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000 Rentenmark|
|Coins||1, 2, 5, 10, 50 Rentenpfennig|
|Central bank||Deutsche Rentenbank|
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.
The Rentenmark ([ˈʁɛntn̩ˌmaʁk] pronunciation (help·info); RM) was a currency issued on 15 November 1923 to stop the hyperinflation of 1922 and 1923 in Weimar Germany, after the previously used "paper" Mark had become almost worthless. The name literally meant "pension mark", in order to signal that pensions were secure. It was subdivided into 100 Rentenpfennig and was expanded in 1924 by the Reichsmark.
After the Occupation of the Ruhr in early 1923 by French and Belgian troops, referred to as the Ruhrkampf, the German government of Wilhelm Cuno reacted by announcing a policy of passive resistance. This caused the regional economy of the Ruhr, the industrial heartland of Germany, almost to stop. The occupation authorities reacted with arrests and deportations to strikes and sabotage. Those displaced and left without income by the Ruhrkampf and their families fell back on public income support. Tax revenues plunged as economic activity slowed. The government covered its need for funds mainly by printing money. As a result, inflation spiked and the Papiermark went into freefall on the currency market. Foreign currency reserves at the Reichsbank dwindled.
As hyperinflation took hold, the cabinet of Cuno resigned in August 1923 and was replaced by the cabinet of Gustav Stresemann. After Stresemann reshuffled his cabinet in early October, Hans Luther became Minister of Finance. Working with Hjalmar Schacht at the Reichsbank, Luther quickly came up with a stabilization plan for the currency which combined elements of a monetary reform by economist Karl Helfferich with ideas of Luther's predecessor in office Rudolf Hilferding. With the help of the emergency law (Ermächtigungsgesetz) of 13 October 1923 which gave the government the power to issue decrees on financial and economic matters, the plan was implemented that same day, 15 October 1923.
The newly created Rentenmark replaced the old Papiermark. Because of the economic crisis in Germany after the First World War, there was no gold available to back the currency. Luther thus used Helfferich's idea of a currency backed by real goods. The new currency was backed by the land used for agriculture and business. This was mortgaged (Rente is a technical term for mortgage in German) to the tune of 3.2 billion Goldmarks, based on the 1913 wealth charge called Wehrbeitrag which had helped fund the German war effort from 1914–1918. Notes worth 3.2 billion Rentenmarks were issued. The Rentenmark was introduced at a rate of one Rentenmark to equal one trillion (1012) old marks, with an exchange rate of one United States dollar to equal 4.2 Rentenmarks.
The Act creating the Rentenmark backed the currency by means of twice yearly payments on property, due in April and October, payable for five years. Although the Rentenmark was not initially legal tender, it was accepted by the population and its value was relatively stable. The Act prohibited the recently privatised Reichsbank from continuing to discount bills and the inflation of the Papiermark immediately stopped. The monetary policy spearheaded by Schacht at the Reichsbank and the fiscal policy of Finance Minister Hans Luther brought the period of hyperinflation in Germany to an end. The Reichsmark became the new legal tender on 30 August 1924, equal in value to the Rentenmark. This marked a return to a gold-backed currency in connection with the implementation of the Dawes plan. The Rentenbank continued to exist after 1924 and the notes and coins continued to circulate. The last Rentenmark notes were valid until 1948.
Coins were issued dated 1923, 1924 and 1925 in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 Rentenpfennig. Only small numbers of Rentenpfennig coins were produced in 1925. A few 1 Rentenpfennig coins were struck dated 1929. The 1 and 2 Rentenpfennig were minted in bronze, with the 5, 10, and 50 Rentenpfennig coins in aluminium-bronze. These coins had the same design features and motifs as coins of the Reichsmark from the Weimar and early Third Reich periods.
The first issue of banknotes was dated 1 November 1923 and was in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 Rentenmark. Later issues of notes were 10 and 50 Rentenmark (1925), 5 Rentenmark (1926), 50 Rentenmark (1934) and 1 and 2 Rentenmark and dated 1937.
- Wolfgang Chr Fischer. German Hyperinflation 1922/23: A Law and Eonomics Approach. pp. 67–68.
- "After austerity, what?".
- Pynsent, Robert B. (1 January 2000). "The Phoney Peace: Power and Culture in Central Europe, 1945-49". School of Slavonic and East European Studies – via Google Books.
- "Das Kabinett Cuno - Einleitung (German)". Bundesarchiv. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Biografie Hans Luther (German)". Bayerische Nationalbibliothek. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
- Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0873411501.
- Pick, Albert (1994). Standard Catalog of World Paper Money: General Issues. Colin R. Bruce II and Neil Shafer (editors) (7th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-207-9.
- Act creating the Rentenmark Reichsgzetzblatt Teil I, 17 October 1923
- GermanNotes.com (2005). German Paper Money 1871–1999. eBook from germannotes.com
Ratio: 1 Rentenmark = 1,000,000,000,000 Papiermark, and 4.2 Rentenmark = US$1
|Currency of Germany
15 November 1923 – 29 August 1924
|Circulates in Germany
30 August 1924 – 1948
Note: Reichsmark was the legal tender
East German mark
Reason: reaction to the changeover in Trizone (later West Germany)
Ratio: 1 Mark = 7 Rentenmark on the first 70 Rentenmark for private individuals, otherwise 1 Kuponmark = 10 Rentenmark
Reason: intended to protect West Germany from the second wave of hyperinflation and stop the rampant barter and black market trade
Ratio: 1 Deutsche Mark = 1 Rentenmark for first 600 RM, 1 Deutsche Mark = 10 Rentenmark thereafter, plus each person received 40 Deutsche Mark