German submarine U-365
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||20 January 1941|
|Builder:||Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg|
|Laid down:||21 April 1942|
|Launched:||9 March 1943|
|Commissioned:||8 June 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk, 13 December 1944|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.10 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.50 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Installed power:||2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
|Propulsion:||2 shafts; 2 × diesel engines
2 × electric motors
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
5th U-boat Flotilla
9th U-boat Flotilla
13th U-boat Flotilla
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Heimar Wedemeyer (8 June 1943 – 17 November 1944)
Kptlt. Diether Todenhagen (18 November – 13 December 1944)
|Victories:||1 commercial vessel sunk of 5,685 GRT
3 military vessels sunk for a total of 2,300 GRT
German submarine U-365 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She served exclusively against the Arctic Convoys from Britain to Murmansk and Archangelsk, principally targeting the Soviet forces which greeted the convoys in the Barents Sea.
The boat was built in Flensburg in 1942 and 1943, U-365 was a Type VIIC U-boat, with five torpedo tubes and a deck gun for smaller targets. She was captained by Kptlt. Heimar Wedemeyer, an efficient if slightly cautious officer, who worked his boat and crew up before being dispatched to the 9th Flotilla based at Bergen, Norway, from which she conducted her first three patrols.
U-365 's early operations were in support of clandestine operations in the North Sea and Arctic Ocean, in the course of which she saw no action against Allied shipping or positions. Not until her fifth patrol, following a shift in patrol zones to the frozen seas around Novaya Zemlya and transfer to the 13th U-boat Flotilla, that U-365 experienced success. In this region, on the 12 August, the boat spotted a small Soviet convoy and in rapid order sank a 5,000-ton freighter and the two 600-ton minesweepers intended to protect it.
However, due to the remoteness of the U-365 's patrol zones, the cautiousness of her commander and the efficiency of Allied submarine defences by the autumn of 1944, Wedemeyer was unable to score another victory for his boat in the next two patrols, and was eventually replaced by Kptlt. Diether Todenhagen, who had previously served on the enormously successful U-48, and had a reputation as an aggressive submariner. This seemed deserved as on his first patrol, on the 6 December, he sank the tiny Soviet patrol ship BO-2 in the Barents Sea. This was followed five days later with a determined attack on an Allied convoy in which the British destroyer HMS Cassandra was seriously damaged. However, in orchestrating the attack the U-boat's position was revealed, and just two days later two Fairey Swordfish aircraft from 813 Squadron flying from the escort carrier HMS Campania spotted the submarine and sank her near the Lofoten Islands with bombs. All 50 of the U-boat's crew perished in the wreck.
U-365 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.
- Trutz (28 June – 10 July 1944)
- Greif (5–18 August 1944)
- Zorn (29 September – 1 October 1944)
- Grimm (1–2 October 1944)
- Panther (18 October – 8 November 1944)
- Stier (25 November – 13 December 1944)
Summary of raiding career
|12 August 1944||Marina Raskova||Soviet Union||5,685||Sunk|
|12 August 1944||T-118||Soviet Navy||625||Sunk|
|12 August 1944||T-114||Soviet Navy||625||Sunk|
|6 December 1944||BO-2||Soviet Navy||240||Sunk|
|1 April 1944||HMS Cassandra||Royal Navy||1,710||Damaged|
- Gröner 1985, pp. 72-74.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Sharpe, Peter (1998). U-Boat Fact File. Great Britain: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-072-9.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-365". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 365". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.