Ghana Road Network

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Roads in Ghana form a network of varied quality and capacity. Responsibility for the road network differs between trunk and non-trunk routes. Trunk roads, which are the most important roads, are administered by the Ghana Highway Authority, which was established in 1974 to develop the trunk road network. Ghana's 13,367 km of trunk roads accounts for 33% of the total road network of 40,186 km.[1] The Department of Feeder Roads is responsible for the construction and maintenance of feeder roads in Ghana, while responsibility for urban roads lies with the Department of Urban Roads.[2]

Road distances are shown in kilometers and Ghana speed limits are indicated in kilometers per hour (km/h). Generally, speed limits range from 30 to 50 km/h (20 to 30 mph) in urban areas, 80 km/h (50 mph) on Regional and Inter-Regional highways (R and IR routes), 100 km/h (60 mph) on National highways (N routes) and 120 km/h (75 mph) on motorways.

Classification[edit]

Trunk roads in Ghana are classified as N for National routes, R for Regional routes, and IR for Inter-Regional routes. Each road is given a number which is combined with the prefix, for example N1, R40 and IR11, although their informal or traditional names may still be used or heard occasionally: for instance the Accra - Kumasi Road (now part of the N6).

National highway network

National routes[edit]

National routes in Ghana are a class of roads and highways that form the trunk routes between major urban centers. Together, they form the backbone of the road system. This category of roads is designated with the letter N followed by a number indicating the specific route.[3] Odd-numbered routes run east to west, while even-numbered routes run north to south.

List of routes[edit]

AS Ashanti Region, BA Brong-Ahafo Region, CR Central Region, ER Eastern Region, GR Greater Accra Region, NR Northern Region, UE Upper East Region, UW Upper West Region, VR Volta Region, WR Western Region

Number Route Length (km) Length (mi)
N1 Elubo (N12) - Mpataba (R19) - Esiama (R88) - Abra (R86) - Agona (R84) - Sekondi-Takoradi - Cape Coast (R82) - Yamoransa (N8) - Saltpond (R80) - Mankessim (IR1) - Apam Junction (R62) - Ojobi Junction (R17) - Winneba (IR2) - Nyanyano (R15) - Accra (N6) - Tetteh Quarshie Interchange, Accra (N4), Dawhenya (R13) - Sege (R18) - Kase (R11) - Dabala (R16) - Akatsi (R12, R14) - Denu (R11) - Aflao 540 340
N2 Tema (N1) - Asikuma - Kpong (N3) - Adomi (N5) - Have-Etoe (R26) - Fume (R28) - Golokwati (IR7) - Hohoe (R10) - Jasikan (R23) - Kadjebi (R25) - Nkwanta (R27) - Nakpayili (R202 - Bimbila (R29) - Pusuga (N9) - Yendi (R201, R204) - Sakpeigu (N14 - Gushiegu (R107, R110) - Nyakpanduri (IR11) - Bawku (N11) - Kulungugu 640 400
N3 Kpong (N2) - Somanya (R30) - Oterkpalu (IR3) - Koforidua (R42) 40 25
N4 Accra (N1) - Adenta (R40) - Mamfe (R22) - Koforidua (R42) - Asokore (R41) - Bunso (N6, R32) 110 68
N5 Adome (N2) - Juapong - Ho (R10, R26, R55) 40 25
N6 Accra (N1) - Nsawam (IR1) - Suhum (R41) - Apedwa (R60) - Bunso (N4) - Anyinam (R61) - Nkawkaw (IR3) - Juaso (IR2) - Konongo (R76) - Bomfa (R87) - Ejisu (R104) - Kumasi (IR4, IR5, N10, R108, R52) 250 160
N7 Sawla (N12) - Larabanga - Fufulsu (N10) 140 87
N8 Yamoransa (N1) - Dunkwa - Fomena - Bekwai - Kumasi (N6, N10) 170 110
N9 Tamale (N10) - Jimle - Yendi (N2) 100 62
N10 Kumasi (N6, N8)- Techiman - Tamale - Bolgatanga - Paga 610 380
N11 Bolgatanga - Zebilla - Bawku - Bimpiela 100 62
N12 Elubo (N1) - Enchi - Sunyani - Bamboi - Wa - Lawra - Hamile 670 420
N13 Lawra - Tumu - Navrongo 180 110
N14 Sakpeigu - Cheperoni - Yawgu 120 75
N16 Tumu - Kapulima 20 12
N18 Wa - Heng 79 49

Inter-regional routes[edit]

Inter-Regional routes, designated with the prefix IR, connect major settlements and regional capitals across regional borders. Running east to west are odd-numbered routes, while north-south routes are even-numbered.

List of routes[edit]

AS Ashanti Region, BA Brong-Ahafo Region, CR Central Region, ER Eastern Region, GR Greater Accra Region, NR Northern Region, UE Upper East Region, UW Upper West Region, VR Volta Region, WR Western Region

Number Route
IR1 Aburi, ER - Mankessim, CR
IR2 Winneba, CR - Juaso, AS
IR3 Oterkpalu, ER - Obuasi, CR
IR4 Kumasi, AS - Chambuligu, NR
IR5 Abuakwa, ER - Osei Kojokrom, WR
IR6 Agona, WR - Ayamfuri,CR
IR7 Kame, VR - Nkonsia, ER
IR8 Dunkwa, WR - Kyeremaso, BA
IR9 Prang, BA - Berekum, BA
IR10 Busunu, NR - Chuchuligu, UE
IR11 Yawgu, NR - Pala, UW

Regional routes[edit]

Regional routes are a mix of primary and secondary routes that link major settlements and serve as feeder roads to the National route network. Major regional routes are designated with the letter R followed by a two-digit number, while Minor regional routes are designated with the letter R followed by a three-digit number.

Designation as a Regional route does not imply that a road is maintained by a regional authority; some parts of the Regional route network are maintained by the Ghana Highway Authority, and parts in cities and towns may be ordinary streets maintained by the Department of Urban Roads and the Department of Feeder Roads. Regional routes vary in quality and size from dirt roads to multi-lane paved highways.

Major regional routes[edit]

Major regional routes are the second category of road in the Ghana trunk road network. They serve as feeder roads to the national route network, and are the primary trunk roads in areas where there is no national route.

List of routes[edit]

AS Ashanti Region, BA Brong-Ahafo Region, CR Central Region, ER Eastern Region, GR Greater Accra Region, NR Northern Region, UE Upper East Region, UW Upper West Region, VR Volta Region, WR Western Region

Number Route
R10 Denu, VR – Ho, VR
R11 Kasseh, VR – Denu, VR
R12 Akatsi, VR – Akanu, VR
R13 Akplabnya, GR - Dodowa, GR
R14 Akatsi, VR – Ziope, VR
R15 Nyanyano, CR – Bawjiase, CR
R16 Srogbe, VR – Dabala, VR
R17 Ojobi, CR – Senya-Beraku, CT
R18
R19 Mpataba, WR – Jewi Wharf, WR
R20
R21 Atimpoku, ER – Akosombo, ER
R22
R23 Jasikan, VR – Worawora, VR
R24 Frankadua, VR – Adidome, VR
R25 Kadjebi, VR – Apesokubi, VR
R26 Have, VR – Borae, VR
R27 Nkwanta, WR – Dambai, NR
R28 Fume, VR – Sogakope, VR
R29 Zabzugu, NR - Salaga, NR
R30 Adukrom, WR – Odumase, AS
R31
R32 Begoro, ER – Dominase, ER
R33
R34
R35
R36 New Edubiase, AS – Saponso, AS
R38 Agyenkwaso, AS - Gyadem, AS
R40 Accra, GR - Somanya, ER
R42 Mamfe, ER – Nkurakan, ER
R43 Juansa, AS – Offinso, AS
R44 Agogo, AS – Jema, BA
R45 Aframso, AS – Sekyedumase, AS
R47 Kwadwokrom, BA – Nkoranza, BA
R49 Kpandae, NR – Salaga, NR
R50 Ho, VR – Dzelukope, VR
R52 Kumasi, AS – New Offinso, AS
R54 Ohiyeanisa, WR – Drobo, BA
R60 Apedwa, ER – Bunso, ER
R61 Anyinam, ER – Kade, ER
R62 Apam, CR – Kade, ER
R63 Tepa, BA – Goase, BA
R64 Adaiso, ER – Obogu, AS
R65 Mankraso, AS – Tepa, AS
R66 Bechem, BA – Akumadan, AS
R68 Berekum, BA – Nkawkaw, BA
R70 Golokwati, VR – Hohoe, VR
R71 Techiman, BA – Buoku, BA
R72 Ekyiaenfokrom, ER – New Kyease, ER
R74 Surukrom, AS – Kwamedanso, BA
R76 Konongo, AS – Atebubu, BA
R80 Saltpond, CR – Abura Dunkwa, CR
R81 Assin Foso, CR – Insu, WR
R82 Cape Coast, CR – Twifo Praso, CR
R83 Asubua, CR – Dunkwa, CR
R84 Discove, WR – Agona, WR
R85 Busuta, WR – Busua, WR
R86 Princess Town, WR – Abra, WR
R87 Bomfa, AS – Bekwai, AS
R88 Esiama, WR – Anibil, WR
R90 Tamale, NR – Karaga, NR
R91 Nanton, NR – Kunbungu, NR
R92 Tamale, NR – Mankarigu, NR
R93 Wenchi, BA – Sampa, WR
R94 Menji, BA – Banda Nkwanta, NR

Minor regional routes[edit]

Minor Regional Routes are the third category of road in the Ghana trunk road network. They serve as feeder roads connecting smaller towns to the national and major regional route network.

List of routes[edit]

AS Ashanti Region, BA Brong-Ahafo Region, CR Central Region, ER Eastern Region, GR Greater Accra Region, NR Northern Region, UE Upper East Region, UW Upper West Region, VR Volta Region, WR Western Region

Number Route
R100 Atobiase, WR – Nyenase, CR
R101 Essamam, WR – Tarkwa, WR
R103 Obuasi, AS – Apowa, WR
R104 Bekwai, AS – Kumawu, AS
R105 Awiankwanta, AS – Adumasa, AS
R106 Kumasi, AS – Abono, AS
R107 Gushiegu, NR – Pigu, NR
R108 Manso Nkwanta, AS – Toase, AS
R109 Tamale, NR – Daboya, NR
R110 Gushiegu, NR – Nalerigu, NR
R113 Naga, UE – Wiagayisoaso, UE
R114 Bolgatanga, UE – Feo, UE
R116 Wulugu, NR – Navrongo, UE
R121 Tarkwa, WR – Akyemfo, WR
R122 Samreboi, WR – Asankragwa, WR
R123 Bawdie, WR – Enchi, WR
R124 Asankragwa, WR – Humjibre, WR
R125 Diaso, WR – Juabeso, WR
R126 Dadieso, WR – Buako, WR
R127 Asawinso, WR – Sefwi Bekwai, WR
R128 Hwidiem, BA – Atroni, BA
R129 Kramokrom, WR – New Debiso, WR
R131 Tumu, UW – Hamile, UW
R132 Nadowli, UW – Nandom, UW
R180 Yala, UW – Wahabu, UW
R181 Sanadema, UE – Fian, UW
R182 Walembele, UW – Tumu, UW
R184 Hian, UW – Gbal, UW
R201 Tatali, NR – Tamale, NR
R202 Ketekrachi, VR – Nakpayili, NR
R204 Yendi, NR – Chereponi, NR

Signage[edit]

N6 route marker
A typical directional sign on a highway in Ghana

Signage on the Ghana network conforms broadly to international norms. All length distances are shown in kilometers, speed is in kilometers per hour, whilst height and width restrictions are shown in meters. Signs may be of an informative, warning or instructional nature. Instructional signs are generally circular, warnings are triangular, and informative signs are rectangular or square. Informative signs, which include directional signs, use white text on a blue background.

References[edit]

External links[edit]