Proto-Germanic folklore

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Proto-Germanic folklore is the folklore of the speakers of Proto-Germanic and includes topics such as the Germanic mythology, legendry, and folk beliefs of early Germanic culture. By way of the comparative method, Germanic philologists, a variety of historical linguist, have proposed reconstructions of entities, locations, and concepts with various levels of security in early Germanic folklore (reconstructions are indicated by the presence of an asterisk). The present article includes both reconstructed forms and proposed motifs from the early Germanic period.

Linguistic reconstructions can be obtained via comparison between the various Germanic languages, comparison with related words in other Indo-European languages, especially Celtic and Baltic, comparison with borrowings into neighbouring language families such as Uralic, or via a combination of those methods. This allows linguists to project some terms back to the Proto-Germanic period despite their attestation in only one Germanic language; for instance, *saidaz ('magic') is only attested in Old Norse seiðr, but has parallels in Proto-Celtic *soytos and Lithuanian saitas.

Deities[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction Romano-Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic Etymology Notes
? Ala-fader[1]
ON Alfǫðr[1]
From Pre-Ger. *Ala-faþēr. Identical to PCelt. *Olo-(p)atīr (cf. Middle Irish Ollathair).[2] An epithet meaning 'all-father', used as a byname of Óðinn in Old Norse. It can be compared with the Middle Irish Eochu Ollathair, commonly used for the Dagda.[1]
*Austrōn[3] (See entry notes) OE Ēostre, OHG *Ôstara, OS *Āsteron[3][4]
From the PIE stem *h2(e)wes- ('to shine, glow red'). Cognate with the Lithuanian deity Aušrinė, and further related to the PIE dawn-goddess *h₂éwsōs.[3] A West Germanic spring goddess associated with a festival held in her name during the 'Easter-month', *Austro-mēnōþ, equivalent to modern 'April'.[3] The matronae Austriahenae, if Germanic, derive from the same stem.[4] The Old English and Old High German forms are the origin of the modern holiday names Easter and Ostern, respectively.[5] See Ēostre for further discussion.
*Auza-wanđilaz[6]
OE Ēarendel, OHG Aurendil, Lomb. Auriwandalo[7] ON Aurvandil[7] Goth. auzandil[7] Probably a compound of PGmc *auzom ('shiny, shiny liquid') and a derivate of *wanđuz ('rod, cane').[6][8] The PGmc form would therefore perhaps mean 'Light-Beam'[6][8] Generally seen as a personification of the 'rising light' of the morning, possibly embodying the Morning Star (Venus).[8] See Aurvandill for further discussion.
*Balđraz[9]
OE Bældæg, OHG Balder[9] ON Baldr[9]
From PGmc *balþaz ('brave'), which is identical to Lith. báltas ('white', also the name of a light-god), based on the semantic development from 'white' to 'shining' or 'strong' (man) > 'hero, lord, prince'.[10][11] ON Baldr ('brave, defiant; lord, prince') and OHG Balder are close to OE bealdor ('prince, hero').[10][11] The OE theonym Bældæg likely means 'Shining Day', as suggested by his association with 'day' and by the name of the Lith. light-god Báltas.[12] See Baldr for further discussion.
Divine horse twins or dioscuri (motif)[13] Alcis[14] OE Hengist and Horsa, Low German Hengist and Hors (Holstein, 1875)[15]
Scholars have proposed a variety of figures in the ancient Germanic record as extensions of this motif. Tacitus (Germania), mentions twin deities, the Alcis (PGmc *alhiz ~ *algiz), who he compares to the Greek Dioscuri. The deities are generally seen as a reflex of the Proto-Indo-European Divine twins. Their name either means 'elk' or 'protector'.[16][17] Some scholars have speculated that it may be related to the z-rune ᛉ (algiz), although evidence is scarse.[17]
*Frawja- ~ *Fraw(j)ōn[18][19][20]
OE frēa; OFris. frā; OS frōho, frāho; MDu. vroon; OHG frō[19] ON Freyr (theonym)[19] Goth. frauja[19] Unclear etymology.[20] An epithet meaning 'Lord'/'Lady'.[20] Occurs as a theonym in Old Norse and, in a Christian context, in Old English. According to Kroonen, "both in form and meaning, fraiwa- ('seed') is reminiscent of Freyr 'fertility deity' < *frauja-. We may therefore consider the possibility that *fraiwa- was metathesized from *frawja-, a collective of some kind."[21] See *Fraujaz for further discussion.
*Frawjōn[19]
OS frūa, OHG frouwa[19] ON Freyja (theonym)[19]
*Frijjō[22]
OE Frīg, OFris Frīa, OS Frī, OHG Frīja[22] ON Frigg[22]
From PGmc *frijaz ('free'), itself from PIE *priH-o- ('one's own, beloved').[22][23] In a clan-based societal system, the meaning 'free' arose from the meaning 'related' (cf. PGmc *frijōnan 'to love', *friþuz 'friendship, peace').[23] Goddess, in most sources partner of *Wōđanaz. Source of *Frijjadag ('Frijjō-day; Friday').[24] See Frigg for further discussion.
*Fullōn[25]
OHG Volla[25] ON Fulla[25]
From PGmc *fullaz ('full'), meaning 'fullness, plenitude'[25] A goddess associated with *Frijjō. See Fulla for further discussion.
*Gautaz[26]
OE Gēat, Lang.

Gausus[27]

ON Gautr, Gauti[27] Goth. Gaut (Gapt)[27] Derived from PGmc *geutanan ('to pour'), or an ablaut variant of *gutaz ~ *gutōn ('Goth, Gut')[28] A name for Odin.[27] The early Germanic form may mean 'pourer (of semen)', i.e. 'man'.[29] Rudolf Simek writes that as a mythical ancestor of the Goths (Gapt) and considered an ancestor in so many places he may have been the same as Odin in the Germanic peoples' common homeland in Scandinavia.[30] Also the name of the Geats.[26] See Gaut for further discussion.
? *Haihaz[31]
ON Hárr[31] Goth. haihs[31] Cognate with PCelt. *kaiko- ('one-eyed, blind in one eye') and, with a slightly different meaning, with PIt. *kaikos ('blind').[2] Perhaps an epithet meaning 'One-Eyed', attested as a common noun in Gothic. ON Hárr, a byname of Óðinn, has been derived from an earlier *Haiha-hariʀ ('the One-eyed Hero').[31] According to scholar Adam Hyllested, "the Celtic god Lug closes one eye in his magic ritual, while in Germanic mythology being one-eyed is a key attribute of Óðinn".[2] See Hárr for further information.
*Hludanaz Hludana[32][33]
ON Hlóðyn[32][33]
Uncertain etymology.[32] According to De Vries, probably a chthonic deity.[34][33] The ON Hlóðyn was possibly borrowed from the West Germanic theonym Hludana around the 8th c. AD.[34] See Hludana for further discussion.
? *Huldō[35]
Ger. Holda[36] ON Huld, Hulder[36]
Meaning 'the Hidden One'.[36] Although the relationship between the names is uncertain, all forms point to a common meaning of 'the hidden one'.[36]
*Ingwaz[37]
OE Ing, OS Ing[37] ON Yngvi[37] Goth. Ing, enguz[37][38] Uncertain etymology[37][38] A mythical ancestor, progenitor of the Ingvaeōnes. See also the Latinized Proto-Germanic personal name Inguiomērus. Name of the ŋ-rune ᛝ.[37] See Yngvi for further discussion.
? *Ingwina-frawjaz[39]
OE frēa Ingwina[39] ON lngunarfreyr[39]
Possibly a compound of PGmc *Ingwina- (Ing-friends') and *frawja- ('Lord'). *Ingwina- is derived from the name Ing- (see *Ingwaz) attached to PGmc *winiz ('friend').[39] Together, these forms mean 'Lord of the Ing-friends'.[39] (See Ingaevones) See also ON Ygvifreyr (< *Ingwia-frawjaz).[39]
*Mannaz ~ *Manwaz[40] Mannus[40] OE mann, OFris mann, OS mann, OHG man(n)[40] ON maðr, mannr[40] Goth. manna[40] Meaning 'Man'.[40] Cognate with Sanskrit Mánu and Avestan *Manuš.[41] Cosmogonical figure; son of *Twistō, divine ancestor of the West Germanic peoples (Tacitus). Name of the m-rune ᛗ (cf. man(n), maðr).[40] See Mannus and Indo-European cosmogony for further discussion.
*Mēnōn[42]
OE móna, OFris mōna, OS māno, ODu. māne, OHG māno[42][43] ON Máni[42][43] Goth. mēna, Crim. Goth. mine[42][43] Meaning 'Moon'.[44] From PIE *meh₁n-ōs ('moon; month'). The Germanic n-stem arose secondarily from the nom. *mēnō, which may regularly continue *meh₁n-ōt (cf. PGmc *mēnōþ-z 'month').[42][44] Source of Late PGmc *Mēnandag ('Moon-day; Monday').[45] Personified as a deity, Máni ('Moon'), in Old Norse.
*Nerþuz[46][47] Nerthus[46][47]
ON Njǫrðr[46][47]
The original meaning of the theonym is contested. It may be related to the Irish word nert, meaning 'force' and 'power'. The name Njǫrðr may be related to Njǫrun, an Old Norse goddess name.[48][49] See Nerthus, Njörðr, and Sister-wife of Njörðr for further discussion.
*Sowelō ~ *Sōel[50][51]
OHG Sunne (theonym), OE sigel[52] ON Sól (theonym)[52] Goth. sugil[52] PGmc *Sowel- > *Sōel- (gen. *Sunnōn) derives from the PIE word for 'sun', *séh₂uel, whose genitive form is *sh₂éns, sh₂unós.[53] *Sugelan is a variant of Sowelō that can be morphologically compared to PGmc *sweglaz ('sunlight').[50] Meaning 'Sun'.[53] A goddess and personification of the Sun. The variant *Sugelan may have been the original name of the s-rune (cf. sigel, sugil), via taboo avoidance. The genitive form *Sunnōn is at the origin of OHG Sunne and Late PGmc *Sunnandag ('Sun-day'); it is also the predecessor to modern English Sun.[54] See Sól for further discussion.
*Tīwaz[55]
OE Tīw, OHG *Ziu[55] ON Týr[55] Goth. *Teiws[56] From PIE *deywós ('celestial', hence a 'deity'), itself from *dyēus ('daylight sky god').[57] A general epithet meaning 'god, deity' that eventually replaced the name of a specific deity whose original name is now lost. *Tīwaz was associated with the thing and equated with the Roman war god Mars through interpretatio germanica. Name of the t-rune (ᛏ).[58][57][59] Source of Late PGmc *Tīwasdag ('Tīwaz-day; Tuesday').[60] See Týr for further discussion
*Twistō Tuisto
Etymologically 'Twofold' (i.e. 'Twin', 'Bisexual', or 'Hermaphrodite').[61][62][63] Related to PGmc *twistaz, which is structurally close to Sanskrit dviṣṭa- ('staying in two places, ambiguous').[64] Legendary divine ancestor of the West Germanic peoples according to Tacitus. See Tuisto and Indo-European cosmogony for further discussion.
*Þingsaz[65] Thingsus MDu. Dings*, MLG Dinges*, OHG Dinges*
From PGmc *þingaz ('thing, assembly'). An epithet meaning 'of the thing'[65] Attached to Mars (*Tīwaz) in early West Germanic cultures (see interpretatio germanica and interpretatio romana); perhaps originally a god associated with law. Attested in Latin as Thingsus, and probably included in the name for 'Tuesday' in some Germanic languages.[66][65]
*Þun(a)raz[55]
OE Þunor, OS Thunar, OFris Thuner, OHG Donar[55] ON Þórr[55]
From the PIE root *(s)tenh₂- ('thunder'). Cognate with the Celt. thunder-god Taranis (< *Tonaros), and further related to the Latin epithet Tonans.[67] Meaning 'Thunder'[55] According to Peter Jackson, the Celtic–Germanic theonym *Þun(a)raz ~ *Tonaros may have emerged as the result of the fossilization of an original epithet or epiclesis of the PIE thunder-god *Perkwunos.[68] Source of Late PGmc *Þonaresdag ('Þunraz-day; Thursday').[69] See also below *melđunjaz, the name of *Þunraz's weapon. See Thor for further discussion.
*Yum(i)yaz[37][70]
ON Ymir[70]
Meaning 'Twin'.[70] Cognate with Skt Yama, Av. Yima, and probably with Lat. Remus (< *Yemos).[71][72] Cosmogonical figure, mythical primeval ancestor. See Ymir and Indo-European cosmogony for further discussion.
*Wōđanaz[73]
OE Wōden, OS Woden, OD Wuodan, OHG Wuotan, Lomb. Godan[73] ON Óðinn[73]
Meaning 'Lord of Frenzy'.[74] From PGmc *wōđaz ('delirious, raging') attached to the suffix -naz ('master of'). The former is identical to PCelt. *wātis ('seer, sooth-sayer') and Lat. vātēs ('prophet, seer').[75] [2] Evidence points to a god strongly associated with ecstatic divination and wisdom. Compare the numerous Germanic cognates connoting 'violent agitation, mad rage, possession' with ON Óðr ('wit, sense, song, poetry'), OE wōð ('sound, voice, song'), and the other Indo-European cognates meaning 'seer, prophet'. Source of Late PGmc *Wōdanesdag ('Wōdanaz-day; Wednesday').[76] See Óðinn for further discussion.
*Wulþuz[77] (o)wlþu-[78]
ON Ullr[78]
From PIE *ul-tu- < *uel- ('to see'). Identical to Lat. vultus ('facial expression, appearance').[77][79] Meaning 'Glory'.[79] Attested as owlþuþewaz ('servant of owlþuz') on the Thorsberg chape (3rd c. AD).[78] Cf. also Goth. wulþus ('glory'). OE wuldor ('glory') stems from PGmc *wuldraz.[79] See Ullr for further discussion.
*Wurđiz[80]
OE wyrd, OS wurd, OHG wurt[80] ON Urðr[80]
Meaning 'Fate'.[81] From PGmc *werþanan ('to come about, happen, become').[80][81] A concept comparable to fate personified as a female entity in Old Norse (a norn, a goddess-like being) and in Old English. See Urðr for further discussion.
Note: OE = Old English; OFris = Old Frisian; OFrank. = Old Frankish; OS = Old Saxon; MLG = Middle Low German; OD = Old Dutch; MDu. = Middle Dutch; OHG = Old High German; ON = Old Norse; Goth. = Gothic; Lomb. = Lombardic; Burg. = Burgundian; PGmc = Proto-Germanic; Pre-Ger. = Pre-Germanic; PIE = Proto-Indo-European; – = Unattested

Entities[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic Etymology Notes
*alƀaz[82] OE ælf, MLG alf, OHG alb[82] ON álfr[82] Burg. *alfs[82][83] From the PIE root for '(matt) white', *h₂elbʰ-. Structurally close to Lat. albus ('(matt) white') and Grk alphoús ('white').[82] See elf for further discussion.
*al(j)a-wihtiz[84] OE æl-wiht[84] ON al-vitr[84]
Compound of *aljaz ('other') and *wihtiz ('thing, creature').[84] See *wehtiz ~ *wihtiz below.
*ansuz ~ *ansiz[85] OE ōs, OS ās, OHG ansi-[86] ON áss[86] Goth. anses[86] Meaning '(a) deity'. From PIE *h₂ems-u- < *h₂ems- ('to give birth'). Identical to Hitt. ḫassu- ('king'), Skt. ásu- ('life, vital strength'), Av. ahu- ('lord'), or Venet. ahsu- ('cult image'). Further related to Skt ásura- and Av. ahura- ('god, lord').[87][88] Potentially connected to PGmc *ansaz 'beam' (see also Anthropomorphic wooden cult figurines of Central and Northern Europe).[87] Name of the a-rune ᚨ. See Æsir for further discussion.
*đīsō[89] OE ides, OS idis, OHG itis[89] ON dís[89]
Uncertain etymology.[90] The West Germanic forms present some difficulty to resolve but the North Germanic and West Germanic forms are used explicitly as cognates (e.g. OE ides Scildinga and ON dís Skjǫldunga).[91] A variety of goddess-like supernatural female entity. Variously rendered by translators into modern English as terms like 'goddess', '(noble, divine) lady', or 'fairy'.[92] See dís and Idis (Germanic) and compare *wala-kuzjōn below. The PGmc form may occur in the place name Idistaviso (perhaps Gmc *Idisiaviso 'plain of the Idisi') and may be further reflected in ON Iðavöllr if the location name is amended to *Ið[is]avöllr.[93]
*draugaz[94]
ON draugr[94]
Identical to PCelt. *drougo- (cf. OIr. airdrech 'sprite, phantom' < *(p)ari-drougo-).[94] A name for a supernatural being akin to a phantom or a ghost.[94]
*dwas-[95] OE dwœs, MHG ge-twās[95]
From Pre-Ger. *dhwos-. Related to PCelt. *dwosyos (cf. Gaul. dusios 'incubus, daemon') and Lith. dvasià ('breath, spirit, soul').[95] A name for a supernatural being akin to a phantom or a ghost.[95]
*đwergaz[96] OE dweorg, OFris. dwirg, OS *dwerg, MDu. dwerch, OHG twerg[96][97] ON dvergr[96]
Unclear etymology. Perhaps from a PGmc verb *dwerganan ('to squeeze, press') possibly attested in MHG zwergen.[98] For further discussion, see Dwarf.
*etunaz[99] OE eōten[99] ON jǫtunn[99]
According to Orel, from PGmc *etanan ('to eat').[99] One of several terms connected to a class of entity. See jötunn for further discussion.
*gaistaz[100] OE gǽst, OFris gāst, OS gēst, ODu. gēst, OHG geist[100][101][102]
Meaning 'ghost, spirit, wrath'. From Pre-Ger.*ghoisdoz ('fury, anger'), which is comparable to Sanskrit héḍas ('anger') and Avestan zōižda- ('terrible, ugly').[101][102] Although the word is only attested in the West Germanic languages, it appears to be of pre-Germanic formation.[102] See ghost for further discussion.
*guđ(a)z[103] OE god, OFris. god, ODu. god, OS god, OHG got[103][104] ON guð[103] Goth. guþ[103] Meaning '(a) deity' and predecessor to modern English god. Unclear etymology. Traditionally derived from *ǵʰu-t(ó)- ('libated one') < *ǵʰeu- ('to pour'), although alternative connections with PIE *ǵʰeuH- ('to invoke'), with OCS gověti ('to revere'), or with Greek χυτὴ γαῖα ('burial mound') have also been proposed.[103][105] The source of PGmc *guđ(a)-fuhtaz ('god-fearing'), *guđ(a)-lausaz ('god-less'), aƀa-guđaz ('godless, lit. off-god'), *guđ(a)-waƀjaz ('precious fabric, silk'), or *guđ(a)-hūsan (temple; if not a calque of Lat. domus Dei).[106]
*lenþa-wurmaz[107] MLG linde-worm, OHG lind-wurm[107] ON linn-ormr[107]
Compound of *lenþaz ('snake') and *wurmaz ('worm').[107] A dragon or serpent-like entity. See lindworm for further discussion.
*marōn[100] OE mære, MD māre, OS māra, OHG mara[100][108] ON mara[100]
From PIE *mor-eh₂, of unclear origin. Cognate with Slav. *morà ('nightly spirit, bad dream') and OIr. mor-rígain ('queen of bad dreams'; a goddess of the battlefield and female malicious entity). See also the Russian kiki-mora, a female house-spirit that spins at night.[109][108] An malevolent female spirit associated with bad dreams (as in the second element of modern English night-mare). The image of a female ghost or malicious entity who tortures people by way of nightmares is apparently common to Slavic, Germanic and, possibly, Celtic.[110] Borrowed from Middle Dutch into Old Picard as mare > cauque-mare (attached to cauquier 'to press'; mod. Fr. cauchemar), which designated a 'witch' haunting bad dreams.[111] See Mare (folklore) for further discussion.
*nikwiz ~ *nikwuz ~ *nikwaza-[112][113] OE nicor, MDu. nicker, MLG necker, OHG nichus, nihhus[112][113] ON nykr[112]
From PIE *nígʷ-ōs < *neigʷ- ('to wash').[112][113] An entity associated with water, which probably also existed under the feminine form *nikwazjōn (cf. OHG nickessa).[113] See Nixie (folklore) for further discussion.
*skrattōn ~ *skradan-[114][115] OE scrætte, OHG scratto[114][115] ON skratti[114][115]
An n-stem originally inflected as *skradō, gen. *skrattaz < *skrodʰōn, *skrodʰnós.[115] A variety of malicious entity.[114][115]
*skōhsla-[94]
Goth. skōhsl[94] Identical to PCelt. *skāhslo- (cf. Old Irish scál ‘supernatural or superhuman being, phantom, giant, hero; the god Lug’, Middle Welsh yscaul ‘hero, champion, warrior').[94] A name for an evil spirit or a demon.[94]
*þurisaz[116][117] OE ðyrs, OHG duris[116] ON þurs[116]
No clear etymology. Perhaps related to ON þyrja ('to rush'), ON þora ('to dare'), or Icel. þursi ('quarrel, anger, rage').[116][117] One of a series of semantically related Proto-Germanic terms for a type of entity. Borrowed into early Finnish as Turisas, a war god and a sea monster.[117] See jötunn for further discussion.
*wrisjōn[118] OS wrisi-, OHG riso[118] ON risi[118]
Probably related to Greek ῥίον ('peak, headland').[118] One of the Proto-Germanic terms semantically related to jötunn. Occurs also in OS wrisi-līk ('enormous, wrisi-like').[118] For further discussion, see jötunn.
*wala-kuzjōn[119] OE wælcyrge[119] ON valkyrja[119]
Meaning 'chooser of the slain'. Compound of *walaz ('the slain') and *kuzjōn ('chooser' < PGmc *keusanan 'to trial, select').[119][120] See also OE wæl-cēasega, a name for 'raven' that literally means 'chooser of the slain'.[121] A variety of goddess-like female entity. Compare *đīsō above.[119] See valkyrie for further discussion.
*wira-wulfaz[122] OE were-wulf, OFrank. *wer-wolf, MDu. weer-wolf, MLG wer-wulf, WFris. waer-ûl(e), MHG wer-wolf[122][123] ON varg-úlfr[122]
Meaning 'man-wolf' and predecessor to modern English werewolf. Probably a compound of *wiraz ('man') and *wulfaz ('wolf').[124][125] Alternately derived from *wazi-wulfaz ('wolf-clothed'), bringing the compound semantically in line with the Slavic name for 'werewolf', *vьlko-dlakь, literally 'wolf-haired'.[125] The Norse branch underwent taboo modifications, with ON vargúlfr replacing *wiraz ('man') with vargr ('outlaw; wolf'), probably under the influence of Old French leus warous, which literally means 'wolf-werewolf'.[124][125][126] Old Frankish *werwolf is inferred from ONorm. garwa(l)f ~ garo(u)l.[127][126] The modern Norse forms varulv (Danish, Norwegian) and varulf (Swedish) were probably borrowed from MLG werwulf,[126] or else be derived from an unattested ON *varulfr, posited as the regular descendant form of PGmc *wira-wulfaz.[123] See werewolf for further discussion.
*wehtiz ~ *wihtiz[128] OE wiht, OS wiht, Du. wicht, OHG wiht[128] ON vættr[128] Goth. waihts[128] A 'creature'. Related to Slav. *vektь ('thing').[128] Possibly from PIE *weḱti- ~ *weǵʰ-ti-, or a Germanic–Slavic isogloss.[129] Cf. also Far. -vætti ('miserable creature') < *wehtja-.[129]
Note: OE = Old English; OFris = Old Frisian; OFrank. = Old Frankish; OS = Old Saxon; MLG = Middle Low German; OD = Old Dutch; MDu. = Middle Dutch; OHG = Old High German; ON = Old Norse; Goth. = Gothic; Lomb. = Lombardic; Burg. = Burgundian; PGmc = Proto-Germanic; Pre-Ger. = Pre-Germanic; PIE = Proto-Indo-European; – = Unattested

Locations[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction Translation West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic Etymology Notes
*Ferg(w)unjan ~ *Ferg(w)unjō[130][131] 'mountain' OHG Firgunnea[130][131] ON Fjǫrgyn[130][131]
Probably from PIE *per-kwun-ih₂ ('wooded mountains', i.e. the realm of *Perkwunos). Cognate with PCelt. *ferkunyo > (H)ercynia.[131][132] Cognate with or borrowed into Slav. as *per(g)ynja ('wooded hills').[131][132] Cf. also Goth. fairguni and OE firgen ('mountain').[130][131] See Perkwunos for further discussion.
*Haljō[133] 'the concealed' OE hell, OFris helle, ODu. helle, OS hellia, OHG hella[133][134] ON hel[133] Goth. halja[133] From PGmc *helanan ('to conceal, hide').[133][135] Precursor to modern English Hell, attested as an afterlife location throughout Germanic languages and personified as a female entity in Old Norse and Old English. See Hel (being) and Hel (location).
*Halja-wītjan[133] 'hell-knowledge' OE helle-wīte, OS helli-wīti, MHG helle-wītze[133] ON hel-víti[133]
Compound of PGmc *Haljō ('Hell') and *wītjan ('knowledge, reason').[133] A poetic name for an underworld location. See *Haljō above.
*hem(e)naz[136][137] 'heaven' OE heofon, OFris. himel, OS heƀan, ODu. himil, MLG hēven, OHG himil[137][138] ON himinn[136][137] Goth. himins[136][137] From the gen. *h₂ḱmnós of PIE *h₂eḱmon ('heavenly vault of stone'). Possibly cognate with PGmc *hamaraz ('hammer') via a metathesized stem *ḱ(e)h₂-m-r- (cf. Grk kamára 'vault').[136][139] See Perkwunos#Heavenly_vault_of_stone for further discussion.
*(hemena-)wangaz[136][140] '(heaven-)meadow' OS heƀan-wang, OE (neorxna-)wang[136][140] ON himin-vangr, (Fólk)vangr[136][140] Gothic waggs[140] Compound of PGmc *hemenaz ('heaven') and *wangaz ('meadow').[136] The noun *wangaz stems from the PIE root *uongʰ-, denoting a 'field'.[141] A term denoting an afterlife heavenly meadow. PGmc *wangaz occurs as a gloss for 'paradise' in Old Norse, Old English, and Gothic, implying an early Germanic concept of an afterlife field in the heaven.[140] Fólkvangr is an afterlife location associated with the goddess Freyja in Old Norse texts. See Fólkvangr and Neorxnawang.
*Meðjana-garðaz[142] 'middle-enclosure' OE middan-geard, OS middil-gard, OHG mitti-gart[142][143] ON mið-garðr[142] Goth. midjun-gards[142] Compound of PGmc *meðjanaz ('middle') and *garðaz ('enclosure, courtyard').[142] See Midgard for further discussion.
*wira-alđiz[144] 'man-age' OE weorold, OFris. wrald, OS werold, MDu. werelt, OHG weralt[144][145] ON verǫld[144]
Compound of PGmc *wiraz ('man') and *alđiz ('age').[144] The inhabited world, the realm of humankind. Source of modern English world.[145]
Note: OE = Old English; OFris = Old Frisian; OFrank. = Old Frankish; OS = Old Saxon; MLG = Middle Low German; OD = Old Dutch; MDu. = Middle Dutch; OHG = Old High German; ON = Old Norse; Goth. = Gothic; Lomb. = Lombardic; Burg. = Burgundian; PGmc = Proto-Germanic; Pre-Ger. = Pre-Germanic; PIE = Proto-Indo-European; – = Unattested

Other[edit]

Proto-Germanic reconstruction Translation West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic Etymology Notes
*alh(a)z[146] 'temple' OE ealh, OS alah[146] ON -áll[146] Goth. alhs[146] Identical to Lith. alkas ('holy grove').[146][147]
*austro-mēnōþ 'Austrōn-month' OE ēosturmōnaþ, ODu. ostermanoth, OHG ōstarmānōd[148][5]
A compound of WGmc *Austrōn (a female deity) and *mēnōþ ('month'). A West Germanic name for the 'month of *Austrōn', associated with a festival held around April and eventually displaced by the Christian Easter.[148] See Ēostre and Ēosturmōnaþ for further discussion.
*ƀlōtanan[149] 'to sacrifice' OE blōtan, OHG bluozan[149] ON blóta[149] Goth. blotan[149] Traditionally compared to Lat. flāmen ('sacrificial priest'), possibly from an earlier *flādsmen < *bʰleh₂dmen-.[149][150][151] Source of PGmc *ƀlostran ('sacrifice') and *ƀlotan ('sacrifice, worship').[152]
*ƀlōta-hūsan[152] 'house of worship, house of sacrifice' OHG bluoz-hūz[152] ON blót-hús[152]
Compound of PGmc *ƀlotan ('sacrifice, worship') and *hūsan ('house').[152] Place of worship, temple.[152]
*elhja-[2] 'evil'
ON illr[2]
From Pre-Ger. *elkyo-, attested in the Finnish loanwords elkiä ('mean, malicious') and ilkeä ('bad, mean, wicked'). Possibly related to Old Irish ol(c)c ('bad, evil').[2]
*frijjadag 'Friday' OE Frīgedæg, OFris. Frīadei, MDu. Vriendach, MLG Vrīdach, OHG Frīatag[153] ON Frjádagr[153]
A Late PGmc compound of *Frijjō ('Frigg') and *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Veneris dies.[153] See *Frijjō above. ON Frjádagr was borrowed from OHG Frīatag.[154] Source of Modern English Friday.
*galđran[155] 'magic song, spell, charm' OE gealdor, OHG galtar[155] ON galdr[155]
From PGmc *galanan ('to shout, sing, chant').[155][156] See galdr for further discussion.
*guđ(j)ōn[103] 'priest'
ON goði, gyðja[103][157] Goth. gudja[103][157] From PGmc *guđaz ('god').[103]
*hailagaz[31] 'holy' OE hālig, OFris. hēlich, OS hēlag, OHG heilag[31] ON heilagr[31] Goth. hailags[31] From PGmc *hailaz ('hale, whole, sound').[31] Source of PGmc *hailagōjanan ('to make holy, consecrate').[31]
*hailaga-mēnōþ 'holy-month' OE hāliġ-mōnaþ, ODu. heil-mānōth, OHG heilag-mānōth[158]
A compound of PGmc *hailagaz ('holy') and *mēnōþ ('month'). A West Germanic name for the 'holy month', equivalent to modern 'September' or 'December'.[158] See Hāliġmōnaþ for further discussion.
*harƀistu-mēnōþz[159] 'autumn-month, harvest-month' OE hærfest-mōnaþ, ODu. hervist-mānōth, OHG herbist-mānōth[159] ON haust-mánuðr[159]
A compound of PGmc *harƀistaz ('autumn, harvest') and *mēnōþz ('month').[159] Early Germanic name of the 'month of harvest'; roughly equivalent to modern 'August–November'.[159] Cf. also ODu. Aranmānōth ~ OHG Aranmānōd ('harvest month, August'), from another PGmc stem *azani- ('harvest').
*har(u)gaz[160][161] 'holy stone', perhaps 'sacrificial mound'[161] OE hearg, OHG harug[160] ON hǫrgr[160]
From Pre-Ger. *karkú-. Probably borrowed from the same non-Indo-European source as PCelt. *karrikā ('stone').[160][161][94] See hörgr for further information
*halja-rūnō(n)[162] 'witch, sorceress' OE helle-rūne, OHG helli-rūna[162]
Lat.-Goth. pl. (Jordanes) haliurunae[162] Compound of *haljō ('Hel') and *rūnō ('secret, mystery, rune').[162]
*hunslan[163] 'sacrifice' OE hūsel[163] ON húsl[163] Goth. hunsl[163] A sla-suffix added to the PIE stem *ḱuent- ('holy, sacred').[163][164]
*hugi-rūnō[165] 'secret of the mind, magical rune' OE hyge-rūn[165] ON hug-rúnar[165]
Compound of *hugiz ('understanding, mind') and *rūnō ('secret, mystery, rune').[165]
*jehwlan[166] 'Yule' OE geō(hho)l[166] ON jól[166] Goth. *jaihl[167] No credible etymology.[167][166] Name of a Germanic festival organized at the end of each year. Cf. also *Jehwla-đagaz ('Yule-day').[167][166] See Yule for further discussion.
*jehwla-mēnōþz ~ *jehwlaz[167][166] 'Yule-month' OE gēol-mōnaþ, gīuli[166] ON jól-mánuðr, ýlir[166] Goth. jiuleis[166]
*jēra-mēnōþz[168] 'year-month' OHG jār-mānōd[168] ON ár-mánaðr[168]
A compound of PGmc *jēran ('year') and mēnōþz ('month').[168] Early Germanic name of the 'year-month'; equivalent to modern 'January'.
*kunjaz[169] 'omen'
ON kyn[169]
Closely related to Lith. žinià ('knowledge, magic').[169]
*lēk(i)jaz[170][95] 'healer, physician' OE lǣce, OS lāki, OFris. letza, OHG lāhhi[170] ON lækir[170] Goth. lekeis[170] From Pre-Ger. *lēgyos. Borrowed from PCelt. lēagis (cf. OIr. lieig 'physician, healer, leech').[170][95] Source of PGmc *lēkinan ('cure, remedy') and *lēkinōjanan ('to heal').[170]
*lubjan[171] 'herbal medicine, magic potion' OE lybb, OS lubbi, MDu. lubbe, OHG lubbi[171][172] ON lyf[171] Goth. lubja-[171] Related to PGmc *lauban ('foliage'; cf. PCelt. *lubi- 'herb').[172][95] Medicinal herb associated with magic (cf. Goth. lubja-leisei 'witchcraft, alchemist', OHG lubbari 'magician').[171][172]
*melđunjaz[173] 'lightning', 'hammer'
ON Mjǫllnir[173]
From a PIE stem meld-n-, which may have originally designated Perkwunos' weapon. Cognate with Latv. milna (Pērkōns' hammer), OPrus. mealde ('lightning'), OCS mъldni ('lightning'), Welsh mellten ('bolt of lightning').[174] Thor's hammer. See Mjǫllnir for further discussion.
*mēnandag 'Monday' OE Mōnandæg, OFris. Mōnandei, MDu. MLG Mānendach, OHG Mānetag[175] ON Mánadagr[175]
A Late PGmc compound of *Menōn ('Moon') and *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Lunae dies.[175] See *Mēnōn above. Source of Modern English Monday.
*nemeđaz[176] 'sacred grove' OFrank. nimid, OS nimidas[176][177] Swed. Nymden[177]
Related to or borrowed PCelt. *nemetom ('sacred grove, sanctuary').[176][177] See sacred trees and groves in Germanic paganism and mythology
*rūnō[178] 'secret, mystery; secret counsel; rune' OE rūn, OS rūna, MDu. rūne, OHG rūna[178] ON rún[178] Goth. runa[178] Borrowed from or cognate with PCelt. *rūna ('secret, magic').[178] Source of PGmc *runōn ('counsellor'), *rūnjan ('mystery'), *raunō ('trial, inquiry, experiment').[178] See runes for further discussion.
*rūna-stabaz[178] 'runic letter' OE rūn-stæf, OHG rūn-stab[178] ON rúna-stafr[178]
A compound of PGmc *rūnō ('secret, mystery, counsel') and *stabaz ('staff; letter').[178]
*saidaz[179][180] 'spell, charm, magic'
ON seiðr[179][180]
From Pre-Ger. *saiþa-, which is cognate with Lith. saitas ('soothsaying, talisman') and PCelt. *soyto- ('magic').[179][180][95] Probably originally identical to PIE *soito- ('string, rope'), from *seh2i- ('to bind').[95] See also the PGmc verb *sīdanan ('to work charms'; cf. ON síða) and OE -siden 'magic' (< *sidnō-).[179][180]
*saiwalō[181] 'soul' OE sāwel; OFris sēle; OS sēola, sēla; OHG sēola, sēla[181]
Goth. saiwala[181] According to Vladimir Orel, derived from PGmc *saiwiz ~ *saiwaz ('sea, lake'), "probably because of a Germanic belief in souls born out of and returning to sacred lakes".[181]
*skaldaz[182] '(satirical) poet' OHG skelto[182] ON skáld[182]
Probably from a PGmc verb *skeldanan ~ *skadjanan ('to mock, satirize').[182] Middle English scāld was borrowed from ON skáld.[183][184] See skald for further discussion.
*sumlan[185] 'banquet, symposium' OE symbel, OS sumbal[185] ON sum(b)l[185]
From PIE *sṃ-lo- ('joint meal').[185] See symbel for further discussion.
*sunnandag 'Sunday' OE Sunnandæg, OFris. Sunnandei, MDu. Sonnendach, MLG Sunnendach, OHG Sunnūntag[186] ON Sunnudagr[186]
A Late PGmc compound of *sunnōn (genitive of *Sowēlo 'Sun') attached to *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Solis dies.[186] See Sowēlo ~ Sōel above. Source of Modern English Sunday.
*tafnan[187] 'sacrificial meat'
ON tafn[187][188]
From Pre-Ger. dapno- < PIE *dh₂p-no- ('sacrificial meal'). Cognate with Lat. damnum ('harm, damage, loss'), MIr. dúan ('poem, song') and Arm. tawn ('feast').[187][188][189]
*taufran[190] 'sorcery, magic' OE tēafor, OFris. tāver, MLG tover, OHG zoubar[190] ON taufr[190]
Possibly derived from PGmc *tawjanan ('to do, make').[190]
*tiƀran[191] 'sacrifice, animal offering' OE tiber, tifer, OHG zebar[191]
Goth. aibr[191] Cognate with Greek δεῖπνον ('meal') and Arm. tvar ('male sheep') < PIE *déip-r, gen. dip-n-ós.[191][192] According to some scholars, Goth. aibr should be emended to *tibr.[193][192]
*tīwasdag 'Tuesday' OE Tīwesdæg, OFris. Tīesdei, OHG Ziestag[194] ON Týsdagr[194]
A Late PGmc compound of *Tīwaz (Týr) and *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Martis dies.[194] See *Tīwaz above. Source of Modern English Tuesday.
*þonaresdag 'Thursday' OE Þunresdæg, OFris. Thunresdei, MDu. Donresdach, OHG Donarestag[195] ON Þórsdagr[195]
A Late PGmc compound of *Þun(a)raz (Thor) and *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Iovis dies.[195] See *Þun(a)raz above. Source of Modern English Thursday.
*wīhaz[196][197] 'holy, divine' OE wīg-, OS wīh-, OHG wīh[196][197]
Goth. weihs[196][197] From PIE *wéik-o-.[197] Identical to Lith. viẽkas ('life force'), and further related to Lat. victima ('sacrificial animal').[196][197] Source of PGmc *wīhēnan ~ *wīhjanan ('to consecrate'), *wīhislōn ('consecration'), and *wīhiþō ('holiness, sanctity').[198][197]
*wīhan[196] 'sanctuary' OE wīh, OS wīh, OHG wīh[196] ON [196]
From PGmc *wīhaz ('holy, divine').[196][199] See Vé (shrine) for further discussion.
*wīhōn[196] 'priest'
ON Véi[196] Goth. weiha[196] From PGmc *wīhaz ('holy, divine').[196] See Vili and Vé for further discussion.
*wikkōnan[199] 'to practice sorcery' OE wiccian, WFris. wikje, MDu. wicken, MHG wicken[199]
From PGmc *wīhaz ('holy, divine').[199] This verb served as the derivational base for OE wicca ('witch') and MHG MDu. wicker ('soothsayer').[199] Source of Modern English witch.
*wītagōn[200] 'wizard, prophet' OE wítega, OHG wīzago[200] ON vitki[200]
From PGmc *witanan ('to know').[200] Source of the PGmc verb *wītagōjanan ('to prophesy').[200]
*wōdanesdag 'Wednesday' OE Wōdnesdæg, OFris. Wērnisdei, MDu. Woensdach, MLG Wōdensdach, OHG Wōdanstag[201] ON Óðinsdagr[201]
A Late PGmc compound of *Wōdanaz (Odin) and *dag ('day'). Calque of Lat Mercurii dies.[201] See *Wōdanaz above. Source of Modern English Wednesday.
Note: OE = Old English; OFris = Old Frisian; OFrank. = Old Frankish; OS = Old Saxon; MLG = Middle Low German; OD = Old Dutch; MDu. = Middle Dutch; OHG = Old High German; ON = Old Norse; Goth. = Gothic; Lomb. = Lombardic; Burg. = Burgundian; PGmc = Proto-Germanic; Pre-Ger. = Pre-Germanic; PIE = Proto-Indo-European; – = Unattested

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Koch 2020, p. 139.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Koch 2020, p. 140.
  3. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 43.
  4. ^ a b Sermon 2008, p. 338-339.
  5. ^ a b West 2007, pp. 217–218.
  6. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 20.
  7. ^ a b c Falluomini 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Simek 1984, pp. 31–32.
  9. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 33.
  10. ^ a b de Vries 1962, p. 24.
  11. ^ a b Orel 2003, pp. 33–34.
  12. ^ Simek 1996, p. 26.
  13. ^ Simek 1993, p. 59-60, 7, 139.
  14. ^ Simek 1993, p. 7.
  15. ^ Simek 1993, p. 139.
  16. ^ Simek 1984, p. 11.
  17. ^ a b Rosenfeld & Hauck 1984.
  18. ^ de Vries 1962, p. 142.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Orel 2003, p. 112.
  20. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 153.
  21. ^ Kroonen 2013, pp. 152–153.
  22. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 114.
  23. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 155.
  24. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Friday, n. and adv.
  25. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 118.
  26. ^ a b Orel 2003, p. 129.
  27. ^ a b c d de Vries 1962, p. 159.
  28. ^ Orel 2003, pp. 129, 147.
  29. ^ Rübekeil 2002, p. 603.
  30. ^ Simek 1993, pp. 100–101.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Orel 2003, p. 151.
  32. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 239.
  33. ^ a b c Simek 1984, p. 185.
  34. ^ a b de Vries 1957, pp. 321–322.
  35. ^ Orel 2003, p. 191.
  36. ^ a b c d Simek 1984, pp. 185, 198.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g de Vries 1962, p. 678.
  38. ^ a b Lehmann 1986, p. 100.
  39. ^ a b c d e f de Vries 1962, pp. 286, 679.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g Lehmann 1986, p. 244.
  41. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 367.
  42. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 270.
  43. ^ a b c Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. moon, n.1
  44. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 365.
  45. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Monday, n. and adv.
  46. ^ a b c Puhvel 1987, p. 205.
  47. ^ a b c Simek & 2007 [1993], p. 230.
  48. ^ Magnússon 1989, p. 671.
  49. ^ Hopkins 2012, p. 39.
  50. ^ a b Orel 2003, p. 385.
  51. ^ Magnússon 1989, pp. 463–464.
  52. ^ a b c Orel 2003, pp. 361, 385, 387.
  53. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, pp. 463–464.
  54. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Sunday, n. and adv.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g Orel 2003, p. 408.
  56. ^ Lehmann 1986, p. 352.
  57. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 519.
  58. ^ Simek 1984, pp. 413, 420.
  59. ^ West 2007, p. 167 n. 8.
  60. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Tuesday, n. and adv.
  61. ^ de Vries 1957, pp. 363–364.
  62. ^ Simek 1984, p. 418.
  63. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, p. 129.
  64. ^ de Vries 1962, p. 602.
  65. ^ a b c Simek 1984, p. 251.
  66. ^ de Vries 1957, pp. 11–14.
  67. ^ Delamarre 2003, p. 290; Matasović 2009, p. 384.
  68. ^ Jackson 2002, p. 61-102.
  69. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Thursday, n. and adv.
  70. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 274.
  71. ^ Puhvel 1987, p. 63.
  72. ^ Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 129–130.
  73. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 469.
  74. ^ West 2007, p. 137.
  75. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 592.
  76. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. Wednesday, n. and adv.
  77. ^ a b Orel 2003, p. 474.
  78. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 633.
  79. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 599.
  80. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 475.
  81. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 600.
  82. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 13.
  83. ^ Burgundian's status as an East Germanic language remains unclear.
  84. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 15.
  85. ^ Orel 2003, p. 21.
  86. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 16; Simek 1984, p. 25; Orel 2003, p. 21; Kroonen 2013, p. 30
  87. ^ a b Orel 2003, p. 20–21.
  88. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 30.
  89. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 72.
  90. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 96.
  91. ^ Kroonen 2013, pp. 114–115.
  92. ^ Kroonen 2013, pp. 96, 114.
  93. ^ Simek 1993, p. 171.
  94. ^ a b c d e f g h i Koch 2020, p. 142.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h i Koch 2020, p. 144.
  96. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 81.
  97. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. dwarf, n. and adj.
  98. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 112.
  99. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 86.
  100. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 262.
  101. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 163.
  102. ^ a b c Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. ghost, n.
  103. ^ a b c d e f g h i Orel 2003, p. 145.
  104. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. god, n. and int.
  105. ^ Kroonen 2013, pp. 193–194.
  106. ^ Orel 2003, pp. 144–145.
  107. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 241.
  108. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary 2021 s.v. mare, n.2.
  109. ^ Derksen 2007, p. 324.
  110. ^ Derksen 2007, pp. 302, 324.
  111. ^ TLFi, s.v. cauchemar.
  112. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 287.
  113. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 390.
  114. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 343.
  115. ^ a b c d e Kroonen 2013, p. 447.
  116. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 429.
  117. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 552.
  118. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 472.
  119. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 442.
  120. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 569.
  121. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. † walkyrie, n.
  122. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 463.
  123. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. werewolf, n.
  124. ^ a b de Vries 1962, p. 646.
  125. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 463, 450.
  126. ^ a b c DEAF G:334–338.
  127. ^ FEW 17:569.
  128. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, pp. 15, 452; Kroonen 2013, p. 578
  129. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 578.
  130. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 99.
  131. ^ a b c d e f Kroonen 2013, p. 136.
  132. ^ a b West 2007, p. 241.
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h i Orel 2003, p. 156.
  134. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. hell, n. and int.
  135. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 204.
  136. ^ a b c d e f g h Orel 2003, p. 169.
  137. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 220.
  138. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. heaven, n.
  139. ^ Kroonen 2013, pp. 206, 220.
  140. ^ a b c d e Hopkins & Haukur 2011, p. 14-17.
  141. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 573.
  142. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 264.
  143. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. † middenerd, n.
  144. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 462.
  145. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. world, n.
  146. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 14.
  147. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 22.
  148. ^ a b Simek 1996, p. 255.
  149. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 51.
  150. ^ de Vries 1962, p. 45.
  151. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 70.
  152. ^ a b c d e f Orel 2003, p. 50.
  153. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 143.
  154. ^ Simek 2007, pp. 93–94.
  155. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 124.
  156. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 164.
  157. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 194.
  158. ^ a b Poirier 2007, p. 299-207.
  159. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 161.
  160. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 164.
  161. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 211.
  162. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 155.
  163. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 194.
  164. ^ Kroonen 2013, p. 256.
  165. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 190.
  166. ^ a b c d e f g h i Orel 2003, p. 205.
  167. ^ a b c d Lehmann 1986, p. 211.
  168. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, pp. 205–206.
  169. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 311.
  170. ^ a b c d e f Orel 2003, p. 244.
  171. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 249.
  172. ^ a b c Kroonen 2013, p. 341.
  173. ^ a b Orel 2003, p. 266.
  174. ^ Watkins 1995, p. 429.
  175. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 379.
  176. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 283.
  177. ^ a b c Koch 2020, p. 141.
  178. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Orel 2003, p. 310.
  179. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 313.
  180. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 421.
  181. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 314.
  182. ^ a b c d Kroonen 2013, p. 439.
  183. ^ de Vries 1962, p. 481.
  184. ^ Oxford English Dictionary 2021, s.v. scold, n.
  185. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 386.
  186. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 562.
  187. ^ a b c Orel 2003, p. 398.
  188. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 504.
  189. ^ Koch 2020, p. 119.
  190. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 402.
  191. ^ a b c d Orel 2003, p. 406.
  192. ^ a b Kroonen 2013, p. 516.
  193. ^ Lehmann 1986, p. 13.
  194. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 603.
  195. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 618.
  196. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Orel 2003, p. 465.
  197. ^ a b c d e f Kroonen 2013, p. 585.
  198. ^ Orel 2003, pp. 465–466.
  199. ^ a b c d e Kroonen 2013, p. 586.
  200. ^ a b c d e Orel 2003, p. 468.
  201. ^ a b c de Vries 1962, p. 416.

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