Getty-Dubay is a modern version of Italic script developed in 1976 by Barbara Getty and Inga Dubay to ease the transition to cursive. Other than strokes to join the letters, only the lower-case letter 'k' and a few upper-case letters have forms different from their printed equivalents. Reportedly, about one-third of American homeschoolers (and about 7% of USA schoolchildren generally) now learn Getty-Dubay rather than conventional manuscript-then-cursive handwriting styles. Getty-Dubay books were previously published by Portland State University and are now self-published by the authors and Allport Editions. Another modern Italic handwriting curriculum used in the USA, similar to Getty-Dubay in many respects, is Barchowsky Fluent Handwriting.