German submarine U-94 (1940)
|Ordered:||30 May 1938|
|Laid down:||9 September 1939|
|Launched:||12 June 1940|
|Commissioned:||28 August 1940|
|Fate:||Sunk 28 August 1942 by a US aircraft and a Canadian warship|
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draught:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Complement:||4 officers, 40–56 enlisted|
German submarine U-94 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down on 9 September 1939 at the F. Krupp Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 599, launched on 12 June 1940 and commissioned on 10 August 1940 under Kapitänleutnant Herbert Kuppisch.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-94 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-94 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
She also sent Wilhelmina and Empire Statesman to the bottom on the 2nd and the 11th respectively.
After that, the boat headed for mid-ocean before docking at her French Atlantic base.
2nd and 3rd patrols
U-94 returned to the Atlantic west of Ireland and Scotland for her second patrol. She sank three more ships; Florian on 20 January 1941, West Wales on the 29th and Rushpool on the 30th.
For her third sortie, the boat moved into the waters west of Iceland. She sank Harbledown on 4 April 1941 and Lincoln Ellsworth on the 6th. The latter ship was destroyed by a combination of torpedo and fire from the deck gun.
4th and 5th patrols
Two more merchantmen met their end on the 20th: Norman Monarch and John P. Pedersen.
Patrol number five was carried out west of the Canary Islands; it was relatively uneventful.
Having left St. Nazaire on 2 September 1941, U-94 operated southeast of Cape Farewell (Greenland). She sank Newbury, Pegasus and Empire Eland, all on the 15th. On 1 October, she fired five torpedoes at San Florentino. Three of them struck home; the ship broke in two after the third impact. The bow section remained afloat and was engaged by the U-boat's deck gun, it was eventually finished off by HMCS Alberni.
The boat returned to Kiel on 15 October.
The U-boat continued her successes on the western side of the Atlantic. She sank the Empire Hail east of St. Johns, Newfoundland on 24 February 1942. Following the coast-line to the south, her next victim was Cayrú, about 130 nautical miles (240 km; 150 mi) from New York on 9 March. She also sank Hvoslef two miles east of Fenwick Island, off Delaware Bay on the 11th.
U-94 left St. Nazaire on 4 May 1942 for what would be her top-scoring patrol, (it was to be carried out once more south of Greenland). Moving into this area, a steady stream of sinkings resulted; the Cocle on 12 May, Batna and Tolken, both on the 13th - a sailing ship, Maria da Glória on 5 June; Ramsay and Empire Clough on the 10th. Her last kill was Pontypridd, on the following day.
10th patrol and loss
The boat left St. Nazaire for the last time for the Caribbean on 3 August 1942. Off Haiti on the 28th, she was sunk by depth charges dropped by a US PBY Catalina from VP-92 and ramming by the Canadian corvette HMCS Oakville.
Nineteen men died with the U-boat; there were twenty-six survivors.
U-94 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.
- West (8–29 May 1941)
- Süd (22 July – 5 August 1941)
- Seewolf (5–15 September 1941)
- Brandenburg (15–29 September 1941)
- Robbe (17–24 January 1942)
- Hecht (8 May – 16 June 1942)
Summary of raiding history
|2 December 1940||Stirlingshire||United Kingdom||6,022||Sunk|
|2 December 1940||Wilhelmina||United Kingdom||6,725||Sunk|
|11 December 1940||Empire Statesman||United Kingdom||5,306||Sunk|
|20 January 1941||Florian||United Kingdom||3,174||Sunk|
|29 January 1941||West Wales||United Kingdom||4,353||Sunk|
|30 January 1941||Rushpool||United Kingdom||5,125||Sunk|
|4 April 1941||Harbledown||United Kingdom||5,414||Sunk|
|6 April 1941||Lincoln Ellsworth||Norway||5,580||Sunk|
|7 May 1941||Ixon||United Kingdom||10,263||Sunk|
|7 May 1941||Eastern Star||Norway||5,658||Sunk|
|20 May 1941||John P. Pedersen||Norway||6,128||Sunk|
|20 May 1941||Norman Monarch||United Kingdom||4,718||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Newbury||United Kingdom||5,102||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Pegasus||Greece||5,762||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Empire Eland||United Kingdom||5,613||Sunk|
|1 October 1941||San Florentino||United Kingdom||12,842||Sunk|
|24 February 1942||Empire Hail||United Kingdom||7,005||Sunk|
|9 March 1942||Cayrǘ||Brazil||5,152||Sunk|
|11 March 1942||Hvoslef||Norway||1,630||Sunk|
|25 March 1942||Imperial Transport||United Kingdom||8,022||Damaged|
|12 May 1942||Cocle||Panama||5,630||Sunk|
|13 May 1942||Tolken||Sweden||4,471||Sunk|
|13 May 1942||Batna||United Kingdom||4,399||Sunk|
|5 June 1942||Maria da Glória *||Portugal||320||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||Ramsay||United Kingdom||4,855||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||Empire Clough||United Kingdom||6,147||Sunk|
|11 June 1942||Pontypridd||United Kingdom||4,458||Sunk|
* Sailing vessel
In popular culture
- The Sabaton song "Wolfpack" from the album Primo Victoria mentions U-94 during The Battle of the Atlantic.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to U-94 (submarine, 1940).|
- Bishop, C (2006). Kriegsmarine U-Boats, 1939–45. Amber Books.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs - The U-boats at War. Cassell Military Classics. pp. 66, 67, 70, 71. ISBN 0-304-35203-9.
- Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.
- Miller, David (2000). U-Boats: the Illustrated History of the Raiders of the Deep. Washington: Brassey’s Inc.
- The Times Atlas of the World (Third, revised ed.). 1995. ISBN 0-7230-0809-4.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-94". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 94". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.