Serranus magnificus Macleay, 1882
The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod, or bumblebee grouper, and as the Queensland groper in Australia, is the largest bony fish found in coral reefs, and the aquatic emblem of Queensland. It is found from near the surface to depths of 100 m (330 ft) at reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific region, with the exception of the Persian Gulf. It also enters estuaries, such as the lowermost part of the Brisbane River. It reaches up to 2.7 m (8.9 ft) in length and 400 kg (880 lb) in weight; unconfirmed reports of it growing much bigger exist, up to 4.26 m (14.0 ft) and 598 kg (1,318 lb). Giant groupers feed on a variety of marine life, including small sharks and juvenile sea turtles. Due to overfishing, this species has declined drastically in many regions, and as of the mid-1990s, it is considered Vulnerable by the IUCN.
This giant fish is similar to the Malabar grouper, and its colour changes with age. The giant grouper has a large mouth and a rounded tail. Juveniles have irregular black and yellow markings, while adults are green-grey to grey-brown with faint mottling, with numerous small black spots on the fins.
- Shuk Man, C. & Ng Wai Chuen (Grouper & Wrasse Specialist Group) (2006). "Epinephelus lanceolatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Epinephelus lanceolatus" in FishBase. May 2012 version.
- "'Bubba,' Famed Cancer-surviving Grouper, R.I.P.; 'Overcame Some Incredible Odds'". Underwatertimes.com News Service (Underwatertimes). 2006-08-24. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Epinephelus lanceolatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 24 January 2006.
- The Australian Fisherman's Companion by Harold Vaughan
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