|Studio album by Stan Getz and João Gilberto|
|Recorded||March 18–19, 1963|
|Studio||A&R Recording Studios, New York City|
|Genre||Jazz, bossa nova|
|Stan Getz and João Gilberto chronology|
Getz/Gilberto is an album by American saxophonist Stan Getz and Brazilian guitarist João Gilberto, featuring pianist and composer Antônio Carlos Jobim (Tom Jobim), who also composed many of the tracks. It was released in March 1964 on Verve Records. The album features the vocals of Astrud Gilberto on two tracks, "Garota de Ipanema" ("The Girl from Ipanema") and "Corcovado". The artwork was done by artist Olga Albizu. Getz/Gilberto is a jazz and bossa nova album, and includes tracks such as "Desafinado", "Corcovado", and "Garota de Ipanema". The latter received a Grammy Award for Record of the Year, and launched Astrud Gilberto to international stardom. "Doralice" and "Para Machucar Meu Coração" strengthened Gilberto's and Jobim's respect for the tradition of pre-bossa nova samba.
Getz/Gilberto is considered the record that popularized bossa nova worldwide, and was one of the best-selling jazz albums of all time. The album was also a commercial success, selling more than 2 million copies in 1964. It was later featured in Rolling Stone's and Vibe's lists of best albums of all time. Getz/Gilberto was widely acclaimed by music critics, who praised Gilberto's vocals and the album's bossa nova groove and minimalism. Getz/Gilberto received Grammy Awards for Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group and Best Engineered Recording - Non-Classical; it also became the first non-American album to win one for Album of the Year, in 1965.
Bossa nova was introduced in 1958, with the song "Chega de Saudade" ("No More Blues"), sung by Elizeth Cardoso in her album Canção do Amor Demais. Arranged by Tom Jobim and João Gilberto, the song received both praise and criticism for its rhythmic and harmonic elements unusual for samba. Gilberto also played acoustic guitar on another track, "Outra Vez", composed by Jobim. A few months later, Gilberto recorded his first single, "Chega de Saudade"/"Bim-Bom", the latter his own composition. The single defined the new aesthetic in música popular brasileira. This would lead to his debut album, Chega de Saudade (1959).
Jazz, however, suffered a commercial and artistic crisis, due to the advent of other popular genres such as rock and roll, and desperately sought a renewal. In 1961, Tony Bennett made a trip to Brazil along with bassist Don Payne, and both became familiar with modern Brazilian popular music. Payne took numerous Brazilian records when he returned to United States; he then showed them to his friend and neighbor Stan Getz. Getz was excited about the sound of bossa nova, and released two records: Jazz Samba and Big Band Bossa Nova, both in 1962. Bossa nova became so popular that the title Big Band Bossa Nova was also used for three other 1962 albums: by Quincy Jones, Oscar Castro-Neves and Enoch Light.
Jazz Samba, featuring Charlie Byrd, quickly sold a million copies[a] and received positive reviews in United States. However, the record labels' rush to exploit the new Brazilan sound led to musicians introducing serious errors in melody and harmony in the music. For example, the sheet music of "Desafinado" as published in The New Real Book (1995)—a compilation of jazz and bossa nova songs—is the Charlie Byrd version from Jazz Samba, which contains many errors. There was a third Getz release, Jazz Samba Encore!, featuring Brazilian singer and guitarist Luiz Bonfá. The album sold well,[b] but the "trilogy" did not satisfy the producers commercially to compete with Elvis Presley, Bobby Darin, Pat Boone, Henry Mancini and others.
On November 21, 1962, the first North American concert of Bossa Nova – the New Brazilian Jazz – was presented at Carnegie Hall by João Gilberto, Tom Jobim, Bonfá, Roberto Menescal and Sérgio Mendes among others. According to critic Liliana Harb Bollos, the goal of this concert was to "spread música popular brasileira in the capital of jazz". By this time bossa nova had declined in Brazil, but continued to enjoy popularity in other countries. After the Carnegie Hall concert record producer Creed Taylor wanted Jobim and Gilberto to meet Getz for an "historical documentation" of the genre's style. This happened in 1963 with Getz/Gilberto, released five years after the birth of bossa nova in Brazil.
Recording and composition
The recording sessions commenced on March 18, 1963, at A&R Recording Studios in New York and were completed on the following day. Phil Ramone, who owned A&R Recording Studios, was the album's sound engineer. Produced by Creed Taylor, the album was released by Verve Records. The rhythm section backing Getz was Jobim on piano, Sebastião Neto (pt) on bass and Milton Banana on drums, (Neto was not credited after being hired by another record label, Audio Fidelity. As a result, the double bassist credited on Getz/Gilberto is Tommy Williams, Getz' regular bassist. Williams, however, did not perform at the recording sessions.) Interestingly, the rhythm section plays in a binary (2
4) time signature, which is typical for samba although Getz used jazz's usual quaternary time signature (common time).
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Astrud Gilberto, who had never sung professionally before was featured on two tracks,  "The Girl from Ipanema" and "Corcovado (Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars)". Like João Gilberto, Astrud Gilberto has a quiet, almost whispered vocal style which would become an important influence on female vocalists in bossa nova. On João Gilberto's first three albums—Chega de Saudade, O Amor, o Sorriso e a Flor (1960) and João Gilberto (1961)—the vibrato in his voice is not entirely absent like on Getz/Gilberto.
Stylistic features of bossa nova such as restraint and lyrical objectivity are further developed in Getz/Gilberto building on Gilberto's previous albums. Jobim's piano performance is minimalist, contributing only what is needed. Besides playing piano, Jobim was also responsible for some of the arrangements and co-wrote nearly all of the songs except "Doralice" and "Pra Machucar Meu Coração", both old sambas, which are more polished and serious in Gilberto's version. All the other songs are compositions by Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes ("The Girl from Ipanema", "Só Danço Samba" and "O Grande Amor") and Jobim and Newton Mendonça (in "Desafinado"). "Corcovado (Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars)" and "Vivo Sonhando" were composed solely by Jobim.
According to Ruy Castro, Gilberto and Getz often disagreed on which was the best take leaving the choice to producer Creed Taylor. During one session, Gilberto, who did not speak English, and impatient with Getz's rhythmic style, told Antônio Carlos Jobim: "Tell this gringo he is an idiot". Jobim then translated: "Stan, João is saying that his dream always was to record with you". Getz's harder approach to the music did not please Gilberto who preferred a more delicate style. Due to these artistic differences, Getz/Gilberto #2 features Getz and his quartet on side A, and Gilberto, by himself, on side B. In spite of the tension in the studio Gilberto would continue to collaborate with Getz. Ten years after the release of Getz/Gilberto the pair reunited at the Keystone Korner club, in San Francisco for a six-day engagement promoting their new album, The Best of Two Worlds.[c]
Gene Lees wrote the English lyrics for "Corcovado". Norman Gimbel, who wrote the English lyrics for "Garota de Ipanema", felt that the reference to "Ipanema" wouldn't mean anything to Americans but Jobim insisted on keeping the reference to the beach.[d] Producer Taylor shelved the project for nearly a year, because he was afraid the record might be a commercial failure. As a consequence, Getz/Gilberto was finally released in March 1964.
The artwork featured on the cover of the album is the work of Puerto Rican artist Olga Albizu. An abstract expressionist plastic artist, she also designed the covers of several other bossa nova albums by Getz.
Susan Noye Platt, art critic and historian, wrote about Albizu's relationship with bossa nova:
|“||There is a controlled and subtle sensuality to her [Albizu's] work, that speaks of hidden layers of emotion, rather than letting everything appear on the surface to be consumed. In the case of Albizu, the connection to music, and particularly bossa nova, as well as her exposure to Hans Hofmann's ideas of "push and pull", allows for the work to exist without other reference points. The colors do indeed move like large full sounds, a connection that takes us all the back to Kandinsky.||”|
|The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide|||
It won the 1965 Grammy Awards for Best Album of the Year, Best Jazz Instrumental Album, Individual or Group and Best Engineered Recording - Non-Classical. "The Girl from Ipanema" also won the award for Record of the Year in 1965. This was the first time a jazz album received Album of the Year. It was the only jazz album to win the award until Herbie Hancock's River: The Joni Letters 43 years later, in 2008.
JazzTimes (11/94, pp. 88–89) – "...essential for all serious jazz collections...served as proof that it is possible for music to be both artistically and commercially successful...this relatively sparse setting with the great Getz perfectly fit the music, resulting in a true gem..." Vibe (12/99, p. 158) – Included in Vibe's 100 Essential Albums of the 20th Century. In 2012, Rolling Stone ranked the album number 447 on its list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. It was listed by Rolling Stone Brazil as one of the 100 best Brazilian albums in history. The album was inducted into the Latin Grammy Hall of Fame in 2001.
|1.||"The Girl from Ipanema"||Antônio Carlos Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes, Norman Gimbel||5:21|
|2.||"Doralice"||Antônio Almeida, Dorival Caymmi||2:47|
|3.||"Para Machucar Meu Coração"||Ary Barroso||5:07|
|4.||"Desafinado"||Jobim, Newton Mendonça||4:09|
|5.||"Corcovado (Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars)"||Jobim||4:17|
|6.||"Só Danço Samba"||Jobim, de Moraes||3:42|
|7.||"O Grande Amor"||Jobim, de Moraes||5:27|
|1997 CD re-release|
|9.||"The Girl from Ipanema"||2:54|
- Stan Getz – tenor saxophone
- João Gilberto – guitar, vocals
- Antônio Carlos Jobim – piano
- Sebastião Neto – double bass
- Milton Banana – drums, pandeiro
- Astrud Gilberto – vocals on "The Girl from Ipanema", "Corcovado", "The Girl from Ipanema" (45 rpm issue) and "Corcovado" (45 rpm issue)"
- Furthermore, Getz' and Byrd's version of "Desafinado" stayed in the Billboard Hot 100 chart for 16 weeks.
- Jazz Samba Encore! was placed in number 88 in the Billboard Hot 100 for 11 weeks—these three records competed with more popular albums; that explains why it is deemed a relative success.
- After the shows promoting Getz/Gilberto, both reunited in the Keystone Korner club, in San Francisco for a six-day show promoting The Best of Two Worlds (1976).
- Jobim himself told about the disagreement in the book O Cancioneiro Jobim: "The American version made me fight much with Norman Gimbel. The Americans refuse anything they don't understand, they don't know [...] All I wanted was to pass forward the spirit of the girl from Ipanema, this carioca and poetic thing. I think we did it, but it was a harsh fight."
- Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice, p.28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
- Bollos 2005, p. 56
- Scarabelot 2005, p. 5
- Lima, Carlos Eduardo (July 25, 2014). "50 anos de Getz/Gilberto - Quando a Bossa Nova Conquistou a América". Monkey Buzz (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Mello 2001
- Castro 1990
- "Billboard". Billboard. January 12, 1963. p. 20. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Bollos 2005, p. 58
- Castro, Ruy (June 26, 2008). "Anatomia de um disco". Brasileiros (pt) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on August 11, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- "Billboard". Billboard. p. 32. Retrieved October 21, 2017.
- Ariza 2006, p. 31
- Rocha, Antônio do Amaral (2007). "Listas - Os 100 Maiores Discos da Música Brasileira - Getz/Gilberto Gil Featuring A. C. Jobim - Stan Getz, João Gilberto e Antonio Carlos Jobim (1963, Verve)". Rolling Stone Brasil (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2017-03-07.
- Muggiati, Roberto (March 15, 2013). "Há 50 anos era gravado Getz/Gilberto o LP que colocou o Brasil no mapa". Gazeta do Povo (pt). Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
- Ariza 2006, p. 75
- Simons 2004, pp. 60–61
- Pinheiro, Marcelo (March 20, 2014). "Getz/Gilberto: 50 anos de um clássico". Brasileiros (pt) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Cunha 2014, p. 40
- Castro 1990
- Fabris 2006, p. 19
- Diniz & Soares 2012, p. 6
- Lichote, Leonardo (February 17, 2013). "Disco Getz/Gilberto completa 50 anos e se mantém influente". O Globo (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on March 25, 2017.
- Pianta 2010, p. 57
- Pianta 2010, p. 17
- "Getz/Gilberto". Music Story. Archived from the original on 2014-09-06.
- Pianta 2010, p. 49
- "Revista Brasileiros" (7-11 ed.). p. 57. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- Palmer 1988, p. 46
- Mello 2001, p. 65
- Evangelista, Ronaldo (June 9, 2015). "Gravadora lança disco com registros de shows de João Gilberto e Stan Getz". Folha de S.Paulo. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
- ""Getz / Gilberto": a Bossa Nova conhecida no mundo!". Prêmio da Música Brasileira. May 27, 2013. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.
- "Verve Records: 20 classic album covers". The Telegraph. May 17, 2016. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
- Platt, Susan Noye (March 10, 2014). ""Our America" Abstraction and Identity". Art and Politcs Now. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016.[self-published source]
- AllMusic review
- Swenson 1985, p. 83
- Wenner 2012
- "Os 100 maiores discos da música brasileira" (in Portuguese). Umas Linhas. 2007-12-20. Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- "Latin GRAMMY Hall Of Fame". Latin Grammy Award. Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences. 2001. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Dimery & Lydon 2010
- See recording session photos showing bassist Sebastião Neto in Castro 1990
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-08-20. (Liner notes by Arnaldo de Souteiro from a 2004 compilation, mentioning incorrect listing – PDF file)
- Ariza, Adonay (2006). Eletronic samba: a música brasileira no contexto das tendências internacionais. Annablume.
- Blatter, Alfred (2007). Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.
- Bollos, Liliana Harb (2005). "A bossa nova através da crítica musical: renovação à custa de mal-estar". Sessões do Imaginário. No. 13. Porto Alegre. pp. 56–61.
- Campos, A (1968). Balanço da Bossa – antologia crítica da moderna música popular brasileira. São Paulo: Perspectiva.
- Castro, Ruy (1990). Chega de Saudade (3 ed.). São Paulo: Companhia das Letras.
- Cunha, Flávio Régis (2014). "Fluxos musicais do arranjador Claus Ogerman em contextos transacionais". Modus. Vol. 9 no. 15.
- Debolt; Baugess (2011). "Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture". ABC-CLIO.
- Dimery, Robert; Lydon, Michael (2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 978-0-7893-2074-2.
- Fabris, Bernardo; Borém, Fausto (2006). Catita na leadsheet de K-Ximbinho e na interpretação de Zé Bodega.. Belo Horizonte: Per Musi. pp. 5–28.
- Mello, Zuza Homem de (2001). João Gilberto. São Paulo: Publifolha.
- Moon, Tom (2008). 1,000 Recordings to Hear Before You Die. Workman Publishing. ISBN 978-0-76-115385-6.
- Palmer, Richard (1988). Stan Getz. Apollo.
- Pianta, Carlo Machado (2010). A Gênese da Bossa Nova: João Gilberto e Tom Jobim. Porto Alegre: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
- Scarabelot, André Luis (2005). "Música Brasileira e Jazz - O Outro Lado da História. Entrevistas com músicos jazzistas". Revista Digital Art&. Ano III. No. 3.
- Simons, David (2004). Studio Stories – How the Great New York Records Were Made. San Francisco: Backbeat Books.
- Swenson, J., ed. (1985). The Rolling Stone Jazz Record Guide. USA: Random House/Rolling Stone. p. 83. ISBN 0-394-72643-X.
- Wenner, Jann S., ed. (2012). "Rolling Stone – Special Collectors Issue – The 500 Greatest Albums Of All Time". USA: Wenner Media Specials. ISBN 978-7-09-893419-6.