German submarine U-232
|Ordered:||7 December 1940|
|Laid down:||17 January 1942|
|Launched:||15 October 1942|
|Commissioned:||28 November 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk in July 1943 by an American aircraft|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
|Operations:||Patrol: 8 May – 8 July 1943|
The submarine was laid down on 17 January 1942 at the Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft yard at Kiel as yard number 662, launched on 15 October and commissioned on 28 November under the command of Kapitänleutnant Ernst Ziehm.
After training with the 5th U-boat Flotilla at Kiel, U-232 was transferred to the 9th U-boat Flotilla in Brest on 1 May 1943, for front-line service. In one war patrol, the U-boat sank or damaged no merchant ships. She was a member of three wolfpacks.
U-232 was sunk in July 1943 in the North Atlantic by an American aircraft.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-232 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-232 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
Patrol and loss
U-232's inaugural patrol took her from Kiel to the Atlantic Ocean via the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands. While heading for the Bay of Biscay, she was attacked and sunk by an American USAAF Liberator on 8 July 1943. Forty-six men died; there were no survivors.
U-232 took part in three wolfpacks, namely.
- Trutz (1–16 June 1943)
- Trutz 2 (16–29 June 1943)
- Geier 3 (30 June - 8 July 1943)
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3.