The giant cichlid (Boulengerochromis microlepis), also known as the emperor cichlid, is a species of fish in the Cichlidae family, endemic to Lake Tanganyika in Africa. It is the only member of its genus Boulengerochromis and tribe Boulengerochromini.
The species was originally described as Tilapia microlepis by George Albert Boulenger in 1899. Realizing that it was not a tilapia, the genus Boulengerochromis was coined in 1904 by Jacques Pellegrin, honouring G.A. Boulenger.
Males reach a length up to 90 cm (3.0 ft) and females up to 75 cm (2.5 ft), possibly making it the largest species of cichlid, although other suggest that prize goes to the speckled peacock bass (Cichla temensis) of South America.
The giant cichlid is endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it occurs in the countries of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia. It is common and found in coastal areas to depths of 100 m (330 ft). Adults are mainly piscivorous and juveniles are omnivores.
The generic name of this species is a compound noun, made up of the surname Boulenger, in honour of the Belgian born herpetologist and ichthyologist George Albert Boulenger (1858-1937), ad the Greek word chromis which was used by Aristotle for a type of fish. This was probably the drum Sciaenidae and may be derived from the word chroemo which means "to neigh" in reference to the noise made by drums. This word was applied to a number of percomorph fishes, such as damselfish, cardinalfish, dottybacks, wrasses and cichilds, by ichthyologists as these were thought to be closely related.
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