German submarine U-445
|Ordered:||6 October 1940|
|Laid down:||9 April 1941|
|Launched:||19 March 1942|
|Commissioned:||30 May 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk in the Bay of Biscay by a British warship, August 1944|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
She carried out nine patrols. She sank no ships.
She was a member of one wolfpack.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-445 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-445 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
The submarine was laid down on 9 April 1940 at Schichau-Werke in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland) as yard number 1505, launched on 19 March 1942 and commissioned on 30 May under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Heinz-Konrad Fenn.
U-432's first patrol was preceded by the short journey from Kiel in Germany to Marviken. The patrol itself commenced with her departure from Marviken on 8 November 1942. She proceeded via the gap separating the Faroe and Shetland Islands and into the Atlantic Ocean. She arrived at St. Nazaire in occupied France on 3 January 1943.
2nd and 3rd patrols
The submarine's third patrol was relatively uneventful.
4th and 5th patrols
The boat's fourth patrol was, at 68 days, her longest. It took her to the west coast of Africa. The most southerly point, between South America and Africa, was reached on 12 August 1943.
She fired at what her crew thought was a destroyer west of Ireland on 14 February 1944. Retaliation was swift; the Third Support Group caused severe damage, but the U-boat escaped.
7th and 8th patrols
U-445's seventh outing was relatively short, from 6–15 June 1944. She did not leave the Bay of Biscay, but she did move to La Pallice, south of St. Nazaire.
Her eighth patrol was also brief and entailed another move; this time to Lorient.
9th patrol and loss
Fifty-two men died; there were no survivors.
U-445 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.
- Drachen (22 November - 3 December 1942)
- Panzer (3–9 December 1942)
- Büffel (9–15 December 1942)
- Ungestüm (15–25 December 1942)
- Robbe (16 February - 13 March 1943)
- Igel 2 (6–14 February 1944)
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Kemp, Paul (1999). U-Boats Destroyed - German Submarine Losses in the World Wars. London: Arms & Armour. ISBN 1-85409-515-3.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-445". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.