German submarine U-51 (1938)
U-52, a typical Type VIIB boat
|Ordered:||21 November 1936|
|Builder:||Germaniawerft AG, Kiel|
|Laid down:||26 February 1936|
|Launched:||11 June 1938|
|Commissioned:||6 August 1938|
|Fate:||Sunk in the Bay of Biscay in August 1940 by a British submarine|
|Class and type:||Type VIIB U-boat|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
German submarine U-51 was a Type VIIB U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine that operated during World War II. She was ordered in November 1936 and laid down in February 1937 in Kiel. She was launched in August 1939 and commissioned in November.
During her service in the Kriegsmarine, U-51 conducted four war patrols and sank five enemy vessels for a loss of 26,296 gross register tons (GRT) and one auxiliary warship of 4,724 GRT. She was a member of one wolfpack.
German Type VIIB submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIA submarines. U-51 had a displacement of 753 tonnes (741 long tons) when at the surface and 857 tonnes (843 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 66.50 m (218 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 48.80 m (160 ft 1 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.50 m (31 ft 2 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 6 V 40/46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two BBC GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.9 knots (33.2 km/h; 20.6 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 90 nautical miles (170 km; 100 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,700 nautical miles (16,100 km; 10,000 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-51 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and one 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
U-51 was ordered by the Kriegsmarine on 21 November 1936 (as part of Plan Z and in violation of the Treaty of Versailles). She was laid down on 15 September 1938 by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft AG, in Kiel as yard number 586. U-51 was launched on 11 June 1938 and commissioned on 6 August of that same year under the command of Kapitänleutnant (Kptlt.) Ernst-Günther Heinicke.
After being commissioned and deployed, U-51 was stationed in the German port of Kiel. This city was to be her home for the rest of her brief career.
During her service with the Kriegsmarine, she took part in four combat patrols. She joined the 7th U-boat Flotilla on 6 August 1938. She was to remain a part of this flotilla until her loss.
The first of U-51's four patrols began on 17 January 1940 when she left Kiel and crossed the North Sea. She negotiated the 'gap' between the Orkney and Shetland Islands and claimed her first success 45 nautical miles (83 km; 52 mi) west of Rockall when she sank the Gothia on 22 January. Moving south down the west coast of Ireland, she encountered the Eika west of the Scilly Isles on the 29th and sent her to the bottom. After sailing between the Scottish islands once more, but in the opposite direction, the boat docked at Wilhelmshaven on 8 February after 23 days at sea.
The main incident of note on the submarine's second sortie was when the French submarine Orphée launched two torpedoes at her in the North Sea on 21 April 1940. They missed. The rest of the patrol was carried out parallel to the Norwegian coast.
For her third foray, the boat entered the Atlantic after passing between the Faroe and Shetland Islands. Having left Kiel on 6 June 1940, she sank the Saranc on the 26th about 270 nautical miles (500 km; 310 mi) west southwest of Lands End. U-51 went on to sink the Q-ship HMS Edgehill on the 29th. This ship, used as a decoy, was formidably armed with nine 4-inch guns and four torpedo tubes. Her ballast was given extra buoyancy which meant three 'eels' (U-boat slang for torpedoes), were needed to dispose of the vessel, which still took over an hour to sink.
The boat departed Kiel on 9 August 1940. She sank the Sylviafield about 190 nautical miles (350 km; 220 mi) west northwest of Rockall. There were 36 survivors, of which 20 were picked up by the Belgian trawler Rubens and landed at Fleetwood on the English west coast. The remainder were recovered by another trawler which was under British Admiralty control and named HMS Newland. Her human cargo was discharged at Tobermory, Isle of Mull.
U-51 took part in one wolfpack, namely,
- Prien (12–17 June 1940)
Summary of raiding history
During her service, U-51 sank five commercial ships for a loss of 26,296 GRT and one auxiliary warship of 4,724 GRT.
|22 January 1940||Gothia||Sweden||1,654||Sunk|
|29 January 1940||Eika||Norway||1,503||Sunk|
|25 June 1940||Saranac||United Kingdom||12,049||Sunk|
|25 June 1940||Windsorwood||United Kingdom||5,395||Sunk|
|29 June 1940||HMS Edgehill||Royal Navy||4,724||Sunk|
|15 August 1940||Sylviafield||United Kingdom||5,709||Sunk|
The fourth U-boat in the film The Navy Comes Through has the number U-51.
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- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.