German submarine U-410
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||30 October 1939|
|Builder:||Danziger Werft, Danzig|
|Laid down:||9 January 1941|
|Launched:||14 October 1941|
|Commissioned:||23 February 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk on 11 March 1944 by US aircraft|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 kn (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
German submarine U-410 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II, operating mainly in the Mediterranean. Her Insignia was a Sword & Shield, she did not suffer any casualties until she was sunk.
U-410 was first commanded by Kapitänleutnant Kurt Sturm during her working up/training period and on her first patrol before being commanded by Horst-Arno Fenski for her six combat patrols. U-410 sank eight merchantmen, a Landing ship, Tank (LST); and a light cruiser during the Second World War. For his successes, Fenski received the Knights Cross.
Construction and Design
U-410 was ordered by the Kriegsmarine on 30 October 1939. She was laid down at the Danziger Werft yard in Danzig, on 9 January 1941 and launched on 14 October 1941. She was formally commissioned into the Kriegsmarine, on 23 February 1942.
Like all type VIIC submarines, U-410 carried five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four located in the bow, one in the stern) and a C35 88mm/L45 deck gun with 220 rounds. Anti-Aircraft (AA) protection consisted of a twin 20-mm, on Platform I, a 37-mm, on Platform II and 2 MG 15 machine guns on the bridge.
Two supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines with a total of 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Her maximum rpm was 490. She was also equipped with two electric motors totaling 750 shp (560 kW) with a maximum rpm of 296. This power-train enabled U-380 to achieve a top speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) while on the surface and 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) when submerged.
She had a range of 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) when surfaced and 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) when submerged. Her test depth was 230 m (750 ft); her crush depth was 250–295 m (820–968 ft). She carried 2 eight-man, 1 six-man and 58 one-man, rubber boats.
- 1st and 2nd patrols
U-410 departed Kiel on 27 August 1942 for her first patrol. The U-boat, under Kapitänleutnant Kurt Sturm, sank the British Newton Pine in mid-Atlantic. She then arrived in St. Nazaire in France on 28 October 1942, after 63 days at sea.
Her second outing was not so productive; after 33 days she returned to her French base empty-handed.
- 3rd and 4th patrols
Her third foray was more productive and included the sinking of the British ship, the Fort Battle River on 6 March 1943. She also damaged another British vessel in the same engagement, the Fort Paskoyac. Both of these ships were attacked southwest of Portugal. The U-boat returned to St. Nazaire on 27 March 1943.
- 5th and 6th patrols
U-410 left La Spezia on 7 August 1943 and attacked the convoy UGS-14 off the Algerian coast. Firing three torpedoes in a 'spread', she hit and sank two American ships, the John Bell and the Richard Henderson on 26 August 1943. She then sailed to Toulon in France, arriving on 30 August.
The U-boat tried to disrupt the landings at Anzio, sinking a British light cruiser and an American LST (see below).
- 23 February 1942 - 4 February 1943 Kapitänleutnant Kurt Sturm.
- 5 February 1943 - 11 March 1944 Oberleutnant zur See Horst-Arno Fenski
- 23 February 1942 - 31 August 1942 - 5th Flotilla (Training)
- 1 September 1942 - 31 May 1943 - 7th Flotilla
- 1 June 1943 - 11 March 1944 - 29th Flotilla
U-410 was part of the following "wolfpacks":
|Lohs||13 September 1942||22 September 1942|
|Blitz||22 September 1942||26 September 1942|
|Tiger||26 September 1942||29 September 1942|
|Letzte Ritter||28 September 1942||1 October 1942|
|Wotan||8 October 1942||17 October 1942|
|Raufbold||11 December 1942||20 December 1942|
|Robbe||16 February 1943||13 March 1943|
Rescue of survivors from MV Rhakotis
On 2 January 1943, U-410 rescued 80 survivors from the German blockade-runner MV Rhakotis after she was sunk by HMS Scylla. The survivors were returned to St. Nazaire the next day. Among the survivors were two Englishmen who received a special guard.
Sinking of Penelope
On 18 February 1944, HMS Penelope (Capt. G.D. Belben, DSO, DSC, AM, RN), was leaving Naples to return to the Anzio area when she was torpedoed at by U-410. A torpedo struck the British cruiser in the aft engine room; sixteen minutes later, U-410 fired another torpedo that hit Penelope in her boiler room, causing her immediate sinking. 415 of the crew, including the captain, went down with the ship. There were 206 survivors. The remarkable point of the attack by U-410 was that the cruiser was making 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph) when she was hit. As far as can be ascertained, in the history of submarine attacks during World War II, no other ship running at such speed was ever successfully attacked. On 11 March 1944, a USAAF during an air raid on the Port of Toulon, U-410 along with U-380 were so seriously damaged, they were declared no longer operational. Oberleutnant zur See Fenski and his crew transferred to U-371, which was lost around 04:00 on 4 May 1944 in a battle with Allied warships. The Engineering Officer and a control room petty officer were killed, as they scuttled their boat, but Fenski and his remaining crew survived and spent 2 years in a US POW camp.
Sinking of USS LST-348
On 20 February 1944 LST-348 (Landing Ship, Tank) was returning from Sicily, supporting Operation Shingle and roughly 40 miles South of Naples when she was spotted by U-410, who fired two torpedoes at around 02:00 hrs. Both hit the vessel on her port side, she sank 20 minutes later.
On 11 March 1944, a USAAF during an air raid on the Port of Toulon, U-410 along with U-380 were so seriously damaged, they were declared no longer operational. Oberleutnant zur See Fenski and his crew transferred to U-371, which was lost around 04:00 on 4 May 1944 in a battle with Allied warships. The Engineering Officer and a control room petty officer were killed, as they scuttled their boat, but Fenski and his remaining crew survived and spent 2 years in a US POW camp.
|11 October 1942||Newton Pine||United Kingdom||4,212||Sunk|
|6 March 1943||Fort Battle River||United Kingdom||7,133||Sunk|
|6 March 1943||Fort Paskoyac||United Kingdom||7,134|||Damaged|
|26 August 1943||John Bell||United States||7,242||Sunk|
|26 August 1943||Richard Henderson||United States||7,194||Sunk|
|26 September 1943||Christian Michelsen||Norway||7,176||Sunk|
|1 October 1943||MV Empire Commerce||United Kingdom||3,722||Total loss|
|1 October 1943||Fort Howe||United Kingdom||7,133||Sunk|
|15 February 1944||Fort St. Nicholas||United Kingdom||7,154||Sunk|
|18 February 1944||HMS Penelope (97)||Royal Navy||5,270||Sunk|
|20 February 1944||USS LST-348||United States Navy||1,625||Sunk|
- Kemp 1999, p. 176.
- Gröner 1985, pp. 72-74.
- U-Boat Insignia & Emblems http://www.uboataces.com/ref-insignia32.shtml#U-410
- http://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?58439%7C MV Rhakotis at wrecksite
- http://www.ubootwaffe.net/ops/boat.cgi?boat=410%7C U-410 at ubootwaffe.net[dead link]
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "HMS Penelope (97) of the Royal Navy - British Light cruiser of the Arethusa class". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- U-Boat Iron Cross document group and photos. U-410 and U-371
- http://www.navsource.org/archives/10/16/160348.htm NavSource Online NavSource Online
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit U-410". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-410". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Photos of U-410 and her crew
- BBC A peoples War - John Alexander MN