|T. nebraskensis skeleton at Natural History Museum Los Angeles|
Barbour & Schultz, 1934
Titanotylopus is an extinct genus of terrestrial herbivore in the family Camelidae, endemic to North America from the late Hemphillian stage of the Miocene through the Irvingtonian stage of the Pleistocene. It was one of the last surviving North American camels, after its extinction, only Camelops remained. Its closest living relative is the Bactrian camel.
Titanotylopus is distinguished from other early large camelids by its large upper canines and other distinguishing dental characteristics, and absence of lacrimal vacuities in the skull. Unlike the smaller, contemporaneous Camelops, Titanotylopus had relatively broad second phalanges, suggesting that it had true padded "cameltoes," like modern camels.
The species Titanotylopus spatulus was characterized by broad, spatula-like incisors. It has been found at Grand View, Red Light fauna of the Love Formation, Hudspeth County, Texas, Donnelly Ranch, White Rock, Kansas, Mullen II (Kansas), Sandahl Local Fauna (Nebraska), Vallecito Creek, Colorado and 111 Ranch, Arizona in North America.
Titanotylopus possessed long and massive limbs, a comparatively small braincase, and a convex slope between the eyes. It reached a shoulder height of over 3.4 m (11 ft) and a weight of 2,485.6 kg (5,480 lb).
While some authors have considered Gigantocamelus and Titanotylopus to be congeneric, others have maintained them separately. Voorhies and Corner, based on previously unreported material, documented that the two are indeed worthy of separate generic status. Harrison (1985) followed Voorhies and Corner in advocating the use of Titanotylopus for only T. nebraskensis, based on a lower jaw, and Gigantocamelus for G. spatula, which includes G. fricki. There is a clear difference between the proximal phalanx of specimens assigned to Gigantocamelus and to Titanotylopus, based on skeletons associated with skull material.
- Pleistocene megafauna
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