German settlement in Australia

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"Klemzig - German Village on the Torrens"

German settlement in Australia began in large numbers in 1838, with the arrival of immigrants from Prussia to Adelaide, South Australia. German immigrants became prominent in settling South Australia and Queensland. From 1850 until World War I, German settlers and their descendants comprised the largest non-British or Irish group of Europeans in Australia.

Kinnear winegrowers - April 1838[edit]

On 23 April 1838, the barque Kinnear arrived at Sydney carrying six German wine growing families. Johann Justus, Friedrich Seckold, Johann Stein, Caspar Flick, Georg Gerhard and Johann Wenz, were the first German vinedressers in Australia. Hundreds of Germans followed their arrival in Australia. They worked in the vineyards belonging to John Macarthur's son William Macarthur in what is now Camden. These six families were recruited from the Rheingau region of Hesse by Major Edward Macarthur.[1]

The Prince George and Bengalee group - November 1838[edit]

The second group arrived with Pastor August Kavel on the ships Prince George, and Bengalee. These first immigrants to settle from what is today known as Germany were escaping from what they considered to be religious persecution at the hands of Prussian King Frederick William III. The group was composed of Lutheran immigrants who had left their homeland mainly because of their rejection of Prussian state enforcement of a new prayer book for church services. They developed a settlement at Klemzig, six kilometres from Adelaide, named after their namesake home town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg.

The Zebra Group - December 1838[edit]

The next group arrived in December 28, 1838, on the Zebra with Captain Dirk Meinerts Hahn. Captain Hahn, assisted this group in acquiring land in the Adelaide Hills, where they settled Hahndorf.

The Catharina Group - January 1839[edit]

The last of the initial wave of immigrants arrived in January 1839, on the Catharina. This group settled predominantly at Glen Osmond.

The Skjold Group - October 1841[edit]

In 1840 a letter was sent to the Old Lutherans in Prussia to encourage others to also emigrate. Included in this letter was a request for a second pastor to be sent also. The group set sail for Australia, on 11 July 1841 on the Skjold. On a trip beset with sickness, 55 people, mainly young children and the elderly, died. On October 28, 1841, 213 emigrants from Prussia arrived at Port Misery in South Australia. With them was Pastor Gotthard Fritzsche, who had been encouraged to emigrate because of the Prussian government’s requirement for a Pastor to accompany the emigrants. The migrants settled at Lobethal, and Bethenien.

In 1842, Langmeil was settled.

Hermann von Beckerath Group - 1847[edit]

German-born immigrants who arrived in Australia during 1941-1950 as a percentage of the population, geographically subdivided by statistical local area, as of the 2011 census

Early German immigrants were instrumental in the creation of the South Australian wine industry. One of the earliest wine makers, whose descendants still produce wine, was Carl August Sobels. Born in Dresden in 1802, he arrived in South Australia on the Hermann von Beckerath in 1847. At first he farmed at Macclesfield before moving to Tanunda where he produced table wines. After his death in 1863 the business was conducted by his son Ferdinand.

By the mid-1840s, the German community in South Australia had become large enough to warrant its own German-language newspaper. The first German language newspaper in Australia, Die Deutsche Post, was founded in Adelaide c. 6 January 1848.[2]

San Francisco Group - October 1850[edit]

The barque San Francisco (a three masted barque of 450 tons (nm) built in Bjornberg, Sweden in 1846 and owned by J C Godeffroy & Sons) landed a number of emigrants in South Australia on 14 October 1850 on 15 (or 23?) June 1850 after leaving Hamburg[3][4] The ship almost never arrived, as it sailed straight into a major storm at Port Misery (Port Adelaide), which also wrecked the barque Grecian (three-masted, built at Sunderland, England in 1841) earlier that day. It was reported in a local newspaper of the time that the newly arrived emigrants on the ship were from the linen-producing Prussian province of Silesia. Like previous German emigrants to South Australia, the passengers then dispersed throughout the colony.

Passenger List of the San Francisco
Ship San Francisco (Kapitän Kramer) of Hamburg, to Adelaide and Melbourne 15 June 1850
Name Vorname
(First name)
Ahrenstein Adolph Kaufmann (merchant) Lippstadt Sara Levy, Fanny, Doris
Ahrenstein Friedrich Kaufmann Hamburg Auguste  
Arnsberg J.M. Kaufmann Hamburg    
Becker Friedrich Stellmacher (wheelwright) Leipzig    
Bandholz Friedrich Zimmermann (carpenter) Kiel    
Binder August Maurer (mason) Grenitz    
Braunack Friedrich Tuchmacher (weaver) Tirschtiegel Frau (wife) 2 Söhne (sons)
Erichsen Johanna   Hamburg-Altona    
Findeisen C.C. Lehrer (teacher) Markkleeberg    
Fischer Christian Schäfer (shepherd) Osteritz Frau 3 Kinder
Fromm Gottlieb Schneider (tailor) Millostow    
Gomalla Mattes Landmann (farmer) Ganrow    
Gaßan J. Landmann Tornow Maria Elisabeth
Gormann Johann Landmann Tornow Frau 3 Kinder
Grabasch Louise   Muschten    
Huppatz Johann Schuhmacher (shoemaker) Tauer Frau 4 Kinder
Hemmerling J.F. Landmann Muschten Frau 3 Kinder
Hübener Gottlob Landmann Zirchau Anna  
Hanel Carl Sattler (saddler) Libau    
Irmler Georg Landmann Sawade Anna  
Irmler Friedrich Landmann Sawade Frau 3 Kinder
Koopmann Gottlieb Schneider Wismar    
Kilian Christian Landmann Tauer Frau 4 Kinder
Kloke Gottlieb Stellmacher Kay Frau 2 Kinder
Kurtze Samuel Zimmermann Brausendorf Frau 2 Kinder
Kurtze Wilhelm Landmann Brausendorf Frau 1 Kind
Kalckwitz Wilhelm Landmann Schmölen Frau Tochter (daughter)
Koch Michael Schuhmacher Krakau    
Lewels Carl Johann Destillateur (distiller) Hamburg    
Lehmann Gottlob Landmann Muschten Frau 1 Kind
Meyer Wilhelm Tischler (joiner) Zagajewitzky    
Meincke Johann Landmann Boitzenburg    
Müller Johann Schneider Tirschtiegel Julie 3 Kinder
Müller Rosine   Tirschtiegel    
Mattner Gottfried Landmann Kay Frau 4 Kinder
Meinje August Landmann Müllerhausen    
Maticke Samuel Landmann Schmölen Frau 3 Kinder
Mathias Catharina M.   Hamburg    
Noack Anna   Ruben    
Noack Anna   Ruben    
Noack Johann Landmann Tauer Anna Maria
Noack Elisabeth   Tauer   Maria
Noack Martin Landmann Tauer    
Noack Gottfried Landmann Tauer   Anna
Nagel Heinrich Schneider Bowitz Louise  
Pätzel Gottlob Schäfer Jany Anna Rosina
Pätzel Carl August Landmann Jany    
Pätzel Wilhelm Ernst Landmann Jany   Anna Helena, Anna Dorothea, Christine
Parde August Stellmacher Muschten    
Pöck Gottlob Landmann Kay Frau 2 Kinder
Romm Daniel Landmann Gutabschied Frau 4 Kinder
Reimann Gottlob Schäfer Muschten Frau 3 Kinder
Ruge Christian Schuhmacher Muschten Frau Sohn
Richsteig Georg Landmann Coschten Frau 4 Kinder
Rößler Wilhelm Landmann Neubauroh Frau 6 Kinder
Roi Ferdinand Schuhmacher Tirschtiegel Frau 1 Kind
Richter E.G. Schäfer Cottbus    
Roedinger Friedrike   Berlin   5 Kinder
Rüthing F.L. Hutfabrikant (hat factory owner) Paderborn Frau 2 Kinder
Richter Sophie   Hamburg    
Schröder J.G. Tischler Möckern Frau 4 Kinder
Schmerl Gottfried Landmann Deutsch Kessel Frau 1 Kind
Schäpe Christian Landmann Sawade Frau 4 Kinder
Semler Georg Landmann Herde Frau 4 Kinder
Schütz Mathias Landmann Bobitz    
Schultz Friedrich Landmann Muschten Frau 1 Kind
Schultz Gottlob Schäfer Muschten Frau 1 Kind
Stenke Gottfried Müller (miller) Kay Anna  
Stenke Wilhelm Müller Kay Rosina 4 Kinder
Stenke Louise Dienstmädchen (housmaid) Kay    
Saegenschnitter Gottlob Landmann Scharky    
Sturzel Carl Landmann Schmöllen    
Tilemann C.H. Kaufmann Neustadt    
Uplegger J.E.G. Landmann Neu Treptow    
Voigt Robert O. Zimmermann Ehrenberg    
Vorwerk Gottfried Schuhmacher Langheinersdorf Frau 5 Kinder
Wolff Christian Schäfer Osteritz Frau 3 Kinder
Wundersitz Carl Landmann Ritschütz Frau 3 Kinder
Wenske Gottlob Landmann Muschten Frau 1 Kind
Zahnleiter Phillip Maurer Käferthal    
Zirck Dorothea   Hamburg   James

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Harmstorf, Ian and Cigler, Michael (1985) The Germans in Australia Melbourne : AE Press. Australian ethnic heritage series. ISBN 0-86787-203-9
  • Tampke, Jurgen and Doxford, Colin (1990) Australia, Willkommen : a history of the Germans in AustraliaKensington, N.S.W : New South Wales University Press. ISBN 0-86840-307-5


  1. ^ Gerald Walsh (1979):The Wine Industry of Australia 1788 1979 Accessed 25 May 2014.
  2. ^ "The Miscellany". Adelaide Observer. XLVIII, (2571). South Australia. 10 January 1891. p. 41. Retrieved 16 October 2017 – via National Library of Australia.  16 March was 11th Thursday in 1848.
  3. ^ "SHIPPING INTELLIGENCE". South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA : 1839 - 1900). Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia. 16 October 1850. p. 2. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  4. ^ 'San Francisco' Hamburg, Germany to South Australia 1850 at The Ships List

External links[edit]