German submarine U-853
U-853 and crew
|Ordered:||5 June 1941|
|Builder:||DeSchiMAG AG Weser, Bremen|
|Laid down:||21 August 1942|
|Launched:||11 March 1943|
|Commissioned:||25 June 1943|
|Fate:||Sunk, 6 May 1945|
|Class and type:||Type IXC/40 submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.67 m (15 ft 4 in)|
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 44 enlisted|
German submarine U-853 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. Her keel was laid down on 21 August 1942 by DeSchiMAG AG Weser of Bremen. She was commissioned on 25 June 1943 with Kapitänleutnant Helmut Sommer in command. U-853 saw action during the Battle of the Atlantic in World War II. She conducted three patrols, sinking two ships totalling 5,783 tons.
On her final patrol, U-853 was sent to harass United States coastal shipping. She destroyed USS Eagle Boat 56 near Portland, Maine. Just days before Germany's surrender, U-853 torpedoed and sank the collier Black Point during the Battle of Point Judith. American warships quickly found U-853 and sank her 7 nmi (13 km; 8.1 mi) east of Block Island, Rhode Island, resulting in the loss of her entire crew.
U-853 is a popular deep sea diving site. She rests in 121 feet (37 m) of water. Holes in the hull permit access to the interior of the submarine, though it is a war grave with most of the 55 crew bodies remaining inside.
German Type IXC/40 submarines were slightly larger than the original Type IXCs. U-853 had a displacement of 1,144 tonnes (1,126 long tons) when at the surface and 1,257 tonnes (1,237 long tons) while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.76 m (251 ft 10 in), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.86 m (22 ft 6 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.67 m (15 ft 4 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 shaft horsepower (1,010 PS; 750 kW) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.3 knots (33.9 km/h; 21.1 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.3 knots (13.5 km/h; 8.4 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 63 nautical miles (117 km; 72 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 13,850 nautical miles (25,650 km; 15,940 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-853 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.
On her first patrol from May to June 1944, U-853 was assigned to weather-watching duty under the command of Kapitänleutnant Helmut Sommer. This was its first war patrol. German intelligence believed that weather conditions in the Atlantic could be used to help predict the timing of an Allied invasion of Europe. On 25 May 1944 U-853 spotted RMS Queen Mary, loaded with American troops and supplies. The U-boat submerged to attack, but was outrun by the much larger and faster ship. As she surfaced in Queen Mary's wake U-853 was attacked by Fairey Swordfish aircraft from British merchant aircraft carriers MV Ancylus and MV Empire MacKendrick. The U-boat took no significant damage and returned fire, hitting all three aircraft. The planes were able to return to their carrier, but after recovery one was deemed a total loss and jettisoned.
The escort carrier USS Croatan (CVE-14) had been hunting weather boats for nearly a month and had already sunk U-488 and U-490. Intercepted radio transmissions led Croatan and six destroyers to search for U-853. The U-853 proved so elusive that Croatan's crew nicknamed their prey "Moby Dick." After ten days of hunting, on 17 June Huff-Duff (HF/DF, high frequency direction finding) picked up a weather report from U-853 only 30 nautical miles (56 km; 35 mi) away. Within minutes two FM-1 Wildcat fighters strafed the submarine, killing 2 men and wounding 12 others. Sommer suffered 28 shrapnel and bullet wounds yet still managed to give the order to submerge. In all likelihood Sommer saved his submarine from being destroyed by allied bombers.
Three weeks of pursuit from 25 May until 17 June placed an enormous strain on U-853's crew. Twenty-three-year-old Oberleutnant zur See Helmut Frömsdorf took command of the boat on 18 June (his first command) and returned to Lorient. Sommer and a large number of the crew was declared unfit for duty. On 10 July Sommer was formally relieved by Oberleutnant zur See Otto Wermuth.
The boat remained in port until 27 August. Decorated veteran Korvettenkapitän Günter Kuhnke, Commander of the 10th U-boat Flotilla, took command for her second patrol. U-853 operated this time in the Western Approaches off the British Isles, but in a period of seven weeks scored no successes. On completion she did not return to Lorient, but continued to Flensburg, arriving 14 October. Kuhnke assumed command of the 33rd U-boat Flotilla upon arriving at Flensburg. He relinquished command of U-853 back to Frömsdorf, who took the U-boat on her third and final patrol. Before departure U-853 was fitted with a Schnorchel, a retractable air intake and exhaust that allowed the ship to remain submerged while running her diesel engines. The Schnorchel reduced the need to spend dangerous periods on the surface recharging batteries.
On 23 February 1945 Germany sent U-853 on her third war patrol to harass US coastal shipping. Under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Helmut Frömsdorf, U-853 did not sink any targets during the first weeks of her patrol. Her crossing of the Atlantic was slow because she used her Schnorchel to remain submerged to avoid being spotted by Allied aircraft. On 1 April 1945 U-853 was ordered to the Gulf of Maine.
On 23 April she fatally torpedoed USS Eagle Boat 56 near Portland, Maine. Eagle Boat 56, a World War I-era patrol boat, was towing targets for a United States Navy dive-bomber training exercise 3 nautical miles (5.6 km; 3.5 mi) off Cape Elizabeth when she exploded amidships and sank. Only 13 of the 67 crew survived. That same day USS Selfridge (DD-357) dropped nine depth charges on a suspected submarine. The next day USS Muskegon made sonar contact and attacked U-853, but failed to destroy her.
Although several survivors claimed to have seen a submarine sail with yellow and red insignia, a Navy inquiry attributed the sinking to a boiler explosion. The Navy reversed its findings in 2001 to acknowledge that the sinking was due to hostile fire and awarded Purple Hearts to the survivors and next-of-kin of the deceased.
Battle of Point Judith
On 5 May 1945, President (Reichspräsident) of Nazi Germany Karl Dönitz ordered all U-boats to cease offensive operations and return to their bases. U-853 was lying in wait off Point Judith, Rhode Island at the time. According to the US Coast Guard, U-853 did not receive that order, or less likely, ignored it. Soon after, her torpedo blew off the stern of SS Black Point, a 368-foot (112 m) collier underway from New York to Boston. Within 15 minutes Black Point had sunk in 100 feet (30 m) of water less than 4 nautical miles (7.4 km; 4.6 mi) south of Point Judith. She was the last US-flagged merchant ship lost in World War II. Twelve men died, while 34 crew members were rescued. One of the rescuing ships, Yugoslav freighter SS Kamen, sent a report of the torpedoing to authorities. The US Navy organized a "hunter-killer" group that included four American warships: Ericsson (DD-440), Amick (DE-168), Atherton (DE-169), and Moberly (PF-63).
The group discovered U-853 bottomed in 18 fathoms (108 ft; 33 m), and dropped depth charges and hedgehogs during a 16-hour attack. At first the U-boat attempted to flee, and then tried to hide by lying still. Both times it was found by sonar. The morning of 6 May 1945 two K-Class blimps from Lakehurst, New Jersey, K-16 and K-58, joined the attack, locating oil slicks and marking suspected locations with smoke and dye markers. K-16 also attacked with 7.2-inch rocket bombs. Numerous depth charge and hedgehog attacks from Atherton and Moberly resulted in planking, life rafts, a chart tabletop, clothing, and an officer's cap floating to the surface. With the loss of all 55 officers and men, U-853 was one of the last U-boats sunk during World War II. and, with U-881, the last to be sunk in US waters. Atherton and Moberly received credit for the kill.
The body of one of U-853's crewmembers was recovered in 1960 and was interred in the Island Cemetery Annex on Van Zandt Avenue in Newport, Rhode Island. The submarine's two propellers were on display for many years at the Inn at Castle Hill in Newport and are now in the custody of the United States Naval War College Museum at the Newport Naval Station.
The USS Atherton was transferred to Japan and served as part of the Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force until 1975 when she was returned to the United States. She was given to the Philippines in 1978 and served with the Philippine Navy as recently as 2016. Interest has been expressed in returning Atherton to the United States so she can be restored to her World War II appearance and be opened to the public.
U-853 lies 7 nautical miles (13 km; 8.1 mi) east of Block Island in 130 feet (40 m) of water. The US Coast Guard pinpoints the location of the wreck at . U-853 sits upright with her periscope rising to a depth of 100 feet (30 m). Most of the 55 crew member bodies remain within the hull, which is a war grave. It is one of the more popular dive sites in Southern New England. The hull has depth charge blast holes: one forward of the conning tower at the radio room and another in the starboard side of the engine room. Entering the wreck is dangerous due to debris, sharp metal edges, and confined spaces.
On 6 and 7 May 1945, Navy divers attempted to enter the wreck to recover the captain's safe and the papers within, but failed. Recreational divers first visited the site in 1953. In 1960 a recreational diver brought up a body from the wreck. This provoked former navy admirals and clergy to petition the US government for restrictions on disturbing the dead. The German crewman was buried with full military honors in Newport, Rhode Island. At least two recreational divers have died from exploring the wreckage. Renowned deep sea diver Stephen Hardick perished in 2005 while filming the U-boat. He surfaced unconscious and could not be revived. Hardick, age 60, died as the result of saltwater drowning associated with poor health according to the Rhode Island Medical Examiner's office.
Local diver Bill Palmer has retrieved numerous items from the wreck. Other notable divers include Carl Whitaker, Mike Gromotsky, Doug Stanton, and William Hanson. These four men have individually logged several hundreds of dives on the 853.
Summary of raiding history
|Date||Ship Name||Nationality||Tonnage[Note 1]||Fate|
|23 April 1945||USS Eagle Boat 56||United States Navy||430||Sunk|
|5 May 1945||Black Point||United States||5,353||Sunk|
U-853 was mounted with a single 3.7 cm Flakzwilling M43U gun on the LM 42U mount. The LM 42U mount was the most common mount used with the 3.7 cm Flak M42U. The 3.7 cm Flak M42U was the marine version of the 3.7 cm Flak used by the Kriegsmarine on Type VII and Type IX U-boats. U-853 was mounted with two 2cm Flak C38 in a M 43U Zwilling mount with short folding shield on the upper Wintergarten. The M 43U mount was used on a number of U-boats (U-190, U-249, U-250, U-278, U-337, U-475, U-1058, U-1109, U-1023, U-1105, U-1165 and U-1306).
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXC/40 boat U-853". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "War Patrols by German U-boat U-853". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- Gröner 1991, p. 68.
- Puleo, Stephen (2005). Due to Enemy Action: The True World War II Story of the USS Eagle 56. Globe Pequot. pp. 15–17. ISBN 1-59228-739-5.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Helmut Sommer". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- Puleo, Stephen (2005). Due to Enemy Action: The True World War II Story of the USS Eagle 56. Globe Pequot. p. 16. ISBN 1-59228-739-5.
- Underwood, Lamar (2005). The Greatest Submarine Stories Ever Told. Globe Pequot. pp. 184–185. ISBN 1-59228-733-6.
- Drumm, Russell (2001). The Barque of Saviors. Houghton Mifflin Books. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-98367-3.
- Puleo, Stephen (2005). Due to Enemy Action: The True World War II Story of the USS Eagle 56. Globe Pequot. p. 17. ISBN 1-59228-739-5.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Helmut Frömsdorf". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Günther Kuhnke". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "2nd patrol". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 23 September 2009.
- Peter Venoutsos. "U-853 Closes a Chapter of World War II". www.nedivenews.com. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "U-853". www.uscg.mil. Retrieved 29 September 2008.
- Puleo, Stephen (2005). Due to Enemy Action: The True World War II Story of the USS Eagle 56. Globe Pequot. p. 5. ISBN 1-59228-739-5.
- "U-853". www.nedivenews.com. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "U-853". uscg.mil. Retrieved 23 July 2007. "U-853". www.uscg.mil. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Robert M. Downie (1998). Block Island—The Sea. Book Nook Press. pp. 197–198.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Dive into History US Waters". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- Robert M. Downie (1998). Block Island—The Sea. Book Nook Press. p. 194.
- "Probe into scuba instructor death could take two months". cdnn.info. Retrieved 23 July 2007.
- Monroe, Luther (31 August 2005). "Poor health led to scuba instructor's death". Cyber Diver News Netwoek. Archived from the original on 27 February 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Klepper, David (4 November 2013). "U-boat wreck off R.R coast a reminder of war and it's cost". Boston Globe. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-853". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 13 February 2014.
- Base on war-time photographs.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- US Coast Guard history of U-853
- The Battle of Point Judith – A detailed and well referenced account of the battle.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type IXC/40 boat U-853". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
- USS Moberly's crew paints a U-boat on their stack after sinking U-853
- "Crew list of U-853". uboat.net.