German submarine U-18 (1935)

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For other ships of the same name, see German submarine U-18.
U-9 IWM HU 1012.jpg
U-9, a typical Type IIB boat
History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-18
Ordered: 2 February 1935
Builder: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Yard number: 548
Laid down: 10 July 1935
Launched: 7 December 1935
Commissioned: 4 January 1936
Fate: Scuttled 25 August 1944 at Constanţa in the Black Sea[1]
General characteristics
Class & type: IIB coastal submarine
Displacement:
  • 279 t (275 long tons) surfaced
  • 328 t (323 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 4.08 m (13 ft 5 in) (o/a)
  • 4.00 m (13 ft 1 in) (pressure hull)
Height: 8.60 m (28 ft 3 in)
Draught: 3.90 m (12 ft 10 in)
Installed power:
  • 700 PS (510 kW; 690 bhp) (diesels)
  • 410 PS (300 kW; 400 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Range:
  • 1,800 nmi (3,300 km; 2,100 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) surfaced
  • 35–43 nmi (65–80 km; 40–49 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 80 m (260 ft)
Complement: 3 officers, 22 men
Armament:
Service record
Part of:
Identification codes: M 23 452
Commanders:
Operations: 14
Victories:
  • Two ships sunk for a total of 1,500 GRT
  • One auxiliary warship of 400 GRT sunk
  • One ship damaged of 7,745 GRT
  • One warship of 56 tons damaged

German submarine U-18 was a Type IIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. It was laid down 10 July 1935 and commissioned on 4 January 1936. It served in many U-boat flotillas during its service.

Design[edit]

German Type IIB submarines were enlarged versions of the original Type IIs. U-18 had a displacement of 279 tonnes (275 long tons) when at the surface and 328 tonnes (323 long tons) while submerged. Officially, the standard tonnage was 250 long tons (250 t), however.[2] The U-boat had a total length of 42.70 m (140 ft 1 in), a pressure hull length of 28.20 m (92 ft 6 in), a beam of 4.08 m (13 ft 5 in), a height of 8.60 m (28 ft 3 in), and a draught of 3.90 m (12 ft 10 in). The submarine was powered by two MWM RS 127 S four-stroke, six-cylinder diesel engines of 700 metric horsepower (510 kW; 690 shp) for cruising, two Siemens-Schuckert PG VV 322/36 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 460 metric horsepower (340 kW; 450 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 0.85 m (3 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 80–150 metres (260–490 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7 knots (13 km/h; 8.1 mph).[2] When submerged, the boat could operate for 35–42 nautical miles (65–78 km; 40–48 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 3,800 nautical miles (7,000 km; 4,400 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). U-18 was fitted with three 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes at the bow, five torpedoes or up to twelve Type A torpedo mines, and a 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of twentyfive.[2]

Fate[edit]

While a training boat, U-18 sank at 0954 hrs on 20 November 1936 in Lübeck Bay, after a collision with T-156. Eight men died and 12 survived. It was raised on 28 November 1936. It returned to service on 30 September 1937 when it served in the 30th U-boat Flotilla, after being transported overland and via the Danube to the Black Sea.

On 20 August 1944, in a Soviet air raid on the Romanian harbor of Constanţa in the Black Sea, U-18 was damaged and as a result was deemed not seaworthy and was scuttled on the 25th.[1]

The boat was raised by the USSR in late 1944. It was sunk for target practice by the Soviet submarine M-120 on 26 May 1947 off Sevastopol (also sunk that day was the former U-24).

Service history[edit]

Commanders[edit]

  • Hans Pauckstadt, 4 January – 20 November 1936
  • Kapitänleutnant Heinz Beduhn, 30 September – 31 October 1937
  • Kptlt. Max-Hermann Bauer, 1 November 1937 – 24 November 1939
  • Oberleutnant zur See Ernst Mengersen (Knights Cross), 24 November 1939 – 2 September 1940
  • Kptlt. Hans-Heinz Linder, 3 September – 17 December 1940
  • Kptlt. Ernst Vogelsang, 18 December 1940 – 6 May 1941
  • Oblt.z.S. Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski, 7 May 1941 – 31 May 1942
  • Oblt.z.S. Friedrich-Wilhelm Wissmann, 1 June – 18 August 1942
  • Oblt.z.S. Karl Fleige (Knights Cross), 3 December 1942 – 25 August 1944
  • Oblt.z.S. Hans-Jürgen Bartsch, 2–25 May 1944
  • Oblt.z.S. Rudolf Arendt, 25 May – 7 June 1944
  • Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Baumgärtel, 22 December 1944 – 6 February 1945

Summary of raiding history[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate
18 November 1939 Parkhill  United Kingdom 500 Sunk
23 January 1940 Bisp  Norway 1,000 Sunk
29 August 1943 TSC-11 Dzhalita  Soviet Navy 400 Sunk
30 August 1943 SKA-0132  Soviet Navy 56 Damaged
18 November 1943 Josif Stalin  Soviet Union 7,745 Damaged

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kemp 1999, p. 215.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 39–40.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel (London: Conway Maritime Press). ISBN 0-85177-593-4. 
  • Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3. 

External links[edit]

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IIB boat U-18". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 18". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 2014-12-06. 

Coordinates: 44°12′N 28°41′E / 44.200°N 28.683°E / 44.200; 28.683