|City of Ghardaïa|
|Province||Ghardaïa Province (seat)|
|District||Ghardaïa District (coextensive)|
|• PMA Seats||15|
|• Total||590 km2 (230 sq mi)|
|Elevation||572 m (1,877 ft)|
|• Density||240/km2 (630/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|Part of||M'Zab Valley|
|Inscription||1982 (6th Session)|
Ghardaïa (Arabic: غرداية, Mzab-Berber: Taɣerdayt) is the capital city of Ghardaïa Province, Algeria. The commune of Ghardaïa has a population of 93,423 according to the 2008 census, up from 87,599 in 1998, with an annual growth rate of 0.7%.
It is located in northern-central Algeria in the Sahara Desert and lies along the left bank of the Wadi Mzab. The M'zab valley in the Ghardaïa Province (Wilaya) was inscribed under the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1982, as a cultural property evaluated under the criteria II (for its settlement affecting urban planning even to the present century), III (for its Ibadi cultural values), and V (a settlement culture which has prevailed to the present century).
Ghardaïa is part of a pentapolis, a hilltop city amongst four others, built almost a thousand years ago in the M’Zab valley. It was founded by the Mozabites, an Ibadi sect of the Amazigh Muslims.
It is a major centre of date production and the manufacture of rugs and cloths. Divided into three walled sectors, it is a fortified town. At the centre is the historical Mʾzabite area, with a pyramid-style mosque and an arcaded square. Distinctive white, pink, and red houses, made of sand, clay and gypsum, rise in terraces and arcades.
The name of Ghardaïa has its origins in a female saint named Daïa who lived in a cave (ghār) in the area before it blossomed into a town inhabited by Ibadite Muslims who came to escape persecution from Fatimite Muslims in the north.
Alternatively, Ghardaïa's name may be derived from the Tamazight word Tagherdayt (ⵟⴰⴳⵀⴻⵔⴷⴰⵢⵜ) meaning the castle, although there is no reliable sourcing to confirm this.
The M'Zab valley, in limestone plateau, was inscribed under the UNESCO Heritage List, is a unique conglomeration of five cities confined in area of 75 km² situated 600 km to the south of Algiers, the capital of Algeria.
The original architecture of the semi desert valley is dated to early 11th century. It is ascribed to the Ibadis, with their cultural identity originally traced to the Maghreb; they had their capital at Tahert as an Ibadi Kingdom. They were forced to leave Tahert consequent to a devastating fire in 909 (it is reported that destruction was caused by the founder of the (Shi'ite) Fatimid Dynasty). They first moved to Sedrata and finally to the M'Zab valley. They settled in five fortified villages located on rocky outcrops, known locally as “Kosars”, although they could have lived in one larger village encompassing all the five. The habitation was planned with meticulous details to precise layouts defined by set principles of community living within a defensive environment. Ghardaïa's foundation has been dated to 1048 or 1053.
Each village was planned in a diverse topography comprising a small island, a ridge, a hilltop, a peak and a recess. The villages were fortified in such a manner that they were inaccessible to the nomadic groups. The five villages set up with identical planning concepts were Ghardaïa, Melika, Beni Isguen, Bou Noura and El Atteuf. The identical “miniature citadels”, as they are termed, each had their own mosque with minaret functioning as watch towers, and the houses built around the mosque in concentric circles and surrounded by a high walls (extending up to the ramparts). The buildings together gave the feel of a fortress to each village. The mosque also provided for storage of grains and arms for defence.
The ksar was created in 476/1085 by two tribes : the Aoulad Ammi-Aïssa and the Aoulad Ba-Slimane. Each tribe contained different fractions, a specific area and a cemetery. Ghardaïa is the richest city of the M'Zab Vallée. It already had a dynamic commercial and craft activity. On the social aspect, it is the only Ksar, along with Melika, that housed not only Ibadites Berbers, but also Malekits Arabs and a Jewish community until the Algerian Independence.
To build the Ksar, the founders of Ghardaïa, a small group of people, under a Cheikh, chose a hill 200m south of the M'Zab Oued for defensive purposes. Farther west, they created a palm grove for subsistence farming. The Ksar of Ghardaïa, as it is today, did not appear in one time. According to the public agency in charge of protecting the M'Zab Heritage, Ghardaïa has seen four phases of evolution until 1882, when it was annexed by the French army.
The city is located within the Sahara Desert in northern-central Algeria. Ghardaïa Province is divided into 13 communes or municipalities, which includes the Ghardaïa municipality. It is bordered by Ouargla and El Bayadh Wilayas. It is nestled in the M'zab valley, lying on the left bank of the Wadi Mzab, which is commonly dry throughout the year. The commune of Ghardaïa now covers an area of 590 km2 (230 sq mi) and includes a number of suburbs, towns and villages in addition to Ghardaïa. Suburb settlements include Mélika, Béni Isguen, Bounoura (Has Bunur) and El Atteuf (Tadjnint), all of which lie to the southeast of Ghardaïa city and the ancient ksar of Metlili-Chaamba or Metlili which lies 42 km (26 mi) to the southwest. Outside of the Mzab valley, Berriane (Has Ibergane) and El Guerrara (Iguerraren) are towns of note, the first 45 km (28 mi) to the north, and the second 110 km (68 mi) to the northeast.
Ghardaïa's ancient water distribution system was devised by the Mozabites, as a response to the ephemeral flows of its oueds (rivers). Realising the preciousness of this natural resource, the Mozabites developed a unique hydraulic system of tunnels to harvest rainwater and divert it to the oases. They have an equitable water distribution to all gardens and also maintain good flood protection measures. The water supply is accessed in a number of ways through a complex irrigation system that distributes water from many wells. Well drilling extends to a depth ranging from 350 ft (110 m) to 500 ft (150 m), drawing the water from the Albian fossil groundwater continental infill whose reserves are estimated at 1.5 trillion m3.
Ghardaïa has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh), with extremely hot summers and mild winters. The region is marked by large temperature differences between day and night, and summer and winter ranging from lows of 5 °C (41 °F) to highs of 46 °C (114.8 °F). The prevailing winds of summer are extremely hot, extremely dry and strong, while winter winds are warm and dry. Sandstorms generally occur from March to May. In October 2008, Ghardaïa was severely affected by flooding due to heavy rain.
|Climate data for Ghardaïa|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.9
|Average low °C (°F)||5.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||8.2
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.6||1.7||2.5||1.7||1.8||1.4||0.8||1.1||2.8||2.4||2.8||2.0||23.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||54.4||45.0||39.8||35.1||30.5||25.9||22.3||25.9||36.9||45.0||50.2||54.7||38.8|
|Source: World Meteorological Organization (average temperatures and precipitation, 1976–2005)|
Layout and architecture
The unique layout of the Ghardaïa village is dictated by the rocky terrain of the region. Apart from the mosques and the housing pattern layout, with the mosque at the top of the hill, and the houses laid in labyrinthine alleyways, there is also a large market centre. The houses in particular are oriented in such a way that admits sunlight into every dwelling, as this is strongly believed to be healthy: "Inhabitants of the house where sun comes in will never see a doctor". Chimneys are also set in such a way that they do not encroach upon the comfort of neighbours.
Ghardaïa is a major centre of date production, with nearly 60,000 palm trees producing dates. The wood of dead palms is used to make house roofs; live trees are not killed, as they are considered living beings that sustain the inhabitants.
Another important industry is the manufacture of rugs and cloths.
Metlili-Chaamba is known for its "Deglet Nour" dates and its camel hair products. One important aspect of the social life and economic values of the people of the region is that begging and theft are non-existent in the community. The society is close-knit, and all aspects of economy and social customs are dictated by the community.
The residents have preserved the original medieval architecture remarkably well; the valley to which Ghardaïa belongs is part of an official World Heritage Site. The Medabian quarter lies to the northwest. The military compound and hospital are located in the southern area. The city is called "the pearl of the oasis", and is one of the most important tourist regions in southern Algeria due to its ancient cultural heritage. Apart from tourism, the Wilaya of Ghardaïa also draws anthropologists, architects, researchers and historians to explore its rich cultural, anthropological and architectural uniqueness. An interesting aspect of community welfare is the fact that they follow the rules of governance diligently, and also contribute to the maintenance and care of the community. Mozabites in the light of their rigid approach in negotiations, dominate the financial sector, particularly in banking and wholesale sectors. They also have their own mosque, cemetery, recreation and sporting activities. They have a patriarchal system of social inheritance. Another unique feature among the Mozabites is that starting from birth a “Mozabite is looked after by the community for education, work, marriage, and the building of a home. Touiza (groups of volunteers) are organised for building houses.” The Wilaya of Ghardaïa is also well known for its Weaving, Dinanderie D'art, basketry, pottery and carpet weaving (tapestry). The rugs of the area are so popular that every year the "National Day Of Rugs" is held in March.
Every spring, the commune of Metlili-Chaamba, 31.3 km (19.4 mi) from Ghardaïa, celebrates the "Day mehr" when people from all over the country attend and participate in a camel race.
In March and April, a carpet festival provides an opportunity for celebration, competition, as well as sales.
Ghardaïa is the traditional heart of the M'zab valley and home of the Ibadi religious sect in Algeria. They do not subscribe to the doctrines of Sunnism and Shi'ism. They practice a different way of praying, worshipping of God, and designing mosques compared to Malikis, who form the majority of Algerians. The wastage of water, and more generally any gift of land, is considered a sin. The Ghardaïa Mosque, built in the 10th century, is of Moorish architecture style. Its tower, simple and elegant, includes a large portal at the top of the shaft, the design of which provides for ventilation flow.
The White Fathers, a Roman Catholic missionary society, live in a hermitage near the old city, and have a collection of books on the Sahara. The pro-cathedral still testifies to the time when it was the seat from 1901 successively of the Apostolic Prefecture of Ghardaïa; the province was renamed as the Apostolic Prefecture of Ghardaïa in the Sahara, in 1948 promoted to the Apostolic Vicariate of Ghardaïa in the Sahara, and then in 1955 was promoted to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Laghouat (where the cathedral is meanwhile secularized; the diocese is still exempt).
The town is served by Noumérat – Moufdi Zakaria Airport (or simply Ghardaïa airport). There is also a bus station. The airport is named after Algerian writer Moufdi Zakaria, who was born in Ghardaïa.
The commune of Ghardaïa is composed of nine localities:
- Ghardaia City
- Melika (At M'lichet)
- Theniet El Mekhzene
- Chikh El Hadj Mohammed Hadj Messaoud
- Chikh Bab Saâd
- El Ghabet
- Chikh baba ou l'djemma
Notable people from Ghardaïa
- Moufdi Zakaria, Mozabite poet from At izjen Beni isgen, authored the national anthem
- Cheikh Bayoud, Mozabite leader of the reformist mouvment in the south.
- Mokhtar Belmokhtar, Algerian former military commander of al-Mulathameen (The Masked Brigade).
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- "M'Zab Valley". Unesco.org. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "The Mazab valley: Evaluation Report" (PDF). Unesco.org. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Ham, Anthony; Luckham, Nana; Sattin, Anthony (2007). Algeria. Lonely Planet. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-74179-099-3.
- "Ghardaïa, Algeria". Organization of World Heritage Sites. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- Harris, Nathanuel (2003). Atlas of the world's deserts. Taylor & Francis. p. 33. ISBN 1-57958-310-5.
- "Ghardaia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 11, 2010.
- Tilouine, Joan (6 November 2017). "Oasis de Ghardaïa, la richesse du secret". voyages.liberation.fr. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- http://www.opvm.dz/public/opvm/catalogue/index/id/dc673ccd14b3f39992e5e70652d70fef Office de protection et de promotion de la vallée du M'Zab
- http://www.monographie.caci.dz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=77 Chambre algérienne de commerce et d'industrie
- Ali Khodja, Mehdi (15 July 2019). "Évolution du tracé urbain des ksour de la vallée du M'Zab : d'el-Ateuf à Tafilelt, sauvegarde d'un patrimoine millénaire". secheresse.info/.
- "Ghardaïa remains unchanged as major centre of Mozabite life". Magharebia. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "Deadly floods hit Algerian oasis". BBC News. 2008-10-02. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "World Weather Information Service–Ghardaia". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
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- "Ghardaia, la perle des oasis". Ministry of Tourism. Retrieved 2010-11-12.
- Ham, p. 158
- "Ghardaïa Mosque". glasssteelandstone.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Structure relative de la population résidente des ménages ordinaires et collectifs âgée de 6 ans et plus selon le niveau d'instruction et la commune de résidence" (PDF) (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Taux d'analphabétisme et taux d'alphabétisation de la population âgée de 15 ans et plus, selon le sexe et la commune de résidence " (PDF) (in French). Office National des Statistiques Algérie. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Ghardaia". el-annabi.com. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
- "Décret n° 84-365, fixant la composition, la consistance et les limites territoriale des communes. Wilaya d'El Oued" (PDF) (in French). Journal officiel de la République Algérienne. 19 December 1984. p. 1578. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2013.
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