German submarine U-511
U-505, a typical Type IXC boat
|Ordered:||20 October 1939|
|Builder:||Deutsche Werft, Hamburg|
|Laid down:||21 February 1941|
|Launched:||22 September 1941|
|Commissioned:||8 December 1941|
|Fate:||Sold to Japan, 16 September 1943|
|Empire of Japan|
|Acquired:||16 September 1943|
|Class and type:||Type IXC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.70 m (15 ft 5 in)|
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 44 enlisted|
|Service record (Germany)|
German submarine U-511 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 21 February 1941 at the Deutsche Werft yard in Hamburg as yard number 307, launched on 22 September 1941 and commissioned on 8 December 1941 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Friedrich Steinhoff.
After training with the 4th U-boat Flotilla, from May 1942, U-511 was used for testing the possibility of launching Wurfkörper 42 30 cm (12 in) artillery rockets from U-boats. In cooperation with the commanding officer's brother Ernst Steinhoff of the Peenemünde Army Research Center, a rack of six rockets were mounted on deck, and were successfully launched while on the surface and while submerged up to a depth of 12 metres (39 ft). However, the rockets were not particularly accurate and the racks on the deck had a negative effect on the U-boat's underwater handling and performance, so the project was abandoned.
The U-boat was attached to the 10th U-boat Flotilla for front-line service on 1 September 1943. In that role she carried out four war patrols, two commanded by Kptlt. Steinhoff, and two by Kptlt. Fritz Schneewind, sinking five ships totalling 41,373 gross register tons (GRT) and damaging one of 8,773 GRT.
German Type IXC submarines were slightly larger than the original Type IXBs. U-511 had a displacement of 1,120 tonnes (1,100 long tons) when at the surface and 1,232 tonnes (1,213 long tons) while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.76 m (22 ft 2 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 shaft horsepower (1,010 PS; 750 kW) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h; 21.1 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h; 8.4 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 63 nautical miles (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 13,450 nautical miles (24,910 km; 15,480 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-511 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.
On 16 July 1942 U-511 sailed from Kiel and across the Atlantic to the Caribbean Sea.
At 06:29 on 27 August, U-511 fired a spread of four torpedoes at Convoy TAW-15, en route from Trinidad to Key West, about 120 nautical miles (220 km; 140 mi) south-south-east of Guantánamo Bay in Cuba, sinking two ships and damaging another. The 13,031 ton British tanker San Fabian, loaded with 18,000 tons of fuel oil, was hit and sunk. The master, 31 crewmen and one gunner were picked up by the destroyer USS Lea and the patrol craft PC-38, 23 crew members and three gunners were lost. The 8,968 ton Dutch tanker Rotterdam, carrying 11,364 tons of gasoline was struck and immediately began to settle by the stern. The 37 survivors of her crew of 47 abandoned the ship in lifeboats and were picked up by USS SC-522. The 8,773 ton American tanker Esso Aruba, loaded with 104,170 barrels (16,562 m3) of diesel fuel and serving as the flagship of the convoy commodore, was hit by a single torpedo on the port side which badly damaged the ship, but left the engines and steering gear still operating. This allowed the ship, in danger of breaking in two, to proceed under her own power to Guantánamo Bay, arriving the next day. The ship was beached and her cargo unloaded. After temporary repairs the ship proceeded to Galveston, Texas, and was returned to service in February 1943.
U-511 sailed from Lorient on 24 October 1942, and patrolled the waters off the coast of north-west Africa before returning to base after 36 days, on 28 November, having had no successes.
U-511, now under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Fritz Schneewind, left Lorient once more on 31 December 1942 to patrol the waters between Spain, the Canary Islands and the Azores. At 21:42 on 9 January 1943 she had her only success, sinking the 5,004 ton British merchant ship William Wilberforce, loaded with 5,054 tons of West African produce, including palm kernels, palm oil and rubber en route from Lagos to Liverpool. The unescorted ship was torpedoed west of the Canary Islands, with the loss of three crewmen. The master, 41 crewmen, six gunners and 12 passengers were later picked up by the Spanish merchant ship Monte Arnabal.
U-511 returned to Lorient on 8 March after 68 days at sea.
U-511's final patrol took her all the way to Japan, as part of the ongoing programme of technological exchange. She had aboard additional personnel, including the German ambassador to Tokyo, the Japanese Naval Attaché in Berlin and German scientists and engineers. Leaving Lorient on 10 May 1943 under the command of the now Kapitänleutnant Fritz Schneewind, she sailed through the Atlantic and around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean where she made two kills.
The first attack was made at 09:42 on 27 June, when she hit the unescorted 7,194 ton American Liberty ship Sebastian Cermeno with two torpedoes, disabling the engines and killing an officer and two men. The survivors abandoned ship in five lifeboats. Ten minutes after being hit, the ship sank. The U-boat surfaced and questioned the survivors before leaving. The lifeboats lost contact with each other, but all were eventually rescued by Allied ships, apart from one boat which made its own way to Madagascar. Her second success came on 9 July when she torpedoed the 7,176 ton American Liberty ship Samuel Heintzelman, loaded with 5,644 tons of ammunition and general cargo. The U-boat dived after firing and did not directly observe the results, but heard underwater explosions. On surfacing they saw no trace of the ship, only floating debris. There were no survivors from the 75 men on board. The ship was reported missing, and was at first believed to have been sunk by a Japanese surface raider. On 30 September, wreckage from the ship was discovered off the Maldives.
Summary of raiding history
|27 August 1942||Esso Aruba||United States||8,773||Damaged|
|27 August 1942||Rotterdam||Netherlands||8,968||Sunk|
|27 August 1942||San Fabian||United Kingdom||13,031||Sunk|
|17 January 1943||William Wilberforce||United Kingdom||5,004||Sunk|
|27 June 1943||Sebastin Cermeno||United States||7,194||Sunk|
|9 July 1943||Samuel Heintzelman||United States||7,176||Sunk|
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- Gröner 1991, p. 68.
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- Helgason, Guðmundur. "William Wilberforce (Motor merchant)". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Patrol of U-boat U-511 from 10 May 1943 to 7 Aug 1943". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Sebastian Cermeno (Steam merchant)". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Samuel Heintzelman (Steam merchant)". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXC boat U-511". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 511". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- Submarine RO-500: Tabular Record of Movement
- Japanese–German pre–World War II industrial co-operation