German submarine U-155 (1941)
U-505, a typical Type IXC boat
|Ordered:||25 September 1939|
|Builder:||DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Bremen|
|Laid down:||1 October 1940|
|Launched:||12 May 1941|
|Commissioned:||23 August 1941|
|Class and type:||Type IXC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.70 m (15 ft 5 in)|
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 44 enlisted48 to 56|
|Identification codes:||M 01 188|
German submarine U-155 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine built for service during World War II. Her keel was laid down on 1 October 1940 by DeSchiMAG AG Weser in Bremen as yard number 997. She was launched on 12 May 1941 and commissioned on 23 August with Kapitänleutnant Adolf Piening in command. Piening was relieved in February 1944 (after being promoted to Korvettenkapitän), by Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Rudolph.
German Type IXC submarines were slightly larger than the original Type IXBs. U-155 had a displacement of 1,120 tonnes (1,100 long tons) when at the surface and 1,232 tonnes (1,213 long tons) while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower (740 kW; 990 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h; 21.1 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h; 8.4 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 63 nautical miles (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 13,450 nautical miles (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-155 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.
Leutnant zur See Ludwig von Friedeburg relieved Rudolph from August to November 1944, when Rudolph resumed command for another month. During these four months, U-155 had the youngest U-boat commander during the war since Von Friedeburg was only 20 years old. In December, Kptlt. Erwin Witte took over, and was relieved in April 1945 by Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Altmeier. Altmeier commanded the boat for one month before the German surrender; she was then scuttled by the Royal Navy. The wreck was located, largely intact, in 2001.
U-155 conducted ten patrols, sinking 26 ships totalling 126,664 gross register tons (GRT), one warship of 13,785 tons and damaging one auxiliary warship of 6,736 GRT. She was a member of one wolfpack. She sank a warship and a troop transport ship, and damaged a cargo ship, with one salvo of four torpedoes on 15 November 1942 during her fourth patrol, and shot down a P-51 Mustang aircraft on her final patrol.
U-155 left Kiel on her first patrol on 7 February 1942. Her route took her 'up' the North Sea, through the gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands and into the Atlantic. South of Cape Farewell in Greenland, she sank Sama and Adellen on the 22nd.
She then moved on to the US east coast, sinking the SS Arabutan about 81 nmi (150 km; 93 mi) off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on 7 March. On the 10th the First Watch Officer (1WO) Oberleutnant zur See Gert Rentrop was washed overboard.
Having left Lorient on 24 April 1942, U-155 steamed to the eastern Caribbean Sea and that portion of the Atlantic adjacent to it. She attacked Brabant southwest of Grenada on 14 May. The ship sank in eight minutes.
The U-boat sank another six ships; one of them, Sylvan Arrow, was torpedoed on 20 May, but did not go down until the 28th, following a salvage attempt.
The submarine returned to Lorient on 14 June.
U-155's third and most successful foray was conducted in similar waters to her second effort, beginning in Lorient on 9 July. She sank Barbacena with torpedoes east of Barbados, but others, such as Piave, went to the bottom with the more economic deck gun. Another victim, Cranford, met her end within three minutes. Part of her cargo was 6,600 tons of chrome ore. Two injured survivors were treated on U-155 before water, supplies and directions were handed over to their colleagues.
The submarine's skipper apologized for sinking one ship (Empire Arnold on 4 August), to the Chief Officer, who told him it was a bad business and wished it [the war] was over. Piening replied: "So do I".
Maschinengefreiter Konrad Garneier was lost overboard during an air attack on 19 August.
In all, the boat sank ten ships, a total of 43,514 tons.
Three of a spread of four torpedoes hit targets, one aal (eel: U-boat slang for torpedo), damaged USS Almaack, a US Navy-requisitioned cargo transport; two others sank escort carrier HMS Avenger and the British troop transport Ettrick on 15 November 1942 northwest of Gibraltar. Of 526 men on Avenger, there were 12 survivors. Ettrick's master was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE).
The boat also sank Serroskerk in mid-Atlantic. There were no survivors.
U-155's fifth sortie involved her move to the western Caribbean and southern Florida, USA. She sank Lysefjord west of Havana on 2 April 1943, and on 3 April sank the oil tanker Gulfstate about 50 nmi (93 km; 58 mi) east northeast of Marathon Key, Florida (in 2013 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Remediation of Underwater Legacy Environmental Threats (RULET) project found the sunken Gulfstate to be a potential source of oil pollution.)
On the return journey U-155 was attacked by an unknown aircraft on 27 April northwest of Cape Finisterre, Spain.
To try and counter the air threat, U-155 was grouped together with U-68, U-159, U-415 and U-634 in the Bay of Biscay. The formation was attacked by four De Havilland Mosquito aircraft on 14 June—three from No. 307 (Polish) Squadron RAF and one from No. 410 Squadron RCAF. One Mosquito, hit in the port engine, was forced to break off its attack and return to base where it made a belly landing. Five men in the boat's crew were wounded; they were treated by U-68's doctor on their return to Lorient on 16 June.
7th and 8th patrols
Patrol number seven was as long as any of the others, to a point northeast of the Cape Verde Islands; but the boat did not find any targets.
The submarine's eighth patrol took her toward the northeast coast of Brazil. While sinking Siranger she took the third mate prisoner (he had been wounded, and was operated-on by the boat's doctor). He was taken back to Lorient and was eventually transferred to the POW camp at Milag Nord near Bremen.
9th and 10th patrols
U-155's ninth patrol was, at 105 days, her longest, but like her seventh, found no targets. On 23 June 1944, Mosquitos of 248 Squadron attacked, killing Matrosenobergefreiter Karl Lohmeier and Mechanikerobergefreiter Friedrich Feller and wounding seven others.
Her tenth and final patrol left Lorient on 9 September 1944, the last by a U-boat from the base. On 4 May 1945, the boat shot down a P-51 Mustang aircraft of No. 126 Squadron RAF. She returned to Germany by a circuitous route, and docked at Flensburg on 21 October.
On 30 June 1945, after the German surrender, she was transferred from Wilhelmshaven to Loch Ryan, Scotland for Royal Navy Operation Deadlight, the scuttling of surrendered German U-boats, and sunk on 21 December the same year.
U-155 was located and identified in 2001 by a team of divers led by nautical archaeologist Innes McCartney, revealing the wreck was lying upright on the sea bed, largely intact, at a depth of 73 metres (240 ft; 40 fathoms).
Her crew held their 25th reunion in 1995 with former Oberleutnant zur See Johannes Rudolph and one of the Mosquito pilots who attacked the boat in June 1944 'on board'.
Summary of raiding history
|Date||Ship Name||Flag||Tonnage[Note 1]||Fate|
|22 February 1942||Adellen||United Kingdom||7,984||Sunk|
|22 February 1942||Sama||Norway||1,799||Sunk|
|7 March 1942||Arabutan||Brazil||7,874||Sunk|
|14 May 1942||Brabant||Belgium||2,483||Sunk|
|17 May 1942||Challenger||United States Navy||7,667||Sunk|
|17 May 1942||San Victorio||United Kingdom||8,136||Sunk|
|20 May 1942||Sylvan Arrow||Panama||7,797||Sunk|
|23 May 1942||Watsonville||Panama||2,220||Sunk|
|28 May 1942||Poseidon||Netherlands||1,928||Sunk|
|30 May 1942||Baghdad||Norway||2,161||Sunk|
|28 July 1942||Barbacena||Brazil||4,772||Sunk|
|28 July 1942||Piave||Brazil||2,347||Sunk|
|28 July 1942||Bill||Norway||2,445||Sunk|
|30 July 1942||Cranford||United States||6,096||Sunk|
|1 August 1942||Clan Macnaughton||United Kingdom||8,088||Sunk|
|1 August 1942||Kentaur||Netherlands||5,878||Sunk|
|4 August 1942||Empire Arnold||United Kingdom||7,045||Sunk|
|5 August 1942||Draco||Netherlands||389||Sunk|
|9 August 1942||San Emiliano||United Kingdom||8,071||Sunk|
|10 August 1942||Strabo||Netherlands||383||Sunk|
|15 November 1942||Ettrick||United Kingdom||11,279||Sunk|
|15 November 1942||HMS Avenger||Royal Navy||13,785||Sunk|
|15 November 1942||USS Almaack||United States Navy||6,736||Damaged|
|6 December 1942||Serooskerk||Netherlands||8,456||Sunk|
|2 April 1943||Lysefjord||Norway||1,091||Sunk|
|3 April 1943||Gulfstate||United States||6,882||Sunk|
|24 October 1943||Siranger||Norway||5,393||Sunk|
- Gröner 1991, p. 68.
- Julia Whitty (May 21, 2013). "How Hitler's U-Boats Are Still Attacking Us". Blue Marble. Mother Jones. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
The vessel ranked worst on the NOAA's risk assessment scale is the WWII tanker Gulfstate, torpedoed and sunk off the Florida Keys in 1943.
- "The Discovery of U155".
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-155". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IX boat U-155". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 155". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2014.