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The Tomb of Lord Cornwallis, Governor-General of British India
|• Type||Municipal Council|
|• Body||Ghazipur Municipal Council|
|• Chairman||Vinod Kumar Agrawal|
|• Total||20 km2 (8 sq mi)|
|• Density||6,056/km2 (15,680/sq mi)|
|• Sex ratio||902 ♀/♂|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||UP 61|
|Famous for Ghats, Opium Factory and Flower Business|
Ghazipur (Hindi: ग़ाज़ीपुर, Urdu: غازیپور, previously spelled Ghazeepore, Gauspur, and Ghazipour), is a city and municipal corporation in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Ghazipur city is the administrative headquarters of the Ghazipur district, one of the four districts that form the Varanasi division of Uttar Pradesh. The city of Ghazipur also constitutes one of the five distinct tehsils, or subdivisions, of the Ghazipur district. Hindu tradition associates Ghazipur with a Raja Gaadhi, father of Vishwamitra Maharshi, the great rishi regarded as a Hindu saint, but although the area was an administrative center since the Gupta Empire, Ghazipur probably derives its name from the sayyid Masud, given the title Ghazi, who defeated the local Raja and established a town around 1330 CE. Located by the Ganges, Ghazipur was a strategically important river port during the British rule of India.
Ghazipur is well known for its opium factory, established by the British East India Company in 1820 and still the biggest legal opium factory in the world, producing the drug for the global pharmaceutical industry. The city's perfume industry, especially its production of rose oil and attar of roses has also long been famous. A Ghazipur firm won a medal for these products at the British Empire Exhibition, and the perfume industry remains important. Other important constituents of the city's commercial life include handloom weaving factories, and Ghazipur's role as the market town for its surrounding rural and farming areas.
Sights in the city include several monuments built by Nawab Shaikh Abdulla, or Abdullah Khan, a governor of Ghazipur during the Mughal Empire in the eighteenth century, and his son. These include the palace known as Chihal Satun, or "forty pillars", which retains a very impressive gateway although the palace is in ruins, and the large garden with a tank and a tomb called the Nawab-ki-Chahar-diwari. The mosque near this tomb was probably originally a Hindu building. The road that starts at the Nawab-ki-Chahar-diwari tomb and runs past the mosque leads, after 10 km, to a matha devoted to Pavhari Baba. The tank and tomb of Pahar Khan, faujdar of the city in 1580, and the plain but ancient tombs of the founder, Masud, and his son are also in Ghazipur, as is the tomb of Lord Cornwallis, one of the major figures of Indian and British history. Cornwallis is famous for his role in the American Revolutionary War, and then for his time as Governor-General of India, being said to have laid the true foundation of British rule. He was later Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, there suppressing the 1798 Rebellion and establishing the Act of Union. He died in Ghazipur in 1805, soon after his returning to India for his second appointment as Governor-General. His tomb, overlooking the Ganges, is a heavy dome supported on 12 Doric columns above a cenotaph carved by John Flaxman. The remains of an ancient mud fort also overlook the river, while there are many beautiful or impressive ghats leading to the Ganges, the oldest of which is the ChitNath Ghat.
Ghazipur lies close to the Uttar Pradesh-Bihar border, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) east of the spiritual city of Varanasi and 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Buxar, the entry point to Bihar state. The most commonly spoken language in the city is Bhojpuri.
As per the verbal and folk history. Ghazipur was covered with dense forest during the Vedic era and it was a place for ashrams of saints during that period. The place is related to the Ramayana period. Maharshi Jamadagni, the father of Maharshi Parashurama, is said to have resided here. The famous Gautama Maharishi and Chyavana were given teaching and sermon here in ancient period. Lord Buddha gave his first sermon in Sarnath, which is not far from the here. The Aurihar region of Ghazipur became the main centre of teachings of Lord Buddha. Many stupas and pillars are the main evidence of that period. Chinese traveller Hieun Tsang visited this area and has described this place as Chanchu "Kingdom of the Lord of battles."
Its ancient name of Gadhipuri or Gadhipur was renamed to Ghazipur about 1330, after Ghāzī Malik, a Muslim ruler of the Tughluq dynasty, who ruled this area.
 The first Scientific Society of India was established first in Ghazipur in 1862 by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan for propagating modern Western knowledge of science, technology and industry. It was a departure from the past in the sense that education made a paradigm shift from traditional humanities and related disciplines to the new field of science and agriculture. Some current institution like Technical Education and Research Institute (TERI), part of post-graduate college PG College Ghazipur, in the city, takes their inspiration from that first Society.
The region has been active in India Independence Movement. The celebrated hero of First War of Independence (which is also referred as Sepoy Mutiny) Mangal Pandey belonged to that time of Ghazipur district area (now part of Ballia). The famous Raju Baxi revolt is also associated with this place where the farmers revolted against the British and set fire to several indigo godowns. This place has played a significant role in the Indian National movement. During the Home Rule movement and the Quit India movement people of Ghazipur took part courageously and fearlessly. During Quit India movement, Birpur is historical place of India where many warriors were born. On 18 August 1942 a group of freedom fighters of Sherpur Village under the leadership of Dr Shiv Pujan Rai hoisted the Tricoloure at Mohammadabad Tehsil.
In 1330 AD, when Sultan Muhammad Adil bin Tughluq became the King and ascended the throne of Delhi, he appointed Janab Syed Masud as his ‘ Moqarrib’. Sultan Tughluq left for Deccan after appointing Firuz Shah Tughlaq, his cousin, as his deputy at Delhi. At that time Raj Mandhata was the ruler of Kashtut (Kathaut) a place near Ghazipur (Eastern U.P.). Raja was hostile to the Delhi kingdom. Syed Masud Al-Husaini who had recently migrated from modern day Iraq to India went, along with his seven sons and 40 champions left Delhi and came to Ghazipur as per the command of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq to rescue a young unmarried girl from the captivity of the Raja. Battle was fought and the ruler was defeated. Syed Masud was appointed as ruler and administrator of the place. He was conferred the title of ‘Ghazi’ by the Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Syed Masud founded a new city in 1330 AD. It was called Ghazipur. He died on 31.03.1366 AD and is buried in Ghazipur.* His grave is in Mohalla Harishankari. His son, Syed Raje, who was killed while fighting the army of Raja’s nephew in 1330 A.D. is also buried there. In Ghazipur one Mohalla is known as "Syedwara" and one riverbank is called Masudi Ghat. He had seven sons and distributed the areas under his control among his sons for administrative convenience and himself settled down in Ghazipur city. His descendants were later called 'Syeds of Ghazipur' as described in the research work of S. M. Taqi Husaini's genealogical tree of Syed Masud Al-Husaini.
He and his family are the descendants of Zayd ibn Ali who was the son of Imam Ali ibn al-Husayn Zayn al-'Abidin and they observe Moharram in Ghazipur City ares like Nakhas"Markaz of Azadari" Jurans shaheed(Shia Jama Masjid),Rajdepur,Mustafabad,Kathwalia,Shujawalpur,and many villages of Ghazipur till date, like Pallia Buzurg, Mahend, Nonhera, Para, Baghui Buzurg, Ganguli, Kamoonpur, Zahoorabad, Chavanpur, Tajpur, Mohammadpur, Hunderhi, Husainpur, Arzanipur, Mulnapur, Zangipur, Deokathia, Susandi, Hainsi, Jalalabad, Damodarpur, Mata, Sauram, Sadat, Bathor, Chilbiliya, Daraspur, Tendva, Yusufpur.
Mohammad Hamid Ansari,the current and 12th Vice-President of India has his roots in Ghazipur.
Ghazipur is located at  It has an average elevation of 62 metres (203 feet). The city of Ghazipur is located in the middle Ganges valley of North India, in the eastern part of the state of Uttar Pradesh, along the left is bank of the Ganges river. It is the headquarters of the Ghazipur district. The city nearly stretches parallel to the river Ganges. Its neighbouring cities are Varanasi, Jaunpur, Buxar in Bihar, Ballia, Mau, Chandauli and Azamgarh. Initially Ballia and Mau were part of Ghazipur district but latter were made separate districts. Being located in the plains of the Ganges, the soil is alluvial type and is fertile because of low level floods continually replenish the soil. This makes agriculture the most important profession of the people. The town is predominantly agrarian and so is the economy. The district is divided into four major sub parts. Ghazipur has a humid subtropical climate with large variations between summer and winter temperatures. Summers are long, from early April to October, with intervening monsoon seasons. Cold waves from the Himalayan region cause temperatures to dip across the city in the winter from December to February. The temperature ranges between 32 °C–46 °C (90 °F–115 °F) in the summers, and 2 °C–15 °C (41 °F–59 °F) in the winters. The average annual rainfall is 1110 mm (44 in).. Fog is common in the winters, while hot dry winds, called loo, blow in the summer..
The city is relatively free from air pollution.. Through a combination of water pollution, new constructions of upstream dams, and increase in the local temperature, the water level of the Ganges has recently gone down significantly, and small islands have become visible in the middle of the river.
And, the bridge on Ganga River is one of the largest and advanced bridge in Uttar Pradesh.
As per provisional data of 2011 census, Ghazipur urban agglomeration had a population of 121,136, out of which males were 63,689 and females were 57,447. Males constituted 52.57% of the population while females constituted 47.43% of the population. The literacy rate of Ghazipur urban agglomeration was 84.97% (higher than the national average of 74.04%) of which male literacy was 90.23% and female literacy was 79.17%.Sex ratio of Ghazipur urban agglomeration was found to be 902. Ghazipur urban agglomeration consist of Ghazipur, Kapoorpur, Mishrolia Madhopur, and Razdepur.
As of 2011[update] India census, Ghazipur city had a population of 1,10,698, out of which males were 58,126 and females were 52,572. Males constituted 52.5% of the population and females constituted 47.5% of the population. Ghazipur has an average literacy rate of 85.46% (higher than the national average of 74.04%) of which male literacy is 90.61% and female literacy is 79.79%. 11.46% of the population is under 6 years of age and the sex ratio is 904.
Ghazipur is noted for its literary contribution to India and the world. Well known writers include Raahi Masoom Raza, Kuber Nath Rai, Viveki Rai, Ravi Shankar, Uday Shankar, Zafar, Satara Devi, Nazir Hussain.
Gopal Ram Gahmari, born in 1856 in the village of Gahmar, was a well known detective novel author. He also wrote other types of novel such as Chatura Chanchla, Madhvi, Kankara and Bhanumati.
Trade and Industries
A larger percentage of the population lives in the rural area. The Municipal Area is small as compared to other cities nearby. It is poorly developed despite being a very important city which was also a Port City under British rule. A military cantonment built by the British now houses a college and a colony for administrative officers and their subordinates.
The airport of Ghazipur was a commanding airport of most of the eastern part of the upper and western part of Bihar in those days, but now it remains vacant and is used when for VIP arrivals to Ghazipur or nearby areas. It is situated on the outer side of the city and is poorly maintained. Although being centrally located and near to Varansi, Ghazipur is lying quite low in terms of standard of living and education along with employment. People are either working as farmers or trying to go to Gulf countries, there is not any scope for them apart from migrating from their native places. The Government must start taking some urgent initiatives to stop the migration and provide proper oppurtunites to its people.
Ghazipur Opium Factory
The opium factory located in the city was established by the British and continues to be a major source of opium production in India. It is known as the Opium Factory Ghazipur or, more formally, the Government Opium and Alkaloid Works. It is the largest factory of its kind in the country and indeed the world. The factory was initially run by the East India Company and was used by the British during the First and Second Opium Wars with China. The factory as such was founded in 1820 though the British had been trading Ghazipur opium before that. Nowadays its output is entirely above board, controlled legally by the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act and Rules (1985) and administratively by the Indian government Ministry of Finance, overseen by a committee and a Chief Controller. The factory's output serves the global pharmaceutical industry. Until 1943 the factory only produced raw opium extracts from poppies, but nowadays it also produces many alkaloids, having first begun alkaloid production during World War Two to meet military medical needs. Its annual turnover is in the region of 2 billion rupees (approximately 36 or 37 million US dollars, for a profit of about 80 million rupees(1.5 million dollars). It has been profitable every year since 1820, but the alkaloid production currently makes a loss, while the opium production makes a profit. The typical annual opium export from the factory to the USA, for example, would be about 360 tonnes of opium.
As well as the opium and alkaloid production, the factory also has a significant R&D program, employing up to 50 research chemists. It also serves the unusual role of being the secure repository for illegal opium seizures in India—and correspondingly, an important office of the Narcotics Control Bureau of India is located in Ghazipur. Overall employment in the factory is about 900. Because it is a government industry, the factory is administrated from New Delhi but a General Manager oversees operations in Ghazipur.
In keeping with the sensitive nature of its production, the factory is guarded under high security (by the Central Industrial Security Force), and not easily accessible to the general public. The factory has its own residential accommodation for its employees, and is situated across the banks of river Ganges from the main city of Ghazipur. It is surrounded by high walls topped with barbed wire. Its products are taken by high security rail to Mumbai or New Delhi for further export.
The factory covers about 43 acres and much of its architecture is in red brick, dating from colonial times. Within the grounds of the factory there is a temple to Baba Shyam and a mazar, both said to predate the factory. There is also a solar clock, installed by the British opium agent Hopkins Esor from 1911 to 1913. Rudyard Kipling, who was familiar with opium both medicinally and recreationally, visited the Ghazipur factory in 1888 and published a description of its workings in The Pioneer on 16 April 1888. The text, In an Opium Factory is freely available from Adelaide University's ebook library.
Amitav Ghosh's novel Sea of Poppies deals with the British opium trade in India and much of Ghosh's story is based on his research of the Ghazipur factory. In interview, Ghosh stresses how much of the wealth of the British Empire stemmed from the often unsavoury opium trade, with Ghazipur as one of its centers, but he is also amazed at the scale of the present-day operation.
The Ghazipur Opium Factory may have one more claim to fame, for a rather unique problem it has. It is infested with monkeys, but these are too narcotic-addled to be a real problem and workers drag them out of the way by their tails.
Ghazipur has sixteen development blocks. The district is divided into five tehsils and another is proposed. Ghazipur has one (formally two ghazipur,saidpur) members for Lok Sabha, and eight seats to UP Vidhan Sabha. The opium factory is largest in Asia. Largest village of Asia is in Ghazipur named as Gahmar. It is 35 km from Ghazipur city.
Lok Sabha Parliamentary constituencies and the Vidhan Sabha Legislative Assembly constituencies after delimitation. 75-Ghazipur Lok Sabha and 74- Ballia Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha-373 Jakhania, 374 Saidpur (SC), 375 Ghazipur Sadar, 376 Jangipur (SC), 379 Zamania, Mohammadabad and Zahoorabad. The latter two are shifted to Ballia Lok Sabha. Earlier Saidpur, (Ghazipur) Lok sabha seat, Dildarnagar & Sadat seat of vidhan Sabha were also in existence, but they are demolished under new parameters.
Rail, road, water and air transport
Ghazipur is the major railhead of the North Eastern Railway Zone, Varanasi Division and Ghazipur City Railway Station serves as the major railway station of the city. Ghazipur Ghat is a halt station situated 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the city. The Tari Ghat East Coast Road (ECR) station in the Danapur Division 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city by road connects Ghazipur to Mughalsarai by regulare passenger train. Dildarnagar ECR on the Delhi-Patna-Howrah route and Aunrihar Jn (N.E. Railway) on the Varanasi-Ghazipur and Varanasi-Gorakhpur routes are important junctions.
Ghazipur is directly connected to Lucknow, New Delhi, Mumbai, Guwahati, Amritsar and Chennai by a regular train service. The Pawan Express, Ganga Kaveri Express, Dibrugarh Express, Harihar Express, Sadbhawna Express, Swatantra Senani and Sarnath Express are some of the trains that run from Ghazipur City Station.
Ghazipur City Railway Station is the most important station in the district and is complemented by Dildarnagar Junction, Zamania and Aunrihar stations. Yusufpur, Sadat, Dullahpur, Jakhania and Ghazipur Ghat are others small stations which serve the population. Saidpur, Karimuddinpur, Gahmar, Nandganj are some stations connected by regular trains between Varanasi-Ghazipur-Chappra and Mughalsarai-Patna .
The city is well connected to important cities by means of national highways and state highways. National Highway 29 from Varanasi to Gorakhpur passes through Ghazipur while National Highway 19 starts in the city and terminates in Patna. National Highway 97 starts in Ghazipur and terminates in the Saiyedraja district of Chandauli in order to join NH2 (Kolkatta-Delhi highway) to Ghazipur. Some major state highways start from here and connect with Lucknow, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Buxar, Sultanpur, and Deoria.
Andhau Airport in Andhau 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the City Railway Station serves as the city airport but is not open to the public airport and is used for VIP. arrivals only. The nearest public airport is Lal Bahadur Shastri Airport in Babatpur some 90 kilometres (56 mi) away.
The former Shahbaaz Kuli Airport in Shahbaaz Kuli, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the City Railway Station dates to World War II but is not use due to lack of maintenance.
In the city, auto rickshaws and rickshaws are the primary modes of transport with taxis available at railway stations. The Regional Transport Office (RTO) previously planned to deploy city buses, but found that the roads were too narrow. In the old city, auto-rickshaws are not permitted at certain times such that rickshaws remain the primary transport method. No other means of transport is available in the city region.
For District areas, taxis, buses and tempos are available from Lanka, Shastrinagar, MahuaBaag, Rauza, Rajdepur, City Railway Station, Gorabazar and RTI square.
Private buses are also available for Varanasi and other major hubs from Lanka Bus Stand and are faster, cheaper and offer a regular service. Abhay Bus Service is one of the oldest private bus operators in Ghazipur.
Industry and agriculture
The city has a sound agricultural base and reasonably good infrastructure although the industrial potential is low. The lack of enterprise and technical knowledge of local people may be the major constraints to industrial growth. Ghazipur has long been known for the manufacture of perfume especially rose water (Ghazipuri Gulabjal) and attar of roses. A local firm was awarded a medal for the quality of product at the British Empire exhibition in London in the 19th century. This industry now faces gradual decline due to the shrinkage of cultivation of perfume bearing plants. The sugar industry was also important to this region but now there are few factories left. Saltpeter is manufactured in Saidpur while cloth weaving is centred in Bahariabad. There are 47 registered factories under section 1948. However, the scenario has changed over the last decade,[when?] a multi productive agro manufacturing unit M/s Sukhbhir Agro, an alcohol manufacturing unit M/s Lords Distillery, a Polythene Manufacturing unit M/s Bryplast Private Limited, and a Homoeopathic Medicines Manufacturing unit M/s M.D.Homoeo Lab. Pvt. Ltd., Maharajganj, Ghazipur have been successfully established in the district. These companies provide many employment opportunities.
The manufacture of rice, agricultural goods, furniture, leather, footwear, utensils, steel trunks, almirah, khandsari, candles and handlooms are the main small industries of the city. Village and cottage industries involve mostly handicraft skills handed down from generation to generation such as gur making, village oil industry, leather tanning, pottery etc. Opium and Alkaloid Works, a Government of India enterprise, specializes in the manufacture of excise opium and export opium.
- Abdul Hamid, soldier
- Kuber Nath Rai, writer and literary scholar
- Manoj Sinha, Minister of State for railways
- Nazir Hussain, pitamah of Bhojpuri cinema
- Rahi Masoom Raza, novelist
- Ram Bahadur Rai, Padmashri
- Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, ascetic and leader
- Vinod Rai, ex-Comptroller and Auditor General of India
- Viveki Rai, writer
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