Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh

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Ghaziabad
Crossing Republik Ghaziabad on NH 24
Crossing Republik Ghaziabad on NH 24
Nickname(s): 
Gateway of Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad is located in India
Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad is located in Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad
Ghaziabad
Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42Coordinates: 28°40′N 77°25′E / 28.67°N 77.42°E / 28.67; 77.42
CountryIndia
StateUttar Pradesh
DistrictGhaziabad District
Founded byWazir Ghazi-ud-din
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation
 • MayorAsha Sharma (BJP)
Area
 • Total133.3 km2 (51.5 sq mi)
Elevation
214 m (702 ft)
Population
(2011 census provisional data)[1]
 • Total2,358,525
 • Density18,000/km2 (46,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Ghaziabadi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, Urdu, English, Punjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
201 001
Telephone code91-120
Vehicle registrationUP-14
Websiteghaziabad.nic.in

Ghaziabad (Hindi pronunciation: [ɣaːziːaːbaːd̪]) is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of UP" because it is close to New Delhi, on the main route into Uttar Pradesh.[2] It is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi.[3] It is a large and planned industrial city, with a population of 2,358,525.[1] Well connected by roads and railways, and is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad District as well as being the primary commercial, industrial and educational centre of western Uttar Pradesh and a major rail junction for North India.[4][5] Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second fastest-growing in the world.[6][7] Situated in the Upper Gangetic Plains, the city has two major divisions separated by the Hindon River, namely: Trans-Hindon on the west and Cis-Hindon on the east side.[8]

History[edit]

Excavations carried out at the mound of Kaseri, at the banks of river Hindon, some 2 km north of Mohan Nagar, have shown that civilization existed there as early as 2500 BC. Mythologically, some neighbouring towns and villages of the city including Garhmukteshwar, Pooth Village and Ahar region have been associated with the Mahabharata and the fort at Loni, is associated with the legend of Lavanasura of the Ramayana period. According to the Gazetteer, the fort, "Loni" is named after Lavanasura.[9] The city and its surrounding region have historically witnessed major wars and battles over the last many centuries. In AD 1313, the entire region including present day Ghaziabad became a huge battlefield, when Taimur laid siege on the area during Muhammad bin Tughluq's reign.[9][10] During the Anglo- Maratha War, Sir General Lake and the Royal Maratha army fought here circa. Altama Religion was started from Ghaziabad in 1803.[9] The name "Ghaziuddinnagar" was shortened to its present form, i.e. "Ghaziabad" with the opening of the Railways in 1864.[11][12][13] Establishment of the Scientific Society here, during the same period is considered as a milestone of the educational movement launched by Syed Ahmad Khan.[14] The Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway, connecting Delhi and Lahore, up till Ambala through Ghaziabad was opened in the same year.[15] With the completion of the Amritsar-Saharanpur-Ghaziabad line of the Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway in 1870, Delhi was connected to Multan through Ghaziabad, and Ghaziabad became the junction of the East Indian Railway and Sind, Punjab and Delhi Railway.[16]

The city of Ghaziabad was founded in AD 1740 by Wazir Ghazi-ud-din, who named it Ghaziuddinnagar after himself.[11][17] During the Mughal period, Ghaziabad and especially the banks of the Hindon in Ghaziabad, remained a picnic spot for the Mughal royal family.[12]

Ghaziabad, along with Meerut and Bulandshahr, remained one of the three Munsifis of the District, under the Meerut Civil Judgeship during most periods of the British Raj.[18]

Ghaziabad was associated with the Indian independence movement from the Indian Rebellion of 1857.[11] During that rebellion, there were fierce clashes between the British forces and Indian rebel sepoys on the banks of the Hindon, and the rebels checked the advancing British forces coming from Meerut.[19]

Industrial growth[edit]

Although connected by railway since 1865, it was not until 1940 that the first modern industry appeared in Ghaziabad. However, it was in the post-independence period that industry really expanded, with a further 22 factories opening in the four years after 1947. This development can be attributed to the influx of people from the newly formed Pakistan and the relocation of businesses from what was now the Pakistani province of Punjab.[20] John Oakey and Mohan Ltd., one of India's largest concerns manufacturing coated and bonded abrasives, and originally functioning under the name of 'National Abrasives' at Rawalpindi was shifted here under the proprietorship of 'Dyer Meakins' in 1947.[21] Subsequently, the Mohan Meakin breweries were also set up in the year 1949.[22] This period also saw the development of Ghaziabad as one of India's most famous centres of the Oil Engines industry.[23]

In 1967, the municipal limits were extended up to the Delhi-UP border. Starting early 1970s, a large number of steel manufacturing units also came up in the city making it one of the primary industries of the city. This period also saw the emergence of the Electronics industry, with the setting up of Bharat Electronics Limited and Central Electronics Limited[24] Over the years, planned Industrial development saw participation from major industrial houses of the country including Mohans (Mohan Nagar Industrial Estate, 1949), Tatas (Tata Oil Mills), Modis (Modinagar, 1933; International Tobacco Co. 1967), Shri Rams (Shri Ram Pistons, 1964), Jaipurias etc. and also significant participation through foreign capital in concerns such as Danfoss India Ltd. (estd. 1968); Indo- Bulgar Food Ltd. and International Tobacco Company (estd. 1967).[25]

Geography[edit]

Ghaziabad, the headquarters of the district of the same name that was established in 1976, lies on the Grand Trunk road about a mile east of the Hindon river in Lat. 280 40' North and Long. 770 25' East, 19 km. east of Delhi and 46 km. south-west of Meerut with which it is connected by a metalled road. Other roads lead west to Loni and Baghpat and east to Hapur and Garhmukteshwar. Buses run at frequent intervals from here to Delhi, Meerut, Aligarh, Bulandshahr, Moradabad, Lucknow and to other districts also. It is an important station on the Northern Railway where railway lines, from Delhi to Calcutta, Moradabad and Saharanpur meet, connecting it with many important cities of India.

Bulandshahr and Gautambudh Nagar, on the south-west by Delhi and on the east by the newly formed district of Hapur. As its boundary is adjacent to Delhi, it acts as the main entrance to Uttar Pradesh and hence is also called the Gateway of Uttar Pradesh.

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

The provisional data derived from the 2011 census shows that Ghaziabad urban agglomeration had a population of 2,358,525, of which males were 1,256,783 and females were 1,101,742. The literacy rate was 93.81%.[1] Ghaziabad is a subcategory B1 district of category B i.e. having socioeconomic parameters below the national average.[26] It is the second largest industrial city in Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur.[27]

By estimate, Brahmin, Tyagis Brahmin have 500000 and 150000 votes respectively[28].Gaziabad is dominated by Gauda Brahmins having subcastes like Tyagi Gaur and Adi Gaur.Gauda Brahmins are biggest landholding caste in Ghaziabad following by Gujjars. Gujjars have close to 80,000 votes, Yadavs about 70,000 votes and Thakurs has a little over 60,000 votes.[29]Gujjars are the second dominating and landholding caste in Ghaziabad mostly consitituted in Loni assembly segment.Gauda Brahmins present in every assembly segment dominating in Sahibabad, Muradnagar, Ghaziabad . Muslims too have significant population mostly in Dholana assembly segment.

Combined population of Gauda Brahmins (Brahmin, Tyagis Brahmin) constitutes 6.5 Lakhs votes in Ghaziabad.

Religion[edit]

Religion in Ghaziabad[30]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
72.93%
Muslim
25.35%
Sikhism
0.49%
Christianity
0.41%
Others
0.39%

Hinduism is the most popular religion in Ghaziabad with 72.93% followers, followed by 25.35% Muslim followers, 0.41 Christian followers, and 0.49% Sikh followers who make up the smallest percentage of followers in the city. There are around 0.07 Buddhist, 0.35% Jain followers which are minorities. There are many religious sites in Ghaziabad such as the ISKCON Temple for Hindus, Jama Masjid for Muslims, Holy Trinity Church for Christians, and Shri Guru Singh Sabha Gurudwara for Sikhs.

Climate[edit]

As it is connected to the national capital, its temperature and rainfall are similar to Delhi. Rajasthan's dust storms and snowfall in the Himalayas, Kumaon and Garhwal hills name their impact in the weather regularly. The monsoon arrives in the district during the end of the June or the first week of July and normally it rains until October. As in other districts of northern India mainly three seasons - summer, winter and rainy - prevail here, but sometimes due to severe snowfall in the Himalayas and Kumaon Hills, adverse weather can also be seen.

Climate data for Ghaziabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 21
(70)
23
(73)
29
(84)
38
(100)
40
(104)
38
(100)
34
(93)
33
(91)
34
(93)
33
(91)
28
(82)
23
(73)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
21
(70)
26
(79)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
8
(46)
19
(66)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
18
(0.7)
23
(0.9)
27
(1.1)
31
(1.2)
69
(2.7)
234
(9.2)
245
(9.6)
103
(4.1)
23
(0.9)
8
(0.3)
16
(0.6)
812
(31.9)
Source: Ghaziabad Weather

Economy[edit]

Real estate hub[edit]

A proposal has been made to widen National Highway 24 (NH-24) from four to sixteen lanes on the stretch between the Ghaziabad-Delhi border and Dasna. As a large number of residential and commercial projects are coming up along the highway.[31] Some major developers which have invested heavily on NH-24 are GAURS, Mahagun, Antriksh, Crossings Republik, Ansal, Wave, Gulshan Homz, SG Estates etc. In tune with Indian Government's Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban), there is VVIP niwas Grih Awas Yojana, under which Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Lower Income Group (LIG) people can avail their dream homes at concessional rates.[32]Places on NH-24 and National Highway 58 are flourishing as residential options to the capital because of their proximity to Delhi.[33]

Transport[edit]

Delhi Metro

The Delhi Metro extends to Dilshad Garden station which is situated at the Apsara Border. At present, it serves the areas of Shalimar Garden, Rajendra Nagar and other neighbouring colonies. This line will be extended to New Bus Stand, Ghaziabad by 2016-17. Work for the same already started in December 2014. Another station exists at Vaishali, which serves that area as well as Vasundhara and Indirapuram, and there is also a station at Kaushambi.[34]

Residential apartments near Vaishali Metro Station, Ghaziabad

Air

Hindon Domestic Airport is the airport serving Ghaziabad. The closest international airport is the Indira Gandhi International Airport.

Sports[edit]

The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Ghaziabad.

Institutes[edit]

People from Ghaziabad[edit]

Arts, entertainment and television[edit]

Business[edit]

Literature[edit]

Politics and government[edit]

Sports[edit]

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]