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Place of origin Pakistan Pakistan
Service history
Used by Pakistan
Production history
Designer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL)
Manufacturer Khan Research Laboratories (KRL)
Weight 17,800 kg
Length 18.00 m
Diameter 1.35 m
Warhead 1200 kg conventional or nuclear

Engine Single-stage liquid propellant rocket motor
Propellant Liquid fuel
1500-1800 km[1][2]
Inertial guidance system (INS), GPS satellite guidance
Transporter erector launcher (TEL)

The Ghauri-II (Urdu:غوری-اا; official codename: Hatf–VA Ghauri–II), is a surface-to-surface medium range guided ballistic missile designed and developed by the Khan Research Laboratories. It is a single-stage liquid fuel missile system and a longer ranged variant of the Ghauri-I. The development of Ghauri-II took place in a direct response to India's Agni II.[3] It was developed by increasing the length of the motor assembly and using improved propellants.[4][5]

The Ghauri–II enjoyed distinction of being Pakistan's longest range missile until its limit was exceeded by the successful launch of the Shaheen-II which was tested in 2004.[6]


The Ghauri-II missile has a maximum range of 2,000 km (1,200 mi). It is 18.0 m in length, has a diameter of 1.35 m and a launch weight of 17,800 kg. Its payload is a single separating warhead weighing 1,200 kg, or as low as 750 kg for use at its maximum range.[4] This may used to carry a 250 kg warhead of a 15 to 30 kt yield nuclear, HE or sub-munition warhead. The missile uses a single-stage liquid propellant rocket motor.

The Ghauri-II design improves accuracy by an employing mechanisms that spin the single booster stage and warhead combination approximately 10 seconds before the termination of the powered flight phase at 110 seconds.[7] At this point, the warhead is then separated from the booster stage to fly on a re-entry trajectory that remains stable to its target, greatly enhancing the missile's accuracy. With the addition of GPS targeting the warhead accuracy is further enhanced.[7]

Like most Pakistani missile systems, transporter erector launcher (TEL) vehicles are used to transport and launch Ghauri II.

Developments and tests[edit]

The development of Ghauri-II took place in 1993 at the Khan Research Laboratories (KRL) after the government issued orders and released funds for it.[8] After heavy reengineering and subsequent reverse engineering led the improvements of Ghauri-II, and synergizing expertise from various strategic organizations allowed the Ghauri project to continue into Ghauri II and III missiles, whose ranges were intended to reach more deeply into India.[9] Unlike Ghauri-I, the development on the second variant was kept extremely secretive and very few officials, including its chief designer, knew about the existence of the program.[9] The Ghauri-II was launched in a direct response to India's development on Agni-II and the project took place at the KRL.[3] The development on Ghauri-II remains extremely secretive and very few details were made to public in 1999.[9]

On April 11, 1999, India announced to the hold the tests for the Agni-II, prompting Pakistan's reaction. On 14 April 1999, the Ghauri-II was test fired from a Tilla-Jagun Test Range.[10] Pakistani news media inccorrectly broadcast the news that it was a re-test of the Ghauri-I; this was contradicted by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 14 April 1999.[10] The Ghauri-II was launched at 1035hrs local time (0535 GMT) and its spaceflight hit a target 1150km away near the coastal town of Jiwani on the Balochistan coast.[3][10] The test was described as "successful", and the missile had taken the spaceflight more than 620mi (997.93km) in 12 minutes after being fired from a site in the central province of Punjab.[11]

The Ghauri-II enjoyed its distinction of being the longest range missile in service with Pakistan military, until its limit was exceeded by the successful launch of the Shaheen-II in 2004.[12]

See also[edit]

Related developments


  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b c Lodhi, SFS (19 May 1999). "New round of Indo-Pak Ballistic Missiles". Ariticle written by Lt Gen (Retd) SARDAR FS LODI examines the new missile race in SOUTH ASIA (Defence Journal, 1999). Defence Journal. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Missiles of the World
  5. ^ Pakistan’s Long Range Ballistic Missiles: A View From IDEAS
  6. ^ Staff writer (10 March 2004). "Pakistan tests its longest-range missile". Dawn newspapers, 2004. Dawn newspapers, 2004. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Federation of American Scientists
  8. ^ Stupak, edited by David S. Greisler, Ronald J. (2007). Handbook of technology management in public administration. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1420017012. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Khan, Feroz Hassan (2012). Eating grass the making of the Pakistani bomb. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804784809. 
  10. ^ a b c Bennett-Jones, Owen (14 April 1999). "Pakistan fires ballistic missile". BBC Pakistan. BBC Pakistan. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  11. ^ Galpin, Richard (15 April 1999). "Pakistan test-fires missile". Richard Galpin in Islamabad on the latest salvo in a tit-for-tat nuclear arms race (The Guardian, Pakistan). The Guardian. Retrieved 27 December 2014. 
  12. ^ Staff writer (15 March 2004). "". Dawn news. Dawn news. Retrieved 27 December 2014.  External link in |title= (help)