German submarine U-394
|Ordered:||20 January 1941|
|Laid down:||31 March 1942|
|Launched:||19 June 1943|
|Commissioned:||7 August 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk, by a British aircraft and warships in the Norwegian Sea, September 1944|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
She carried out two patrols. She did not sink or damage any ships.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-394 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co. RP 137/c double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-394 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, (220 rounds), one 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Flak M42 and two twin 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
The submarine was laid down on 31 January 1941 at the Howaldtswerke (yard) at Flensburg as yard number 26, launched on 19 June 1943 and commissioned on 7 August under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Ernst-Günther Unterhorst.
The boat was a member of two wolfpacks.
2nd patrol and loss
U-394 left Hammerfest on 27 July 1944. She patrolled the Greenland and Barents seas. On 2 September, southeast of Jan Mayen, she was sunk by rockets and depth charges from a Fairey Swordfish of 825 Naval Air Squadron (this aircraft was from the escort carrier HMS Vindex), the British destroyers HMS Keppel and HMS Whitehall. The sloops HMS Mermaid and HMS Peacock were also involved.
50 men died in the U-boat; there were no survivors.
U-394 took part in two wolfpacks, namely.
- Trutz (2 June - 6 July 1944)
- Trutz (17 August - 2 September 1944)
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-394". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 394". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.