German submarine U-436

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History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-436
Ordered: 16 October 1939
Builder: Schichau-Werke, Danzig
Yard number: 1478
Laid down: 25 April 1940
Launched: 21 June 1941
Commissioned: 27 September 1941
Fate: Sunk in mid-Atlantic by Allied warships, May 1943[1]
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement:
  • 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
  • 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth:
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Armament:
Service record[2]
Part of:
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Günther Seibicke
  • 27 September 1941 – 26 May 1943
Operations:
  • 1st patrol: 2–17 February 1942
  • 2nd patrol: 26 February – 24 March 1942
  • 3rd patrol: 7–20 April 1942
  • 4th patrol: 29 April – 4 May 1942
  • 5th patrol: 12–27 May 1942
  • 6th patrol: 6 October – 12 November 1942
  • 7th patrol: 17 December 1942 – 19 February 1943
  • 8th patrol: 25 April – 26 May 1943
Victories:
  • Six ships sunk, total 36,208 GRT;
  • one warship sunk – 1,340 tons;
  • two ships damaged, total 15,575 GRT

German submarine U-436 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She carried out eight patrols.

She sank six ships, total 36,208 gross register tons (GRT); and one warship of 291 tons. Two ships were damaged, totalling 15,575 GRT.

She was a member of ten wolfpacks.

She was sunk by Allied warships in mid-Atlantic, in May 1943.

Design[edit]

German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-436 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[3] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[3]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[3] When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-436 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[3]

Service history[edit]

The submarine was laid down on 25 April 1940 at Schichau-Werke in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) as yard number 1478, launched on 21 June 1941 and commissioned on 27 September 1941 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Günther Seibicke.

She served with the 5th U-boat Flotilla from 27 September 1941 for training and the 7th flotilla from 1 February 1942 for operations. She was reassigned, first to the 11th flotilla on 1 July, then the 6th flotilla on 1 September.

1st patrol[edit]

U-432's first patrol was from Kiel in Germany and took in the Norwegian and Barents Seas. She docked at Kirkenes, not far from the border between Norway and the Soviet Union on 17 February 1942.

2nd and 3rd patrols[edit]

The boat's initial success came when she sank the Soviet trawler RT-19 Komitern on 1 March 1942 east of Murmansk.

The submarine's third sortie commenced with her departure from Kirkenes on 7 April 1942. On the 13th, she sank the Soviet Kiev north of the North Cape. The vessel went down in seven minutes.

4th and 5th patrols[edit]

U-436 carried out her fourth and fifth patrols from Kirkenes and Trondheim. They were followed by a series of journeys which were not recognized as patrols. At their end, she was back in Kiel.

6th patrol[edit]

The U-boat left Kiel once more on 6 October 1942, but this time she was headed for the Atlantic Ocean, via the gap separating the Faroe and Shetland Islands.

On the 27th, she torpedoed, but did not sink, the Norwegian Frontenac in mid-Atlantic. The ship's bow section was badly damaged, so much so that her propeller was raised out of the water. The accompanying fire was extinguished by a large wave; the ship was pumped out and she was capable of moving under her own power. During the same attack, she sank the Sourabaya. Also lost was the landing craft HMS LCT-2281 which had been carried on deck. Two days later, the boat sank the Barrwhinn.

She arrived at Lorient in occupied France on 12 November.

7th patrol[edit]

Patrol number seven saw U-436 sink the Albert L. Ellsworth south of the Azores on 8 January 1943. The ship had been abandoned after being hit by a torpedo but remained afloat. The wreck was sunk by gunfire from the U-boat the following evening.

8th patrol and loss[edit]

By now based at St. Nazaire, she left the French port on 25 April 1943. A day later she was attacked and sunk west of Cape Ortegal in northwest Spain by depth charges from the frigate HMS Test and the corvette HMS Hyderabad.[1]

Forty-seven men went down with U-436; there were no survivors.

Wolfpacks[edit]

U-436 took part in ten wolfpacks, namely.

  • Umbau (7–16 February 1942)
  • Umhang (10–16 March 1942)
  • Robbenschlag (7–14 April 1942)
  • Blutrausch (15–19 April 1942)
  • Strauchritter (29 April – 1 May 1942)
  • Greif (14–26 May 1942)
  • Puma (16–29 October 1942)
  • Natter (30 October - 6 November 1942)
  • Delphin (26 December 1942 – 12 February 1943)
  • Drossel (29 April – 15 May 1943)

Summary of raiding history[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[4]
1 March 1942 RT-19 Komintern  Soviet Union 577 Sunk
13 April 1942 Kiev  Soviet Union 5,823 Sunk
27 October 1942 Frontenac  Norway 7,350 Damaged
27 October 1942 Gurney E. Newlin  United States 8,225 Damaged
27 October 1942 HMS LCT-2281*  Royal Navy 291 Sunk
27 October 1942 Sourabaya  United Kingdom 10,107 Sunk
29 October 1942 Barrwhin  United Kingdom 4,998 Sunk
8 January 1943 Albert L. Ellsworth  Norway 5,283 Sunk
8 January 1943 Oltenia II  United Kingdom 6,394 Sunk

* Carried by Sourabaya

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kemp 1999, p. 121.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-436". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 19 September 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 43-46.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-436". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4. 
  • Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3. 

External links[edit]