German World War II camouflage patterns
German World War II camouflage patterns formed a family of disruptively patterned military camouflage designs for clothing, used and in the main designed during the Second World War. The first pattern, however, Splittertarnmuster ("splinter camouflage pattern"), was designed in 1931 and was initially intended for Zeltbahn shelter halves. The clothing patterns developed from it combined a pattern of interlocking irregular green, brown, and buff polygons with vertical "rain" streaks. Later patterns, all said to have been designed for the Waffen-SS by Johan Georg Otto Schick, evolved into more leaf-like forms with rounded dots or irregular shapes. Camouflage smocks were designed to be reversible, providing camouflage for two seasons, whether summer and autumn, or summer and winter (snow). Distribution was limited to the Waffen-SS, ostensibly because of a patent, though variants were used by other units, including the Luftwaffe (air force). Production was limited by shortage of materials, especially of high quality waterproof cotton duck. The Reichswehr (Army of the Weimar Republic) started experimenting with camouflage patterns for Wehrmacht uniforms before World War II, and some army units used Splittertarnmuster ("splinter camouflage pattern"), first issued in 1931, and based on Zeltbahn shelter halves/groundsheets. Waffen-SS combat units used various patterns from 1935 onwards. The SS camouflage patterns were designed by Johann Georg Otto Schick, a Munich art professor and then the director of the German camouflage research unit,[b] at the request of an SS Major, Wim Brandt. Brandt was an engineer and the commander of the SS-VT reconnaissance battalion, and he was looking for better camouflage. Schick had researched the effect of light on trees in summer and in autumn. These led to the idea of reversible camouflage clothing, with green summer patterns on one side, brown autumn patterns on the other. In 1937, the patterns were field tested by the SS-VT Deutschland regiment, resulting in an estimate that they would cut casualties by fifteen percent.[c] In 1938, a reversible spring/autumn helmet cover, smock, and sniper's face mask in Schick's forest patterns on waterproof cotton duck were patented for the Waffen-SS. The patent is said to have prevented the Wehrmacht from using the patterns, which became a distinctive emblem of the Waffen-SS during the war. However, patterned uniforms were worn by some other units, including from 1941 the Luftwaffe (air force), which had its own version of Splittertarnmuster, as well as the Kriegsmarine (navy), the Fallschirmjäger (paratroops), and the Waffen-SS. The 1945 Leibermuster was planned to be issued to both the SS and the Wehrmacht, but it appeared too late to be distributed widely.
Production of groundsheets, helmet covers and smocks by the Warei, Forster and Joring companies began in November 1938. They were initially hand-printed, limiting deliveries by January 1939 to only 8,400 groundsheets and 6,800 helmet covers and a small number of smocks. By June 1940, machine printing had taken over, and 33,000 smocks were made for the Waffen-SS. Supplies of high quality cotton duck, however, remained critically short throughout the war, and essentially ran out in January 1943. It was replaced by non-waterproof cotton drill cloth.
The German names used for the plane tree, palm and oak leaf patterns are not those used in the German armed forces, but were invented by postwar collectors of militaria.
|German name||English name||Date||Image||Notes|
|1931||The first German camouflage pattern,|
initially used for Zeltbahn groundsheets
|1941||German air force variant Splittertarnmuster|
|Platanenmuster||Plane tree pattern||1937–1942||Spring and autumn variations,|
first dotted camouflage pattern
|Rauchtarnmuster||Smoke pattern||1939–1944||Summer and autumn variations|
|Palmenmuster||Palm tree pattern||1941-?||Spring and autumn variations,|
used by Waffen-SS
|Oak leaf pattern B||1942–1945|||
|Eichenlaubmuster||Oak leaf A||1943–1945||Spring and autumn variations,|
reversible Waffen-SS smocks
Also for Zeltbahn tent sheets
|Sumpftarnmuster||Swamp pattern||1943||Blurred form of Splittertarnmuster;|
Smocks reversible to snow camouflage
|Erbsenmuster||Pea dot pattern||1944–1945||Based on Eichenlaubmuster|
|Leibermuster||(named for the
|1945||Bold irregular pattern.|
Designed to absorb infra-red.
Saw only limited usage.
Inspired postwar US ERDL pattern
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... 2003 ... IN DEVELOPMENT: ... The Black Forest. A film on dead angles & Modern Identity. The life's and disappearances of Professor Otto Schick, key German master camouflage inventor, WWII
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