German submarine U-94 (1940)
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||30 May 1938|
|Laid down:||9 September 1939|
|Launched:||12 June 1940|
|Commissioned:||28 August 1940|
|Fate:||Sunk 28 August 1942 by a US aircraft and a Canadian warship|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.10 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.50 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp). Max rpm: 470–490
2 × AEG GU 460/8-276 double-acting electric motors, totalling 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Herbert Kuppisch
(10 August 1940 – 29 August 1941)
Oblt.z.S. Otto Ites
(29 August 1941 – 28 August 1942)
20 November – 31 December 1940
9 January – 19 February 1941
3rd patrol:<br 29 March – 18 April 1941
29 April – 4 June 1941
12 July – 16 August 1941
2 September – 15 October 1941
12–30 January 1942
12 February – 2 April 1942
4 May – 23 June 1942
3–28 August 1942
|Victories:||26 ships sunk; 141,852 GRT;
one ship damaged - 8,022 GRT
German submarine U-94 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was laid down on 9 September 1939 at the F. Krupp Germaniawerft in Kiel as yard number 599, launched on 12 June 1940 and commissioned on 10 August 1940 under Kapitänleutnant Herbert Kuppisch.
She also sent Wilhelmina and Empire Statesman to the bottom on the 2nd and the 11th respectively.
After that, the boat headed for mid-ocean before docking at her French Atlantic base.
2nd and 3rd patrols
U-94 returned to the Atlantic west of Ireland and Scotland for her second patrol. She sank three more ships; Florian on 20 January 1941, West Wales on the 29th and Rushpool on the 30th.
For her third sortie, the boat moved into the waters west of Iceland. She sank Harbledown on 4 April 1941 and Lincoln Ellsworth on the 6th. The latter ship was destroyed by a combination of torpedo and fire from the deck gun.
4th and 5th patrols
Two more merchantmen met their end on the 20th: Norman Monarch and John P. Pedersen.
Patrol number five was carried out west of the Canary Islands; it was relatively uneventful.
Having left St. Nazaire on 2 September 1941, U-94 operated southeast of Cape Farewell (Greenland). She sank Newbury, Pegasus and Empire Eland, all on the 15th. On 1 October, she fired five torpedoes at San Florentino. Three of them struck home; the ship broke in two after the third impact. The bow section remained afloat and was engaged by the U-boat's deck gun, it was eventually finished off by HMCS Alberini.
The boat returned to Kiel on 15 October.
The U-boat continued her successes on the western side of the Atlantic. She sank the Empire Hail east of St. Johns, Newfoundland on 24 February 1942. Following the coast-line to the south, her next victim was Cayrú, about 130 nautical miles (240 km; 150 mi) from New York on 9 March. She also sank Hvoslef two miles east of Fenwick Island, off Delaware Bay on the 11th.
U-94 left St. Nazaire on 4 May 1942 for what would be her top-scoring patrol, (it was to be carried out once more south of Greenland). Moving into this area, a steady stream of sinkings resulted; the Cocle on 12 May, Batna and Tolken, both on the 13th - a sailing ship, Maria da Glória on 5 June; Ramsay and Empire Clough on the 10th. Her last kill was Pontypridd, on the following day.
10th patrol and loss
The boat left St. Nazaire for the last time for the Caribbean on 3 August 1942. Off Haiti on the 28th, she was sunk by depth charges dropped by a US PBY Catalina and ramming by the Canadian corvette HMCS Oakville.
Nineteen men died with the U-boat; there were twenty-six survivors.
U-94 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.
- West (8–29 May 1941)
- Süd (22 July – 5 August 1941)
- Seewolf (5–15 September 1941)
- Brandenburg (15–29 September 1941)
- Robbe (17–24 January 1942)
- Hecht (8 May – 16 June 1942)
Summary of raiding history
|2 December 1940||Stirlingshire||United Kingdom||6,022||Sunk|
|2 December 1940||Wilhelmina||United Kingdom||6,725||Sunk|
|11 December 1940||Empire Statesman||United Kingdom||5,306||Sunk|
|20 January 1941||Florian||United Kingdom||3,174||Sunk|
|29 January 1941||West Wales||United Kingdom||4,353||Sunk|
|30 January 1941||Rushpool||United Kingdom||5,125||Sunk|
|4 April 1941||Harbledown||United Kingdom||5,414||Sunk|
|6 April 1941||Lincoln Ellsworth||Norway||5,580||Sunk|
|7 May 1941||Ixon||United Kingdom||10,263||Sunk|
|7 May 1941||Eastern Star||Norway||5,658||Sunk|
|20 May 1941||John P. Pedersen||Norway||6,128||Sunk|
|20 May 1941||Norman Monarch||United Kingdom||4,718||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Newbury||United Kingdom||5,102||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Pegasus||Greece||5,762||Sunk|
|15 September 1941||Empire Eland||United Kingdom||5,613||Sunk|
|1 October 1941||San Florentino||United Kingdom||12,842||Sunk|
|24 February 1942||Empire Hail||United Kingdom||7,005||Sunk|
|9 March 1942||Cayrǘ||Brazil||5,152||Sunk|
|11 March 1942||Hvoslef||Norway||1,630||Sunk|
|25 March 1942||Imperial Transport||United Kingdom||8,022||Damaged|
|12 May 1942||Cocle||Panama||5,630||Sunk|
|13 May 1942||Tolken||Sweden||4,471||Sunk|
|13 May 1942||Batna||United Kingdom||4,399||Sunk|
|5 June 1942||Maria da Glória *||Portugal||320||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||Ramsay||United Kingdom||4,855||Sunk|
|10 June 1942||Empire Clough||United Kingdom||6,147||Sunk|
|11 June 1942||Pontypridd||United Kingdom||4,458||Sunk|
* Sailing vessel
In popular culture
- The Sabaton song "Wolfpack" from the album Primo Victoria mentions U-94 during The Battle of the Atlantic.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to U-94 (submarine, 1940).|
- Bishop, C (2006). Kriegsmarine U-Boats, 1939–45. Amber Books.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs - The U-boats at War. Cassell Military Classics. pp. 66, 67, 70, 71. ISBN 0-304-35203-9.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815–1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Miller, David (2000). U-Boats: the Illustrated History of the Raiders of the Deep. Washington: Brassey’s Inc.
- The Times Atlas of the World (Third, revised ed.). 1995. ISBN 0-7230-0809-4.
- Hofmann, Markus. "U 94". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-94". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.