Germany–Iraq relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
German-Iraqi relations
Map indicating locations of Germany and Iraq

Germany

Iraq
German embassy in Baghdad, Iraq.

German-Iraqi relations are foreign relations between Germany and Iraq. Iraq has an embassy in Frankfurt, while Germany has an embassy in Baghdad.

There are currently living around 250,000 Iraqis in Germany.[1]

History[edit]

Nazi Germany[edit]

The 1941 Iraqi coup d'état (Arabic: ثورة رشيد عالي الكيلاني), also called the Rashid Ali Al-Gaylani coup or the Golden Square coup, was a nationalist and pro-German coup d'état in Iraq on 1 April 1941 that overthrew the pro-British regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah and Prime Minister Nuri al-Said and installed Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as prime minister. Iraq remained a co-belligerent state of the Axis Powers and ally of Nazi Germany until it fought against the United Kingdom during the Anglo-Iraqi War in May 1941, which resulted in the downfall of Ali's government, the reoccupation of Iraq by the British Empire and the restoration to power of the Regent of Iraq, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, who was pro-German.

East Germany[edit]

Iraq had full diplomatic recognition to East Germany then the only noncommunist regime to do so. Iraq's full diplomatic recognition of East Germany and Foreign Minister Otto Winzer's acknowledgement of the recognition were announced in Neues Deutschland on 2 May 1969.[2]

The Iraqi decision did not come entirely as a surprise since it followed an extended visit by Abdul Karim al-Shaykhli to the Soviet Union and East Germany from 20 to 31 March 1969.[3] Discussions amounted to both countries tightening relations and taking further "steps for deepening cooperation in political, economic and cultural fields". Iraq thus became the fourteenth state to recognise East Germany. In addition to the thirteen "socialist" states, it was the first of the non-aligned or "third" world state to make that decision.

Meanwhile, Iraq exported oil to East Germany,[4] which exported military vehicles and weapons to Iraq. In 1982, East Germany exported weapons both to Iran and Iraq, which were at war with each other).[5]

Relations with West Germany and Reunified Germany[edit]

Although Iraq had relations with West Germany since 1953, Iraq and the other Arab states severed relations with it for establishing of relations with Israel. The ties were later restored.[6]

After the Gulf War in 1990 to 1991 and during the occupation after the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime, diplomatic relations had been continued to a limited degree.

Germany, along with China, Russia, France and Belgium, steadfastly countered the proposal the 2003 Iraq War[7]

In August 2014, the German government announced that it would be supplying weapons to Kurdish peshmerga forces, which were fighting ISIL. The shipments include arms, armour and communications equipment. The German Ministry of Defence reported that the military aid would be enough to supply 4,000 Kurdish peshmerga forces.[8]

The military aid, worth approximately €70 million, includes 8,000 G36 rifles and four million rounds of ammunition, 8,000 G3 rifles and two million rounds of ammunition, 8,000 P1 pistols and one million rounds of ammunition, 40 MG3 machine guns and one million rounds of ammunition, 200 Panzerfaust 3 rocket-propelled grenade launchers and 2,500 rocket propelled grenades, 30 MILAN anti tank missile systems and 500 missiles, 40 Wolf light utility vehicle and 20 armored Wolf light utility vehicles, 40 UNIMOG trucks, and 5 Dingo-1 infantry mobility vehicles.[9]

By December 2014, in support of the American-led military intervention against ISIL, the German abinet approved the deployment of up to 100 Bundeswehr troops to northern Iraq to train peshmerga forces.[10]

Trade[edit]

Estimates for 2018 put German–Iraqi trade at 1,76 billion euro. Over 600 German companies trade with Iraq. Germany imports mainly oil and exports chemicals, machines and electronics.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Foreigners from Iraq in Germany (2018)". Statista (in German). Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  2. ^ "ND-Archiv: 02.05.1969". www.nd-archiv.de. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  3. ^ Wentker, Hermann (2012-10-31). Foreign policy within narrow limits: the GDR in the international system 1949-1989. Publications on SBZ / GDR research in the Institute for Contemporary History (in German). Walter de Gruyter. p. 284. ISBN 978-3-486-70738-0.
  4. ^ Schmidt, Paul G. (2019-06-04). International monetary policy in the socialist state: Theoretical foundation and empirical examination using the example of the GDR (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 292. ISBN 978-3-11-051014-0.
  5. ^ mdr.de. "Solidarity astray | MDR.DE". www.mdr.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  6. ^ "Liste der deutschen Botschafter im Irak", Wikipedia (in German), 2019-08-21, retrieved 2020-05-25
  7. ^ "A German View of the Iraq War - 2003-12-12 | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 2020-05-25.
  8. ^ "Germany to arm Kurdish forces fighting Islamic State in Iraq". Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle. dpa/AP. 31 August 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  9. ^ Kimball, Spencer (1 September 2014). "German weapons deliveries to Iraq's Kurdish region". Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  10. ^ Hudson, Alexandra. Evans, Dominic (ed.). "German cabinet approves training mission to Iraq". Reuters (17 December 2014). Reuters. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  11. ^ Wirtschaftswoche. "Trade volume of 1.7 billion euros: German economy relies on trade with Iraq". www.wiwo.de (in German). Retrieved 2020-05-25.

External links[edit]

Media related to Relations of Germany and Iraq at Wikimedia Commons