Ghanaian cuisine

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Ghanaian fruit pineapple and taro leaves (Ghanaian masterclass dish)
Location of Ghana

Ghanaian cuisine is the cuisine of the Ghanaian people. Ghanaian main dishes are organized around a starchy staple food, with which goes a sauce or soup containing a protein sauce. The main ingredient for the vast majority of soups and stews are tomatoes- canned or fresh tomatoes can be used. As a result, nearly all Ghanaian soups and stews are red or orange in appearance.

Main staple foods[edit]

Ghanaian style banku
Ghanaian-produced sweet corn

The typical staple foods in the southern part of Ghana include cassava and plantain. In the northern part, the main staple foods include millet and sorghum. Yam, maize and beans are used across Ghana as staple foods. Sweet potatoes and cocoyam are also important in the Ghanaian diet and cuisine. With the advent of globalization, crops such as rice and wheat have been increasingly incorporated into Ghanaian cuisine. The foods below represent Ghanaian dishes made out of these staple foods.

Foods made with maize[edit]

  • Akple, as it is called among the Ewe, is also called banku or etsew (without the corn husk maintains whitish color) among the Fanti. Sometimes only cornflour is used.
  • Mmore is cooked fermented corn dough without cassava, prepared like banku among the Akan people.
  • Kenkey/[Komi]/Dokonu – fermented corn dough, wrapped in corn originating from the Ga who call it komi or Ga kenkey. Another variety originating from the Fanti people is Fante Dokono or Fanti Kenkey which is wrapped with plantain leaves that give it a different texture, flavour and colour as compared to the Ga kenkey. Both are boiled for long periods into a consistent solid balls.
  • Tuo Zaafi – a millet, sorghum or maize dish originating from Northern Ghana
  • Fonfom – a maize dish popular in south-western Ghana

Foods made with rice[edit]

  • Waakyea dish of rice and beans with a purple-brown color. The color comes from an indigenous leaf known as sorghum bicolor[1]. This side dish bears striking similarities to West Indian rice and peas. The rice is cooked and steamed with an indigenous leaf, coconut and a pulse such as black-eyed or kidney beans
  • 3mo Tuo/Rice ball – sticky mashed rice is normally eaten with Ghanaian soup.
  • Plain rice – boiled rice accompanies many of the variety of red stews
  • Jollof rice – rice cooked in a stew consisting of stock, tomatoes, spices, and meat boiled together. This dish originated from the Djolof traders from Senegal who settled in the Zongos before the colonial period. Adapted for local Ghanaian tastes, it is typically eaten with goat, lamb, chicken or beef that has been stewed, roasted or grilled. It is also one of the National Dish of Ghana[2] see recipe. How to make Oven Baked Jollof Rice, and Jollof Rice Cooked with Coconut Milk[3]
  • Fried rice – Chinese-style fried rice adapted to Ghanaian tastes.
  • Angwa moo — Call it "oiled rice", and every Ghanaian will commend your effort to find an English name for it. This is unlike fried rice which you cook the rice before frying. Oiled rice is cooked by first onion-frying the oil, then adding water after the onions have browned. This will give the rice a different fragrance. The rice is then cooked in the water-oil mixture, to give the rice an oily feel when ready. It may be cooked with vegetables or minced meat, to add to your taste. It is mostly served with earthenware-grinded pepper, with either tinned sardines or fried eggs complementing it.
  • Ngwo moo (Palm rice) — It's an alternative to the oiled rice. Only this is cooked with palm oil, instead of cooking oil. The taste is determined by the type of palm oil used.

Foods made with cassava[edit]

  • Konkonte or Abete3 – from dried peeled cassava powder usually served alongside Groundnut Soup, consisting of variety of red meat such as tripe, lamb and smoked cat fish
  • Fufuo – pounded cassava and plantain or pounded yam and plantain, or pounded cocoyam/taro. This side dish is always accompanied with one of the many varieties of Ghanaian soups
  • Gari – made from cassava. Often served with "Red Red" - fish and black-eyed bean stew or Shito and fish
  • Attiéké or Akyeke – made from cassava and popular among the Ahanta, Nzema and Akan-speaking people of Ivory Coast
  • Plakali – made from cassava and popular among the Ahanta, Nzema and Akan-speaking people of Ivory Coast

Foods made with beans[edit]

A deviation to the starch and stew combination are "Red Red" and "tubaani". These are primarily based on vegetable protein (beans). *"Red Red" is a popular Ghanaian bean and fish stew served with fried ripe plantain and often accompanied with gari and avocado. It earns its name from the palm oil that tints the bean stew and the bright orange color of the fried ripe plantain.

  • Tubaani – boiled bean cake. It is also called moimoi in Nigeria.

Foods made with yam[edit]

  • Ampesie – boiled yam. It may also be made with plantain, cocoyam, potatoes, yams or cassava. This side dish is traditionally eaten with fish stew containing tomatoes, oil and spices.
  • Yam fufuo – fufuo made with yam instead of cassava or plantain or cocoyam, this soft dough is traditionally eaten with any of the varieties of Ghanaian soup. It is popular in Northern and southeastern Ghana.
  • Mpotompoto (yam casserole or porridge) - slices of yam cooked with lots of water and a measurable amount of pepper, onions, tomatoes, salt and preferable seasoning. It is universally eaten in Ghanaian environs but not as often as other dishes.

Soups and stews[edit]

Most Ghanaian side dishes are served with a stew, soup or Mako (a spicy condiment made from raw red and green chilies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce). Ghanaian stews and soups are quite sophisticated, with liberal and delicate use of exotic ingredients, a wide variety of flavours, spices and textures.

Vegetables such as palm nuts, peanuts, cocoyam leaves, ayoyo, spinach, wild mushroom, okra, garden eggs (eggplant), tomatoes and various types of pulses are the main ingredients in Ghanaian soups and stews and in the case of pulses, may double as the main protein ingredient.

Beef, pork, goat, lamb, chicken, smoked turkey, tripe, dried snails, and fried fish are common sources of protein in Ghanaian soups and stews, sometimes mixing different types of meat and occasionally fish into one soup. Soups are served as a main course rather than a starter. It is also common to find smoked meat, fish and seafood in Ghanaian soups and stews.

Koobi is dried tilapia that has been salted

They include crab, shrimp, periwinkles, octopus, snails, grubs, duck, offal, and pig's trotters. Also oysters.

Meat, mushrooms and seafood may be smoked, salted or dried for flavour enhancement and preservation. Salt fish is widely used to flavour fish based stews. Spices such as thyme, garlic, onions, ginger, peppers, curry, basil, nutmeg, sumbala, Tetrapleura tetraptera (prekese) and bay leaf are delicately used to achieve the exotic and spicy flavours that characterizes Ghanaian cuisine.

Palm oil, coconut oil, shea butter, palm kernel oil and peanut oil are important Ghanaian oils used for cooking or frying and may sometime not be substituted in certain Ghanaian dishes. For example, using palm oil in okro stew, eto, fante fante,[4] red red, egusi stew and mpihu/mpotompoto (similar to Poi).[5] Coconut oil, palm kernel oil and shea butter have lost their popularity for cooking in Ghana due to the introduction of refined oils and negative Ghanaian media adverts targeted at those oils. They are now mostly used in few traditional homes, for soap making and by commercial (street food) food vendors as a cheaper substitute to refined cooking oils.

Common Ghanaian soups are groundnut soup,[6] light (tomato) soup,[6] kontomire (taro leaves) soup, Palm Nut Soup,[7] ayoyo soup and okra soup.

Ghanaian tomato stew or gravy is a stew that is often served with rice or waakye. Other vegetable stews are made with kontomire, garden eggs, egusi (pumpkin seeds), spinach, okra, etc.

Breakfast meals[edit]

Most of the dishes mentioned above are served during lunch and supper in modern Ghana. However, those engaged in manual labour and a large number of urban dwellers still eat these foods for breakfast and will usually buy them from the streets.

In large Ghanaian cities, working-class people would often take fruit, tea, chocolate drink, oats, rice porridge (locally called rice water) or kooko (fermented maize porridge) and koose/akara or maasa (rice, ripe plantain and maize meal fritters).[8] Other breakfast foods include grits, tombrown (roasted maize porridge), and millet porridge.[8]

Bread is an important feature in Ghanaian breakfast and baked foods. Ghanaian bread, which is known for its good quality, is baked with wheat flour and sometimes cassava flour is added for an improved texture. There are four major types of bread in Ghana. They are tea bread (similar to the baguette), sugar bread (which is a sweet bread), brown (whole wheat) bread, and butter bread. Rye bread, oat bread and malt bread are also quite common.[9]

Sweet foods[edit]

Etor is a popular dish in south Ghana, prepared with plantain and/or with yam boiled and mashed, and mixed with palm oil. Groundnuts (peanuts) and eggs are used to garnish the dish.

There are many sweet local foods which have been marginalized due to their low demand and long preparation process. Ghanaian sweet foods (or confectionery) may be fried, barbecued, boiled, roasted, baked or steamed.

Fried sweet foods include cubed and spiced ripe plantain (kelewele) sometimes served with peanuts. Koose made from peeled beans (and its close twin Acarajé or akara made from beans which is not peeled), maasa,[10][11] pinkaaso,[12] and bofrot/puff-puff[13] (made from wheat flour); kuli-kuli,[14] dzowey and nkate cake (made from peanuts);[15] kaklo and tatale[16] (ripe plantain fritters); kube cake and kube toffee (made from coconut); bankye krakro, gari biscuit,[17][18] and krakye ayuosu (made from cassava); condensed milk, toffee, plantain chips (or fried plantain)[19] and wagashi[20] (fried farmer's cheese) are fried Ghanaian savory foods (confectionery).

Kebabs are popular barbecues and can be made from beef, goat, pork, soy flour, sausages and guinea fowl. Other roasted savoury foods include roasted plantain, maize, yam and cocoyam.

Steamed fresh maize, Yakeyake, Kafa, Akyeke, tubani, moimoi (bean cake), emo dokonu (rice cake) and esikyire dokonu (sweetened kenkey) are all examples of steamed and boiled foods whilst sweet bread, (plantain cake), and meat pie similar to Jamaican patties and empanadas are baked savoury foods. Aprapransa, eto (mashed yam) and atadwe milk (tiger nut juice) are other savory foods. Gari soakings is a modern favorite. It is a blend of gari (dried, roasted cassava), sugar, groundnut (peanut) and milk.

Beverages[edit]

Ghanaian beverages at a convenience store in Ghana

In south Ghana, Ghanaian drinks such as asaana (made from fermented maize) are common. Along the Lake Volta and south Ghana, palm wine extracted from the palm tree can be found, but it ferments quickly and then it is used to distil akpeteshie (a local gin).Akpeteshie can be distilled from molasses too. In addition, a beverage can be made from kenkey and refrigerated into what is in Ghana known as iced kenkey. Along north Ghana, bisaab/sorrel, toose and lamujee (a spicy sweetened drink) are common non-alcoholic beverages whereas pitoo (a local beer made of fermented millet) is an alcoholic beverage.

In urban areas of Ghana drinks may include fruit juice, cocoa drinks, fresh coconut water, yogurt, ice cream, carbonated drinks, malt drinks and soy milk.[21][22] In addition, Ghanaian distilleries produce alcoholic beverages from cocoa, malt, sugar cane, local medicinal herbs and tree barks. They include bitters, liqueur, dry gins, beer, and aperitifs.[23][24]

Street foods in Ghana[edit]

Street food is very popular in both rural and urban areas of Ghana. Most Ghanaian families eat at least three times a week from street food vendors, from whom all kinds of foods can be bought, including staple foods such as kenkey, red red and waakye. Other savoury foods such as kebab, boiled corn cob, ballfloat (bo-float) and roasted plantain are sold mainly by street food vendors.

Gallery: Common Ghanaian Dishes[edit]

Banku and grilled tilapia fish 
"Red-Red": bean and fish stew with fried plantain 
Beans, plantain, and chicken 
"One Man Thousand": cooked shrimp and fried Tanganyika sardine 
Roast goat 
Ghanaian "Kɔkɔ a y'atoto"(nickname: Kofi Broke Man) charcoal-roasted ripe plantain 
Ghanaian "Banku Ne Mako" (banku and pepper-tomato sauce) 
Ghanaian style konkonte 
Ghanaian fufu in palmnut soup with goat 
Ghanaian style beans with fried plantains and garri 
Fufuo and light tomato soup with meat 
Fried yam with spicy chicken and kpakpo shito (ground green peppers) 
Jollof rice with coleslaw and barbecue chicken 
Kenkey with fried fish and chili pepper 
Cooked yam and plantain, with garden egg (eggplant) stew and chicken 
Okra stew with crab 
Ghanaian style spicy sauce 
Ghanaian style spicy grilled kebab 
Waakye (rice and beans) served with spaghetti and boiled egg 
Ground red pepper, a Ghanaian delicacy, mainly an accompaniment for banku and kenkey 
Ghanaian peppers and taro leaves 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bicolor Sorghum". www.specialtyproduce.com. Retrieved 2018-03-22. 
  2. ^ "Home – National Dish of the World". nationalfoods.org. Retrieved 2018-05-20. 
  3. ^ "Jollof Rice Cooked with Coconut Milk – National Dish of the World". nationalfoods.org. Retrieved 2018-05-20. 
  4. ^ BetumiBlog: Search results for fante fante[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ BetumiBlog: Search results for mpihu[permanent dead link]
  6. ^ a b BetumiBlog: Search results for peanut butter soup[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ BetumiBlog: Ghanaian Gourmet-Recipe No. 49, continued: Palmnut Soup Archived 12 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Betumiblog.blogspot.com (4 November 2010). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  8. ^ a b Kokoking: Food and nutrition Archived 5 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-11. . Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  9. ^ BetumiBlog: Ghana's Tea Bread Secrets Archived 24 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Betumi.com (5 March 2007). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  10. ^ Breads, Cakes and Pastries Archived 23 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Celtnet.org.uk (9 September 2007). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  11. ^ Snacks Maasa (Sweet Millet Fritters) Archived 21 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Celtnet.org.uk (9 September 2007). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  12. ^ selling pinkaso and kose | Flickr – Photo Sharing!. Flickr (16 September 2009). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  13. ^ "Alternative Bofroat (Ghanaian Doughnuts)". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  14. ^ BetumiBlog Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Betumi.com (11 November 2006). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  15. ^ How To Make Ghanaian Peanut Brittle | Guide (4 Steps) « Wonder How To Archived 12 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Wonderhowto.com (9 June 2011). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  16. ^ Plantain Cakes (Tatale) Recipe from Ghana Archived 14 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Celtnet.org.uk (9 September 2007). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  17. ^ Gari Biscuits Recipe from Ghana Archived 3 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Celtnet.org.uk (9 September 2007). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  18. ^ Food in Ghana – Ghanaian Food, Ghanaian Cuisine Archived 27 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Foodbycountry.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  19. ^ "How It's Made 02 Plantain Chips". Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  20. ^ Ghana foods Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. bsas.org.uk.
  21. ^ Fan Milk Limited | Archived 8 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Fanmilk-gh.net (30 June 2011). Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  22. ^ THE DIVESTITURE IMPLEMENTATION OF GHANA : The Divestiture Program Archived 2 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. Dic.com.gh. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  23. ^ Kasapreko Company Limited produces alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages – an Accra, Ghana manufacturing company Archived 3 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Kasaprekogh.com. Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  24. ^ Guinness Ghana Brewery Ltd. | Association of Alcohol Manufacturers and Importers[permanent dead link]. AAMI. Retrieved 30 November 2011.

External links[edit]