Ghomara language

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Ghomara
Native to Morocco
Ethnicity Ghomara
Native speakers
ca. 10,000 (2009)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 gho
Glottolog ghom1257
Ghomara Berber - Localisation.PNG
Ghomara Berber - Details.PNG
  Ghomara Berber

The language of the Ghomara people is a Northern Berber language spoken by approximately 10,000 people in Morocco. Ghomara Berber is spoken on the western edge of the Rif, among the Beni Bu Zra and Beni Mansur tribes of the Ghomara confederacy. Despite being listed as endangered, it is still being passed on to children in these areas.[4]

It is relatively similar to Senhadja de Srair Berber spoken around Ketama, but is difficult to understand for a speaker of Riffian.

Some typical features which show the difference with Riffian are the use of the preposition dar instead of Riffian ghar, the feminine plural ending -an instead of -in, and the absence of spirantisation in word-initial position.

Current status[edit]

Despite practices of elderly teaching children how to speak Ghomara Berber at home, the language is still considered threatened, with only 10,000 known speakers. A major reason can be attributed to the small geographical location where this language is used as well as the more common use of Arabic throughout Morocco.

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Like Arabic, Ghomara and the other Berber dialects have three vowels: a-, i-, u-.[5]

Grammar[edit]

Nouns[edit]

For nouns in Ghomara Berber, there are several common trends. The prefix a-, i-, or u- commonly identifies the masculine singular nouns in Ghomara Berber (i.e., arg'az “man”). For feminine singular nouns, there is both a prefix and a suffix such as ta-…-t (i.e., tarbat “girl”) and is the most common way to identify feminine singular nouns. Masculine plural nouns are characterized by i-…-en or i-…-an (i.e., irg'azen “men”). For feminine plural nouns, ti-…-an (i.e., tirbatan “girls”) is the most common circumfix.[5]

Pronouns[edit]

Ghomara Berber uses personal, singular, and plural pronouns.

The first person singular pronoun nekkin is equivalent to "I" in English. The second person singular male pronoun kedžin and female pronoun kemmin is equivalent to "you" in English. Similarly, in Ghomara Berber, the third person singular male pronoun netta and female pronoun nettaθa is equivalent to him or her in English respectively.

The first person plural pronoun nuçna is equivalent to "we" or "us" in English and the second person plural pronoun kunna is equivalent to "you all" in English. Lastly, niçma is the third person plural pronoun equivalent to "they" in English, and is not distinguished by gender.

Verbs[edit]

In Ghomara verbs contain certain affixes that characterize singularity, plurality, and point of view (POV). The following is an example of the verb conjugations for the English word "to write" or ara in Ghomara Berber:

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives have either suffix -ø, which characterizes masculine singular nouns or -θ, which characterizes both feminine singular and all plural nouns. For example:

  • Masculine singular: tayfur mellulø “the, a white table”
  • Feminine singular: tamγart mezziθ “the, a little woman”
  • Masculine plural: irgazen muqqreθ “(the) big men”
  • Feminine plural: timettutan muqqreθ “(the) big women”

Vocabulary[edit]

An example of common English words in Ghomara Berber:[5]

  • targat: “dream”
  • ahlan: “welcome, hello” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • hemmam: “bathroom” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • tamuda: “pig"
  • lmakla: “food” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • tanebdut: “summer”
  • rriyada: “sports” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • kama: “bed” (borrowed from Spanish)
  • rriyad: “garden” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • ssultan: “king” (borrowed from Arabic)
  • ššhar: “month” (borrowed from Arabic)

Numbers[edit]

Ghomara Berber uses a numerical system similar to many other languages. Cardinal numbers yan (“one”, masculine) and yat (“one”, feminine) are the only Berber numerals in Ghomara, while all the other cardinal numbers are borrowed from Moroccan Arabic (zuž (“two”), tlata (“three”), εišrin (“twenty”), tlatin (“thirty”), etc).

References[edit]

  1. ^ J El Hannouche, Arabic influence in Ghomara Berber, 2010
  2. ^ Maarten Kossman, Berber subclassification (preliminary version), Leiden (2011)
  3. ^ Sebastian Nordhoff et al., "Ghomara", in: Glottolog 2.2, Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (2013)
  4. ^ The Endangered Languages Project
  5. ^ a b c J. el Hannouche, 2008. Ghomara Berber: A Brief Grammatical Survey

Further reading[edit]

  • Mourigh, K. (2015, February 18). A Grammar of Ghomara Berber. Retrieved February 12, 2016, from [1]
  • Mourigh, Khalid. 2015. A Grammar of Ghomara Berber (pp. 545). University of Leiden.
  • Gabriel Camps and J. Vignet-Zunz. 1998. Ghomâra (Ghumara, Ghmara). In Gabriel Camps (ed.), Gauda - Girrei, 3110-3119. Aix-en-Provence: Edisud.
  • Colin, Georges S. 1929. Le parler berbère des Ġmāra. Hespéris: (pp. 43–58) archives berbères et bulletin de l'Institut des Hautes Etudes Marocaines.
  • Bynon, James. 1970. The Contribution of Linguistics to History in the Field of Berber Studies, in: David Dalby (ed.) Language and History in Africa (London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.) pp. 64–77.
  • Maarten Kossmann. 2013. The Arabic influence on Northern Berber. (Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics 67). Leiden: Brill
  • Putten, M. V., Dr. (2014, January 19). Ghadamès. Retrieved February 12, 2016, from http://eugeneslchan.com/Ghadames.htm
  • Sadiqi, F., Grammaire du berbère (Casablanca: Afrique Orient, 2004).