Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

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This article is about the municipality in Uttar Pradesh, India. For its namesake district, see Ghaziabad district, India.
Ghaziabad
ग़ाज़ियाबाद
غازی آباد
Metropolis
Ghaziabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42
Country  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Ghaziabad District
Founded by Ghazi-ud-din
Named for Ghazi-ud-din
Government
 • Body Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Ashu Kumar Verma
Area
 • Total 133.3 km2 (51.5 sq mi)
Elevation 214 m (702 ft)
Population (2011 census provisional data)
 • Total 2,381,452
 • Density 18,000/km2 (46,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Ghaziabadi
Languages
 • Official Hindi, Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 201 xxx
Telephone code 91-120
Vehicle registration UP-14
Website ghaziabad.nic.in

Ghaziabad (Hindustani pronunciation: [ɣaːziːaːbaːd̪]) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of UP" because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh.[1] It is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi.[2] It is a large and planned industrial city, well connected by roads and railways, and is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad District as well as being the primary commercial, industrial and educational centre of western Uttar Pradesh and a major rail junction for North India.[3][4] Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world.[5][6] Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely: Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east side.[7] The film Zila Ghaziabad is based on a true story of Mahendra Fauji Baisla of the Gujjars caste from Mewla bhatti village of Loni.[8]

History[edit]

Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km north of Mohan Nagar, have shown that civilisation existed there as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, "Loni" is named after Lavanasura.[9] The city and its surrounding region have historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battle field, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign.[9][10] During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803.[9] The name "Ghaziuddinnagar" was shortened to its present form, i.e. "Ghaziabad" with the opening of the Railways in 1864.[11][12][13] Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.[14] The Ghaziabad Municipality came into existence in 1868.[citation needed] The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year.[15] With the completion of the Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.[16]

The city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Wazir Ghazi-ud-din, who named it Ghaziuddinnagar after himself.[9][11][17][17] During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.[12]

Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr, remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj.[18]

Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[11] During that rebellion, there were fierce clashes between the British forces and Indian rebel sepoys on the banks of the Hindon, and the rebels checked the advancing British forces coming from Meerut.[19]

Industrial growth[edit]

Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab.[20] John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India's largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of 'National Abrasives' at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of 'Dyer Meakins' in 1947.[21] Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949.[22] This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India's most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.[23]

In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, a large number of steel manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics Limited[24] Over the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. (estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).[25]

Formation of district[edit]

Before 14 November 1976 Ghaziabad was the Tehsil of District Meerut. The then chief minister Mr. N.D.Tiwari declared Ghaziabad as a district on 14 November 1976, on the birth anniversary of Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. From then Ghaziabad has moved forward leaps and bounds on the social, economic, agriculture and individual front.

Ghaziabad, the headquarter of the district of the same name, lies on the Grand Trunk road about a mile east of the Hindon river in Lat. 280 40' North and Long. 770 25' East, 19 km. east of Delhi and 46 km. south-west of Meerut with which it is connected by a metalled road. Other roads lead west to Loni and Baghpat and east to Hapur and Garhmukteshwar. Buses run at frequent intervals from here to Delhi, Meerut, Aligarh, Bulandshahr, Moradabad, Lucknow and to other districts also. It is an important station on the Northern Railway where railway lines, from Delhi to Calcutta, Moradabad and Saharanpur meet, connecting it with many important cities of India.

Geography[edit]

Bulandshahr and Gautambudh Nagar, on the south-west by Delhi and on the east by the newly formed district of Hapur. As its boundary is adjacent to Delhi, it acts as the main entrance to Uttar Pradesh and hence is also called the Gateway of Uttar Pradesh.

Demographics[edit]

The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 4,681,452, of which males were 2,479,710 and females were 2,201,742. The literacy rate was 93.81%.[26] Ghaziabad is a subcategory B1 district of category B i.e. having socioeconomic parameters below the national average.[27] It is the second largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur.[28] Brahmins, Jats and Tyagis have 1.2 lakh, 60,000 and 70,000 votes respectively. Gujjars have close to 80,000 votes in the constituency. Thakurs has over 260,000 votes. Goel's Vaishya community has close to 2 lakh votes.[29]

Among the significant areas within the city are Ghanta Ghar, Bazaria, Chopla Mandir, Maliwara, Model Town, Gandhi Nagar, Nehru Nagar, Kavi Nagar, Raj Nagar, Shastri Nagar, Sanjay Nagar, Ambedkar Road, Navyug Market, Delhi Gate, Goel Market, Mukand Nagar, Sarai Nazar Ali, Rajendra Nagar, Shalimar Garden, Turab Nagar, Indirapuram, Raj Nagar Extension, Loni, India and Crossings Republik.[30]

Climate[edit]

As it is connected to the national capital, its temperature and rainfall are similar to Delhi. Rajasthan's dust storms and snowfall in the Himalayas, Kumaon and Garhwal hills name their impact in the weather regularly. The monsoon arrives in the district during the end of the June or the first week of July and normally it rains until October. As in other districts of northern India mainly three seasons - summer, winter and rainy - prevail here, but sometimes due to severe snowfall in the Himalayas and Kumaon Hills, adverse weather can also be seen.

Climate data for Ghaziabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
(70)
23
(73)
29
(84)
36
(97)
40
(104)
42
(108)
34
(93)
33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
28
(82)
23
(73)
31.3
(88.3)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
8
(46)
18.7
(65.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.3
(0.799)
20.3
(0.799)
15.2
(0.598)
20.3
(0.799)
25.4
(1)
71.1
(2.799)
236.2
(9.299)
236.2
(9.299)
114.3
(4.5)
17.8
(0.701)
10.2
(0.402)
10.2
(0.402)
797.5
(31.397)
Source: Ghaziabad Weather

Economy[edit]

Kaushambi Housing Society
Indirapuram

Real estate hub[edit]

A proposal has been made to widen National Highway 24 (NH-24) from four to sixteen lanes on the stretch between the Ghaziabad-Delhi border and Dasna. As a large number of residential and commercial projects are coming up along the highway.[31] Some major developers which have invested heavily on NH-24 are SARE, Mahagun, Antriksh, Crossings Republik, Ansal, Wave etc. Places on NH-24 and National Highway 58 are flourishing as residential options to the capital because of their proximity to Delhi.[32]

Delhi Metro[edit]

The Delhi Metro extends to Dilshad Garden station which is situated at the Apsara Border. At present it serves the areas of Shalimar Garden, Rajendra Nagar and other neighbouring colonies. This line will be extended to New Bus Stand, Ghaziabad by 2016-17. Work for the same already started in December 2014. Another station exists at Vaishali, which serves that area as well as Vasundhara and Indirapuram, and there is also a station at Kaushambi.[33]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ghaziabad-Gateway of U.P". Ghaziabad.nic.in. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  2. ^ "National Capital Region- Constituent Areas". NCRPB. 
  3. ^ Athique and Hill, Adrian and Douglas. The Multiplex in India: A Cultural Economy of Urban Leisure (2010 ed.). New York. pp. 110–114. 
  4. ^ "District and Sessions Court Ghaziabad- History". NIC. 
  5. ^ "Business:". 17 November 2011. Archived from the original on 20 November 2011. 
  6. ^ Ghaziabad was first listed in early 2010 as # 420 by size. "The largest cities in the world and their mayors: Cities ranked 301 to 450". City Mayors. Archived from the original on 9 March 2010. , current listings: "World's fastest growing urban areas (1)". City Mayors. 
  7. ^ "Ghaziabad Nagar Nigam: About Us". Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. 
  8. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEd7k9sG5cQ
  9. ^ a b c d "http://www.nagarnigamghaziabad.com/". nagarnigamghaziabad.com. Retrieved 14 September 2015.  External link in |title= (help)
  10. ^ "Welcome to damyantigoel.com - Mayor,Nagar Nigam,Ghaziabad". Damyantigoel.com. 14 November 1976. Retrieved 29 July 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c "history1". nagarnigamghaziabad.com. Retrieved 14 September 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Roy, Debashish (14 August 2011). "Ghaziabad has a long way to go to become a part of NCR backbone". The Hindu. 
  13. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 1". Irfca.org. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  14. ^ Azimabadi, Badr (2007). Great Personalities in Islam. Daryaganj, Delhi: Adam Publishers. p. 218. 
  15. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 1". Irfca.org. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  16. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 2". Irfca.org. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "History". ghaziabad.nic.in. District Administration, Ghaziabad. 
  18. ^ Statistical, descriptive and historical account of the North-western ... - North-western provinces - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  19. ^ "1857: The aftermath". Indpaedia. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  20. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 30, 92, 98. ISBN 8170222508. 
  21. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 172. ISBN 8170222508. 
  22. ^ "Mohan Meakin Group". Mohanmeakin.com. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  23. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. p. 92. ISBN 8170222508. 
  24. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 97, 98. ISBN 8170222508. 
  25. ^ Saxena, Aruna (1989). Perspectives in industrial geography : a case study of an industrial city of Uttar Pradesh. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. pp. 124, 93, 11, 39, 69. ISBN 8170222508. 
  26. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  27. ^ "Meeting of Empowered Committee" (PDF). Minutes of the Meeting Report. Government of India. Retrieved 18 March 2013. 
  28. ^ "district and session court-ghaziabad". Ghaziabad.nic.in. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  29. ^ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/Thriller-on-the-cards-in-Rajnath-seat/articleshow/4492647.cms
  30. ^ Panchsheel Primrose, Main Hapur Road & Govindpuram "Project for widening of 20km stretch on NH-24 scrapped". The Times of India. 29 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Make NH-24 eight-lane to ease mess: Akhilesh Yadav". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  32. ^ A K Tiwary, ET Bureau 9 September 2011, 08.02am IST (9 September 2011). "Ghaziabad real estate thriving along two national highways - Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  33. ^ "Ghaziabad boards Metro for first traffic-free ride to work". Indian Express. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 

External links[edit]