German submarine U-94 (1940)

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Bundesarchiv Bild 101II-MW-3491-06, St. Nazaire, Uboot U 94, Karl Dönitz.jpg
Chief of the German U-boat arm Karl Dönitz observing the arrival of U-94 at St. Nazaire in June 1941
History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-94
Ordered: 30 May 1938
Builder: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Yard number: 599
Laid down: 9 September 1939
Launched: 12 June 1940
Commissioned: 28 August 1940
Fate: Sunk 28 August 1942 by a US aircraft and a Canadian warship
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement:
  • 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Range:
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth:
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Armament:
Service record
Commanders:
Operations:
  • Ten
  • 1st patrol: 20 November – 31 December 1940
  • 2nd patrol: 9 January – 19 February 1941
  • 3rd patrol: 29 March – 18 April 1941
  • 4th patrol: 29 April – 4 June 1941
  • 5th patrol: 12 July – 16 August 1941
  • 6th patrol: 2 September – 15 October 1941
  • 7th patrol: 12–30 January 1942
  • 8th patrol: 12 February – 2 April 1942
  • 9th patrol: 4 May – 23 June 1942
  • 10th patrol: 3–28 August 1942
Victories:
  • 26 ships sunk; 141,852 GRT;
  • one ship damaged - 8,022 GRT

German submarine U-94 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down on 9 September 1939 at the F. Krupp Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 599, launched on 12 June 1940 and commissioned on 10 August 1940 under Kapitänleutnant Herbert Kuppisch.

She sank 26 ships of 141,852 GRT in ten patrols and was a member of six wolfpacks but was herself sunk by a US aircraft and a Canadian warship in August 1942.

Design[edit]

German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-94 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[1] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[1]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[1] When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-94 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and a 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[1]

Service history[edit]

1st patrol[edit]

The boat left Kiel on 20 November 1940, heading for Lorient in France which she reached, via the North Sea on 31 December.

On the way, she sank Stirlingshire on 2 December, 280 nautical miles (520 km; 320 mi) northwest of the Bloody Foreland, (a northwesterly point of the Irish mainland).[2]

She also sent Wilhelmina and Empire Statesman to the bottom on the 2nd and the 11th respectively.

After that, the boat headed for mid-ocean before docking at her French Atlantic base.

2nd and 3rd patrols[edit]

U-94 returned to the Atlantic west of Ireland and Scotland for her second patrol. She sank three more ships; Florian on 20 January 1941, West Wales on the 29th and Rushpool on the 30th.

For her third sortie, the boat moved into the waters west of Iceland. She sank Harbledown on 4 April 1941 and Lincoln Ellsworth on the 6th. The latter ship was destroyed by a combination of torpedo and fire from the deck gun.

4th and 5th patrols[edit]

U-94 was attacked by the escorts of convoy OB 318 on 7 May 1941. Some 98 depth charges over four hours were dropped. The boat persisted with her attack, however, sinking Eastern Star and Ixion.

Two more merchantmen met their end on the 20th: Norman Monarch and John P. Pedersen.

Patrol number five was carried out west of the Canary Islands; it was relatively uneventful.

6th patrol[edit]

Having left St. Nazaire on 2 September 1941, U-94 operated southeast of Cape Farewell (Greenland). She sank Newbury, Pegasus and Empire Eland, all on the 15th. On 1 October, she fired five torpedoes at San Florentino. Three of them struck home; the ship broke in two after the third impact. The bow section remained afloat and was engaged by the U-boat's deck gun, it was eventually finished off by HMCS Alberni.

The boat returned to Kiel on 15 October.

7th patrol[edit]

U-94 departed Kiel on 12 January 1942; she negotiated the gap between the Faroe and Shetland Islands, docking once more at St. Nazaire on the 30th.

8th patrol[edit]

The U-boat continued her successes on the western side of the Atlantic. She sank the Empire Hail east of St. Johns, Newfoundland on 24 February 1942. Following the coast-line to the south, her next victim was Cayrú, about 130 nautical miles (240 km; 150 mi) from New York on 9 March. She also sank Hvoslef two miles east of Fenwick Island, off Delaware Bay on the 11th.[3]

9th patrol[edit]

U-94 left St. Nazaire on 4 May 1942 for what would be her top-scoring patrol, (it was to be carried out once more south of Greenland). Moving into this area, a steady stream of sinkings resulted; the Cocle on 12 May, Batna and Tolken, both on the 13th - a sailing ship, Maria da Glória on 5 June; Ramsay and Empire Clough on the 10th. Her last kill was Pontypridd, on the following day.

10th patrol and loss[edit]

The boat left St. Nazaire for the last time for the Caribbean on 3 August 1942. Off Haiti on the 28th, she was sunk by depth charges dropped by a US PBY Catalina from VP-92 and ramming by the Canadian corvette HMCS Oakville.

Nineteen men died with the U-boat; there were twenty-six survivors.

Wolfpacks[edit]

U-94 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.

  • West (8–29 May 1941)
  • Süd (22 July – 5 August 1941)
  • Seewolf (5–15 September 1941)
  • Brandenburg (15–29 September 1941)
  • Robbe (17–24 January 1942)
  • Hecht (8 May – 16 June 1942)

Summary of raiding history[edit]

Date Ship Nationality Tonnage Fate[4]
2 December 1940 Stirlingshire  United Kingdom 6,022 Sunk
2 December 1940 Wilhelmina  United Kingdom 6,725 Sunk
11 December 1940 Empire Statesman  United Kingdom 5,306 Sunk
20 January 1941 Florian  United Kingdom 3,174 Sunk
29 January 1941 West Wales  United Kingdom 4,353 Sunk
30 January 1941 Rushpool  United Kingdom 5,125 Sunk
4 April 1941 Harbledown  United Kingdom 5,414 Sunk
6 April 1941 Lincoln Ellsworth  Norway 5,580 Sunk
7 May 1941 Ixon  United Kingdom 10,263 Sunk
7 May 1941 Eastern Star  Norway 5,658 Sunk
20 May 1941 John P. Pedersen  Norway 6,128 Sunk
20 May 1941 Norman Monarch  United Kingdom 4,718 Sunk
15 September 1941 Newbury  United Kingdom 5,102 Sunk
15 September 1941 Pegasus  Greece 5,762 Sunk
15 September 1941 Empire Eland  United Kingdom 5,613 Sunk
1 October 1941 San Florentino  United Kingdom 12,842 Sunk
24 February 1942 Empire Hail  United Kingdom 7,005 Sunk
9 March 1942 Cayrǘ  Brazil 5,152 Sunk
11 March 1942 Hvoslef  Norway 1,630 Sunk
25 March 1942 Imperial Transport  United Kingdom 8,022 Damaged
12 May 1942 Cocle  Panama 5,630 Sunk
13 May 1942 Tolken  Sweden 4,471 Sunk
13 May 1942 Batna  United Kingdom 4,399 Sunk
5 June 1942 Maria da Glória *  Portugal 320 Sunk
10 June 1942 Ramsay  United Kingdom 4,855 Sunk
10 June 1942 Empire Clough  United Kingdom 6,147 Sunk
11 June 1942 Pontypridd  United Kingdom 4,458 Sunk

* Sailing vessel

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 43-46.
  2. ^ The Times Atlas of the World, 1995, p. 9
  3. ^ The Times Atlas of the World, 1995, p. 65
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-94". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bishop, C (2006). Kriegsmarine U-Boats, 1939–45. Amber Books. 
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6. 
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs - The U-boats at War. Cassell Military Classics. pp. 66, 67, 70, 71. ISBN 0-304-35203-9. 
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4. 
  • Miller, David (2000). U-Boats: the Illustrated History of the Raiders of the Deep. Washington: Brassey’s Inc. 
  • The Times Atlas of the World (Third, revised ed.). 1995. ISBN 0-7230-0809-4. 

External links[edit]

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-94". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 94". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014. 

Coordinates: 17°40′N 74°30′W / 17.667°N 74.500°W / 17.667; -74.500