German submarine U-48 (1939)

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For other ships of the same name, see German submarine U-48.
Career (Nazi Germany)
Name: U-48
Ordered: 21 November 1936[1][2]
Builder: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Cost: 4,439,000 Reichsmark
Yard number: 583[1][2]
Laid down: 10 March 1937[1][2]
Launched: 8 March 1939[1][2]
Commissioned: 22 April 1939[1][2]
Decommissioned: October 1943
Fate: Scuttled, 3 May 1945 off Neustadt[1]
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIB U-boat
Displacement: 753 t (741 long tons) surfaced
857 t (843 long tons) submerged
Length: 66.5 m (218 ft 2 in) o/a
48.8 m (160 ft 1 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) overall
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6 cylinder, 4-stroke F46 diesel engines totalling 2,800–3,200 PS (2,800–3,200 bhp; 2,100–2,400 kW) Max rpm 470-490 surfaced
2 × AEG GU 460/8-276 electric motors totalling 750 PS (740 shp; 550 kW) submerged
Speed: 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h; 20.6 mph) surfaced
8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) submerged
Range: 8,700 nmi (16,112 km; 10,012 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)surfaced
90 nmi (170 km; 100 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph)
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft). Calculated crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 44 to 48 officers and ratings
Armament: 5 × 53.3 cm torpedo tubes: four bow, one stern (14 torpedoes or 26 TMA or 39 TMB mines)

1 × 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun with 220 rounds

C30 20 mm flak guns
Service record
Part of: 7th U-boat Flotilla
21st U-boat Flotilla
26th U-boat Flotilla
Identification codes: M 27 354
Commanders: Kptlt. Herbert Schultze
(22 April 1939 – 20 May 1940)
K.Kapt. Hans-Rudolf Rösing
(21 May–3 September 1940)
Heinrich Bleichrodt
(4 September–16 December 1940)
Kptlt. Herbert Schultze
(17 December–27 July 1941)
Oblt.z.S. Siegfried Atzinger
(August 1941–September 1942)
Oblt.z.S. Diether Todenhagen
(26 September–October 1943)
Operations: Twelve:
1st patrol:
19 August–17 September 1939
2nd patrol:
4–25 October 1939
3rd patrol:
20 November–20 December 1939
4th patrol:
24 January–26 February 1940
5th patrol:
3–20 April 1940
6th patrol:
26 May–29 June 1940
7th patrol:
7–28 August 1940
8th patrol:
8–25 September 1940
9th patrol:
5–27 October 1940
10th patrol:
20 January–27 February 1941
11th patrol:
17 March–8 April
12th patrol:
a. 22 May–1 June 1941
b. 19 June–21 June 1941
Victories: 51 ships sunk for a total of 306,875 gross register tons (GRT)
one warship sunk for a total of 1,060 tons
three ships damaged for a total of 20,480 GRT

German submarine U-48 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II, and the most successful that was commissioned. During her two years of active service, U-48 sank 55 ships for a total of 321,000 tons; she also damaged two more for a total of 12,000 tons over twelve war patrols conducted during the opening stages of the Battle of the Atlantic.

U-48 was built at the Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 583 during 1938 and 1939, being completed a few months before the outbreak of war in September 1939 and given to Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Herbert Schultze. When war was declared, she was already in position in the North Atlantic, and received the news via radio, allowing her to operate immediately against Allied shipping.

She was a member of two wolfpacks. Seven former crew members of U-48 earned the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross during their military career, these were the commanders Herbert Schultze, Hans-Rudolf Rösing and Heinrich Bleichrodt, the first watch officer Reinhard Suhren, the second watch Otto Ites, the chief engineer Erich Zürn and the coxswain Horst Hofmann.

U-48 survived most of the war and was scuttled by her own crew on 3 May 1945 off Neustadt in order to keep the submarine out of the hands of the advancing allies.

War patrols[edit]

1st patrol (19 August – 17 September 1939)[edit]

U-48 left her home port of Kiel on 19 August 1939, before World War II began,[3] for a period of 30 days. The submarine travelled north of the British Isles, into the North Atlantic and eventually into the Bay of Biscay. She then proceeded to cruise to the west of the Western Approaches, two days after Britain and France declared war on Germany. It was here that she spotted her first target, the 5,000 ton SS Royal Sceptre. U-48 attacked the merchant ship with her deck gun on 5 September 1939.[4] All of the crew took to the lifeboats except the Radio Officer who remained transmitting "SOS". He was taken prisoner by U-48, but then released to the lifeboats as Schultze praised his courage. He verified that the lifeboats were provisioned with food and water. U-48 then stopped the SS Browning. The crew abandoned their vessel, but Schultze told them to return to their ship and pick up the crew of Royal Sceptre. However Browning was en route to Brazil, so it was not immediately realised that they had survived. Winston Churchill, then First Lord of The Admiralty, assumed the worst, that the crew and sixty passengers were lost.[5] He declared the sinking to be

U-48 stopped, searched and released several neutral ships before encountering and sinking Winkleigh on 8 September 1939 after her crew had taken to the lifeboats.[7]

On 11 September U-48 sank Firby. Some of the crew required medical attention following the sinking. U-48 provisioned the lifeboats, gave medical assistance and radioed:

Churchill, wrongly, told the House of Commons that the U-boat captain who had sent the message had been captured.[5] After 30 days at sea, U-48 returned to Kiel on 17 September 1939. During her first war patrol, she sank three ships for a total of 14,777 tons.[3]

2nd patrol (4–25 October 1939)[edit]

U-48‍ '​s second patrol was even more successful. Having left Kiel on 4 October, she proceeded to follow the same course as her previous voyage. During her second patrol, U-48 sank a total of five enemy ships, including the large French tanker SS Emile Miguet on 12 October, Heronspool and Louisiane on 13 October, Sneaton on 14 October and Clan Chisholm on 17 October. Following the sinking of Clan Chisholm, U-48 attacked the British steamer Rockpool with fire from her deck gun on 19 October at 1:32 pm. However, the steamer returned fire. In order to avoid being hit, U-48 crash-dived. She subsequently re-surfaced and attempted to sink the steamer again when an Allied destroyer came upon the engagement. U-48 then broke off the fight with Rockpool and submerged once more to leave the area. Following the sinking of five enemy merchant ships for a total of 37,153 tons as well as the engagement with Rockpool, U-48 returned to the safety of Kiel on 25 October 1939 after spending 22 days at sea.[9]

3rd patrol (20 November – 20 December 1939)[edit]

U-48 left Kiel for her third patrol on 20 November 1939. During this voyage, she sank a total of four vessels including two merchant ships from neutral nations. The first ship to fall victim to the U-boat was the 6,336-ton neutral Swedish motor tanker MT Gustaf E. Reuter. She was attacked by U-48 on 27 November 14 nmi (26 km; 16 mi) west-northwest of Fair Isle. The wreck was later sunk by an escort vessel. One person died, 33 of her crew survived. The tug HMS St. Mellons attempted to salvage her, however Gustaf E. Reuter eventually had to be sent to the bottom by HMS Kingston Beryl on 28 November. Following the sinking of Gustaf E. Reuter, U-48 sank the British freighter Brandon on 8 December off the southern coast of Ireland. The next day, she attacked the British tanker San Alberto. The ship was so badly damaged that she had to be sunk by HMS Mackay.[10] Finally on 15 December 1939 U-48 stopped the neutral Greek freighter Germaine which had been chartered by Ireland and was also neutral, to carry maize to Cork. Schultze maintained that she was going to England, so he sank her. U-48 returned to Kiel on 20 December 1939 after sinking a total of 25,618 tons and spent a total of 31 days at sea.

4th patrol (24 January – 26 February 1940)[edit]

After a break over the Christmas period, the boat put to sea again, sinking the British Blue Star Line liner SS Sultan Star in the Western Approaches, it was only carrying freight.[11] She laid a string of mines off St Abb's Head which failed to have any effect, but two neutral Dutch ships were added to her tally shortly afterwards, as well as a Finnish ship, all of them operating in the North Atlantic in cooperation with the Allied convoy system.

5th and 6th patrols (April 1940 and June 1940)[edit]

Her fifth patrol, in June 1940 was one of her most successful, making full use of the situation in Europe following the Fall of France. U-48 was commanded by Hans Rudolf Rösing, as Herbert Schultze was hospitalised with a kidney and stomach complaint.[12] She attacked three ships off the Donegal coast; Stancor carrying fish from Iceland, Eros carrying 200 tons of small arms from America and Frances Massey with iron ore. 34 sailors lost their lives on Frances Massey. The cargo on Eros was particularly important following the losses at Dunkirk. The badly damaged Eros was taken in tow by HMS Berkeley, assisted by HMS Bandit and Volunteer and headed to the Irish coast, where Muirchú and Fort Rannoch were waiting for them. The Eros was beached on Errarooey strand. While she was being repaired, Irish troops guarded the site.[13]

Germany learned that a troop convoy, including RMS Queen Mary and Mauretania were bringing 25,000 Australian soldiers to Britain. U-48 was ordered to Cape Finisterre where a U-boat 'wolfpack' was being assembled to intercept the convoy. However the U-boats attacked other ships in the vicinity, alerting the convoy to their presence, so they altered direction, avoiding the 'wolfpack'.[14] On 19 June 1940, Convoy HG-34 was attacked. U-48 sank SS Baron Loudoun (three died), SS British Monarch (all 40 on board died) and MV Tudor (one death). Convoy HX-49 dispersed; U-48 sank Moordrecht which had been in that convoy; 25 died. Ireland had chartered neutral Greek ships; U-48 sank Violando N. Goulandris (six died) while U-28 sank Adamandios Georgandis (one death). Ireland sought an explanation from Germany "... steamships, the entire cargoes of which comprised grain for exclusive consumption in Éire were sunk by unidentified submarines ..."[15]

U-48 was enjoying an extended patrol, thanks to the newly established refuelling facilities available at Trondheim in Norway. In all, she claimed eight ships from the convoys in the Eastern Atlantic on this cruise and bagged five more on her sixth patrol in August, which finished with her stationed at Lorient on the French Atlantic coast, greatly extending her raiding abilities.

7th and 8th patrols (August 1940 and September 1940)[edit]

In September, on her seventh patrol she shocked the world by sinking the SS City of Benares, one of eight ships in six days from Convoys SC-3 and OB-213. Benares was a refugee ship, carrying children from Britain to Canada to keep them safe from the 'Blitz' on Britain's cities. 258 people, including 77 children, died. One of U-48's crew, Corporal Solm, described the sinking after his capture, "“We knew there were kiddies on board before the tinfish were fired. We bagged a kiddie ship! Six thousand tons. We heard on the radio what was on board. No one survived.”[16] Among the other sinkings was the British frigate HMS Dundee. The U-boat's eighth patrol was also highly successful, sinking seven ships out of Atlantic convoys, including one from SC-7. The operating zone for both these patrols was far to the north of her previous areas, being south of Greenland.

9th, 10th, 11th and 12th patrols (October 1940, February 1941, March 1941 and June 1941)[edit]

On her ninth and tenth patrols, U-48 claimed two and five victims respectively, but she was clearly becoming obsolete in the face of improving technology on both sides, despite a winter refit. Her range and torpedo capacity were too small for the widening nature of the sea war, and she would be a risk to her crew and other U-boats if she continued much longer in the main battlefield of the North Atlantic. On her final patrol she sank five more ships, the boat was also boosted by the award of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross to Erich Zürn, the boat's executive officer, for his success and judgement during the ship's career.

Retirement and fate[edit]

U-48 returned to Kiel on 22 June 1941, where her crew disembarked and she was transferred to a training flotilla operating exclusively in the Baltic Sea. Unlike many of her contemporaries, U-48 never sailed on patrols against Soviet targets following Operation Barbarossa the following month. In 1943 she was deemed unfit even for this reduced service, being laid up at Neustadt in Holstein with only a skeleton crew performing minor maintenance. It was there that she remained for the next two years, until the maintenance crew, realising that the war was ending and the boat would be captured, scuttled her in the Bay of Lübeck on 3 May 1945, where she remains.

The sinking of City of Benares[edit]

In the late hours of the 17 September 1940, U-48, commanded by Kptlt. Heinrich Bleichrodt, put a single torpedo into the 11,000 ton liner SS City of Benares, flagship of Convoy OB-213, as she was silhouetted against the moonlight in mid-Atlantic. On board the liner were 90 children being evacuated to Canada under the Children's Overseas Reception Board's initiative.

The sinking ship took on an immediate list, thus preventing the launching of many of the life-rafts and trapping numerous crew and passengers below decks. As a result, many of the 400 people on board were unable to escape. As hundreds of survivors struggled in the water, the U-boat's powerful searchlight swept once over the chaotic scene, before she left the area. The survivors in the boats were not rescued for nearly 24 hours. In that time dozens of children and adults died from exposure or drowned, leaving only 148 survivors. One boat was not recovered for a further eight days. In total 258 people,[17] including 77 of the evacuees, died in the disaster, which effectively ended the overseas evacuation programme.[17]

The controversy of City of Benares disaster has been debated ever since. It has been suggested that had the British openly declared that the ship was carrying evacuees, then the Germans would have taken pains not to sink it, recognising the potential for a propaganda crisis, which indeed occurred. However, the ship was not only travelling unlit at night in an allied convoy, but it was also the flagship of Rear-Admiral Edmund Mackinnon, the convoy commander.[18] Other historians have argued that the Germans would have attacked any large liners at the time, no matter what cargo was being carried or who was on the passenger list.

German submarine U-48 (1939) is located in North Atlantic
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
German submarine U-48 (1939)
Locations of the 55 ships sunk by U-48 during her career


U-48 took part in two wolfpacks, namely:

Summary of raiding career[edit]

Date Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate Location Deaths
5 September 1939 Royal Sceptre  United Kingdom 4,853 Sunk 46°23′N 14°59′W / 46.383°N 14.983°W / 46.383; -14.983
8 September 1939 Winkleigh  United Kingdom 5,055 Sunk 48°06′N 18°12′W / 48.100°N 18.200°W / 48.100; -18.200
11 September 1939 Firby  Canada 4,869 Sunk 59°40′N 13°50′W / 59.667°N 13.833°W / 59.667; -13.833
12 October 1939 Emile Miguet  France 14,115 Sunk 50°15′N 14°50′W / 50.250°N 14.833°W / 50.250; -14.833
12 October 1939 Heronspool  United Kingdom 5,202 Sunk 50°13′N 14°48′W / 50.217°N 14.800°W / 50.217; -14.800
13 October 1939 Louisiane  France 6,903 Sunk 50°14′N 15°20′W / 50.233°N 15.333°W / 50.233; -15.333
14 October 1939 Sneaton  United Kingdom 3,677 Sunk 49°05′N 13°05′W / 49.083°N 13.083°W / 49.083; -13.083
17 October 1939 Clan Chisholm  United Kingdom 7,256 Sunk 44°57′N 13°40′W / 44.950°N 13.667°W / 44.950; -13.667
26 November 1939 Gustaf E. Reuter  Sweden 6,336 Sunk 59°38′N 02°03′W / 59.633°N 2.050°W / 59.633; -2.050
8 December 1939 Brandon  United Kingdom 6,668 Sunk 50°28′N 08°28′W / 50.467°N 8.467°W / 50.467; -8.467
9 December 1939 San Alberto  United Kingdom 7,397 Damaged, scuttled by HMS Mackay 49°20′N 09°45′W / 49.333°N 9.750°W / 49.333; -9.750
15 December 1939 Germaine  Greece 5,217 Sunk 51°00′N 12°18′W / 51.000°N 12.300°W / 51.000; -12.300
10 February 1940 Burgerdijk  Netherlands 6,853 Sunk 49°45′N 06°30′W / 49.750°N 6.500°W / 49.750; -6.500
14 February 1940 Sultan Star  United Kingdom 12,306 Sunk 48°54′N 10°03′W / 48.900°N 10.050°W / 48.900; -10.050
15 February 1940 Den Haag  Netherlands 8,971 Sunk 48°02′N 08°26′W / 48.033°N 8.433°W / 48.033; -8.433
17 February 1940 Wilja  Finland 3,392 Sunk 49°00′N 06°33′W / 49.000°N 6.550°W / 49.000; -6.550
6 June 1940 Stancor  United Kingdom 798 Sunk 58°48′N 08°45′W / 58.800°N 8.750°W / 58.800; -8.750
6 June 1940 Frances Massey  United Kingdom 4,212 Sunk 55°33′N 08°26′W / 55.550°N 8.433°W / 55.550; -8.433
7 June 1940 Eros  United Kingdom 5,888 Damaged 55°33′N 08°26′W / 55.550°N 8.433°W / 55.550; -8.433
11 June 1940 Violando N Goulandris  Greece 2,375 Sunk 44°04′N 12°30′W / 44.067°N 12.500°W / 44.067; -12.500
19 June 1940 Tudor  Norway 6,607 Sunk 45°10′N 11°50′W / 45.167°N 11.833°W / 45.167; -11.833
19 June 1940 Baron Loudoun  United Kingdom 3,164 Sunk 45°00′N 11°21′W / 45.000°N 11.350°W / 45.000; -11.350
19 June 1940 British Monarch  United Kingdom 5,661 Sunk 45°00′N 11°21′W / 45.000°N 11.350°W / 45.000; -11.350
20 June 1940 Moerdrecht  Netherlands 7,493 Sunk 43°34′N 14°20′W / 43.567°N 14.333°W / 43.567; -14.333
16 August 1940 Hedrun  Sweden 2,325 Sunk 57°10′N 16°37′W / 57.167°N 16.617°W / 57.167; -16.617
19 August 1940 Ville de Gand  Belgium 7,590 Sunk 55°28′N 15°10′W / 55.467°N 15.167°W / 55.467; -15.167
24 August 1940 La Brea  United Kingdom 6,666 Sunk 57°24′N 11°21′W / 57.400°N 11.350°W / 57.400; -11.350
25 August 1940 Empire Merlin  United Kingdom 5,763 Sunk 58°30′N 10°15′W / 58.500°N 10.250°W / 58.500; -10.250
25 August 1940 Athelcrest  United Kingdom 6,825 Sunk 58°24′N 11°25′W / 58.400°N 11.417°W / 58.400; -11.417
15 September 1940 Alexandros  Greece 4,343 Sunk 56°30′N 16°30′W / 56.500°N 16.500°W / 56.500; -16.500
15 September 1940 HMS Dundee  Royal Navy 1,060 Sunk 56°45′N 14°14′W / 56.750°N 14.233°W / 56.750; -14.233
15 September 1940 Empire Volunteer  United Kingdom 5,319 Sunk 56°43′N 15°17′W / 56.717°N 15.283°W / 56.717; -15.283
15 September 1940 Kenordoc  United Kingdom 1,780 Sunk
18 September 1940 City of Benares  United Kingdom 11,081 Sunk 56°43′N 21°15′W / 56.717°N 21.250°W / 56.717; -21.250
18 September 1940 Marina  United Kingdom 5,088 Sunk 56°46′N 21°15′W / 56.767°N 21.250°W / 56.767; -21.250
18 September 1940 Magdalena  United Kingdom 3,118 Sunk 57°20′N 20°16′W / 57.333°N 20.267°W / 57.333; -20.267
21 September 1940 Blairangus  United Kingdom 4,409 Sunk 55°18′N 22°21′W / 55.300°N 22.350°W / 55.300; -22.350
21 September 1940 Broompark  United Kingdom 5,136 Damaged 49°02′N 40°26′W / 49.033°N 40.433°W / 49.033; -40.433
11 October 1940 Brandanger  Norway 4,624 Sunk 57°10′N 17°42′W / 57.167°N 17.700°W / 57.167; -17.700
11 October 1940 Port Gisborne  United Kingdom 8,390 Sunk 56°38′N 16°40′W / 56.633°N 16.667°W / 56.633; -16.667
12 October 1940 Davanger  Norway 7,102 Sunk 57°00′N 19°10′W / 57.000°N 19.167°W / 57.000; -19.167
17 October 1940 Languedoc  United Kingdom 9,512 Sunk 59°14′N 17°51′W / 59.233°N 17.850°W / 59.233; -17.850
17 October 1940 Scoresby  United Kingdom 3,843 Sunk 59°14′N 17°51′W / 59.233°N 17.850°W / 59.233; -17.850
18 October 1940 Sandend  United Kingdom 3,612 Sunk 58°12′N 21°29′W / 58.200°N 21.483°W / 58.200; -21.483
20 October 1940 Shirak  United Kingdom 6,023 Damaged by U-47, Sunk by U-48 57°00′N 16°53′W / 57.000°N 16.883°W / 57.000; -16.883
1 February 1941 Nicolaos Angelos  Greece 4,351 Sunk 59°00′N 17°00′W / 59.000°N 17.000°W / 59.000; -17.000
24 February 1941 Nailsea Lass  United Kingdom 4,289 Sunk 50°06′N 10°23′W / 50.100°N 10.383°W / 50.100; -10.383
29 March 1941 Germanic  United Kingdom 5,352 Sunk 61°18′N 22°05′W / 61.300°N 22.083°W / 61.300; -22.083
29 March 1941 Limbourg  Belgium 2,483 Sunk 61°18′N 22°05′W / 61.300°N 22.083°W / 61.300; -22.083
29 March 1941 Eastlea  United Kingdom 4,267 Sunk
29 March 1941 Hylton  United Kingdom 5,197 Sunk 60°20′N 18°10′W / 60.333°N 18.167°W / 60.333; -18.167
2 April 1941 Beaverdale  United Kingdom 9,957 Sunk 60°50′N 29°19′W / 60.833°N 29.317°W / 60.833; -29.317
3 June 1941 Inversuir  United Kingdom 9,456 Damaged by U-48, sunk by U-75 48°30′N 28°30′W / 48.500°N 28.500°W / 48.500; -28.500
5 June 1941 Wellfield  United Kingdom 6,054 Sunk 48°34′N 31°34′W / 48.567°N 31.567°W / 48.567; -31.567
6 June 1941 Tregathen  United Kingdom 5,201 Sunk 46°17′N 36°20′W / 46.283°N 36.333°W / 46.283; -36.333
8 June 1941 Pendrecht  Netherlands 10,746 Sunk 45°18′N 36°40′W / 45.300°N 36.667°W / 45.300; -36.667
12 June 1941 Empire Dew  United Kingdom 7,005 Sunk 51°09′N 30°16′W / 51.150°N 30.267°W / 51.150; -30.267

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIB boat U-48". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "U-48 Type VIIB". Retrieved 31 August 2010. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-48 (First patrol)". U-boat patrols - Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Royal Sceptre (British Steam merchant)". Allied Ships hit by U-boats. Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "Korvettenkapitän Herbert Schultze". German U-boat Commanders of WWII - Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  6. ^ Tildesley, Kate. "Voices from the Battle of the Atlantic". The Second World War Experience Centre. Retrieved 25 April 2010. 
  7. ^ Blair, page 80
  8. ^ Blair, page 85
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol info for U-48 (Second patrol)". U-boat patrols - Retrieved 3 September 2010. 
  10. ^ Blair, page 120
  11. ^ "Blue Star's S.S. "Sultan Star"". Blue Star Ships. Blue Star on the Web. 3 February 2012. 
  12. ^ Blair, page 161
  13. ^ Kennedy, Michael (2008). "G2, the Coastwatching Service and the Battle of the Atlantic" (PDF). Maritime Institute of Ireland. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  14. ^ Blair, page 169
  15. ^ Duggan page 111
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "City of Benares (Steam passenger ship)". Allied Ships hit by U-boats - Retrieved 31 August 2010. 
  18. ^ Mackinnon did not evacuate the sinking ship, he drowned on board.


External links[edit]

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIB boat U-48". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 8 December 2014. 
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 48". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - (in German). Retrieved 1 February 2015. 

Coordinates: 54°07′N 10°50′E / 54.117°N 10.833°E / 54.117; 10.833