Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

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Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
Sultan
Tomb of Ghiasuddin Khan 2.jpg
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq
Reign 8 September 1321 – February 1325
Coronation 8 September 1321
Predecessor Khusro Khan
Successor Muhammad bin Tughluq
Died February 1325
Kara-Manikpur, India
Burial Delhi, India
House Tughluq dynasty

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'),[1] (died c. 1325[2]) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. He founded the city of Tughluqabad. His reign was cut short after 5 years when he died under mysterious circumstances in 1325.

He was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq[3]

Early life[edit]

Literary, numismatic and epigraphic evidence makes it clear that Tughluq was the Sultan's personal name, and not an ancestral designation.[4] His ancestry is debated among modern historians, because the earlier sources differ widely regarding it.[4] Tughluq's court poet Badr-i Chach attempted to find a royal genealogy for his family, but this can be dismissed as flattery. This is clear from the fact that another courtier Amir Khusrau, in his Tughluq Nama, states that Tughluq described himself as an unimportant man ("awara mard") in his early career.[5] The contemporary Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta states that Tughluq belonged to the "Qarauna tribe of the Turks", who lived in the hilly region between Turkestan and Sindh. Ibn Battuta's source for this claim was the Sufi saint Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh, but the claim is not corroborated by any other contemporary source.[4] Firishta, based on the inquiries made at Lahore, wrote that Tughluq was a Turkish slave of the earlier emperor Balban, and that his mother came from a Jat family of India. No contemporary sources corroborate this claim.[5]

Different sources give different accounts of Tughluq's early career. Shams-i Siraj Afif , in his Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi states that Tughluq arrived in Delhi from Khorasan during the reign of Alauddin Khalji (r. 1296–1316), along with his brothers Rajab and Abu Bakr. However, Tughluq's courtier Amir Khusrau, in his Tughluq Nama states that he was already present in Delhi during the reign of Alauddin's predecessor Jalal-ud-din (r. 1290-1296). According to Khusrau, Tughluq spent a considerable time searching for a job in Delhi, before he joined Jalaluddin's imperial guard.[5] Khusrau states that Tughluq first distinguished himself during the Siege of Ranthambore, in which the Khalji forces were led by Ulugh Khan.[5]

Beginning of the Reign[edit]

Silver Tanka of Ghiyasal-Din Tughlaq Dated AH 724

Tughluq became a provincial governor of Dipalpur under the Khaljis.[1]

Alauddin Khalji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi to go to Dipalpur to fight against the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi secured Multan, Uch and Sindh at a time when Khalji died and Aláuddín Khalji’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom. Alauddin Khalji’s son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah was removed from the throne of Delhi by Khusro Khan. But he was unpopular with the Muslim nobles due to perceived liberality towards Hindus. Ghazi Malik and his son Fakhr Malik collected the forces of Sindh and Multan and overthrew Khusro Khan. In 1320, Ghazi Malik was crowned as the Sultan of Delhi with the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq and his son Fakhr Malik was given the title of Muhammad Shah Tughluq.

Reign[edit]

He founded the Tughluq dynasty and reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325.[6] Ghiyas's policy was harsh against Mongols. He had killed envoys of the Ilkhan Oljeitu and punished Mongol prisoners harshly. He had fought various campaigns against the Mongols defeating them in 1305 at the Battle of Amroha. When Ghiyath Tughluq proceeded from Multan to Delhi, the tribe of Soomro revolted and took possession of Thatta. Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq appointed Tajuddin Malik as governor of Multan and Khwájah Khatír as governor of Bhakkar and he left Malik Ali Sher in charge of Sehwan.

In 1323, Ghiyath al-Din sent his son Ulugh Khan (later Muhammad bin Tughluq) on an expedition to the Kakatiya capital Warangal. The ensuing Siege of Warangal resulted in the annexation of Warangal, and the end of the Kakatiya dynasty.[7]

In 1323 he appointed his son Muhammad Shah as his heir and successor and took a written promise or agreement to the arrangement from the ministers and nobles of the state.

He also started construction of Tughlaqabad Fort.[1]

Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq's Tomb In Delhi

Death[edit]

In 1324, Tughlaq turned his attention towards Bengal, currently in the midst of a civil war. After victory, he placed Nasiruddon on the throne of West Bengal as a vassal state, and East Bengal was annexed. On his way back to Delhi, he conquered Tirhut (north Bihar). At Afghanpur in February 1325, the wooden pavilion used for his reception collapsed, killing him and his second son Prince Mahmud Khan. Ibn Battuta claimed it was a conspiracy, hatched by his vizier, Jauna Khan (Khwajah Jahan).[1][8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  2. ^ Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, (Cambridge University Press, 1999), 330.
  3. ^ Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
  4. ^ a b c Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1970, p. 460.
  5. ^ a b c d Banarsi Prasad Saksena 1970, p. 461.
  6. ^ http://coinindia.com/galleries-tughluq.html
  7. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2005). A Social History of the Deccan, 1300-1761. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780521254847.
  8. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. pp. 165–166. ISBN 9780330418799.

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Atlas of World History, General Editor Prof. Jeremy Black, Dorling Kindersley
  • Futuh-us-Salatin by Isami, edited by Agha Mahdi Husain and was also published from Aligarh in three volumes (1967-77 ce)
  • A Critical Study of Futuh-us-Salatin by Aziz Bano, Head of the Persian Department, Moulana Azad National Urdu University, Hyderabad, India
  • Lucy Peck. Delhi - A thousand years of building, Roli Books, ISBN 81-7436-354-8

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Khusro Khan
Sultan of Delhi
1320–1325
Succeeded by
Muhammad bin Tughluq
New dynasty Tughluq dynasty
1320–1325