Giant huntsman spider

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Giant huntsman spider
Heteropoda maxima 1.jpg
Heteropoda maxima
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Family: Sparassidae
Genus: Heteropoda
Species: H. maxima
Binomial name
Heteropoda maxima
Jaeger, 2001[1]

The giant huntsman spider (Heteropoda maxima, "the largest") is a species of huntsman spider (Sparassidae), a family of large, fast spiders that actively hunt down prey.[2] It is considered the world's largest spider by leg span,[2] which can reach up to 1 foot (30 centimeters).[3]

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

The giant huntsman spider was discovered in a cave in Laos in 2001.[3] Over a thousand new species of plant and animal were found between 1997 and 2007 in the Greater Mekong Subregion.[4]

A representative of the World Wide Fund for Nature stated that "some of these species really have no business being recently discovered",[3] suggesting that it is surprising for such a large species to go undiscovered for so long.

Description[edit]

A giant huntsman spider feeding on a cockroach

The coloration is yellowish-brown with several irregularly distributed dark spots on the rear half. The legs have wide dark bands before the first bend. Like all huntsman spiders, the legs of the giant huntsman spider are long compared to the body, and twist forward in a crab-like fashion.[2]

Apart from its size, the H. maxima can be distinguished from other species of Heteropoda by genital characteristics. On males, the cymbium is much longer than usual, at least three times longer than the tegulum. The female is distinguished by a characteristically shaped epigyneal field with two anterior directed bands, and the course of their internal ducts.

The giant huntsman spider is the largest member of the Sparassidae family, boasting a 30 centimeters (12 inches) leg-span, and 4.6 centimeters (1.8 inches) body-length.[1] The largest known member of the Sparassidae known prior to the discovery of H. maxima was the Australian Beregama aurea (L. Koch, 1875) with a body length of about 4 centimeters.[5] (Since the discovery of H. maxima, Sparassidae species larger than B. aurea have been discovered. One of them, Cerbalus aravaensis, is considered to be the largest in the Middle East).

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The giant huntsman spider is found in Laos,[2] and is probably a cave dweller because of its pale colour, long legs and special hairs on the second foot of the male. There is no apparent reduction of the eyes, however, possibly because the species lives near cave entrances.[1][6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jaeger P. 2001. A new species of Heteropoda (Araneae, Sparassidae, Heteropodinae) from Laos, the largest huntsman spider? Zoosystema 23 (3): 461-465.
  2. ^ a b c d Szalay, Jessie (21 November 2013). "Giant Huntsman Spider: World's Largest Spider By Leg Span". Retrieved 20 October 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "PHOTOS: Cyanide Millipede, Huge Spider Among New Species". National Geographic. Retrieved 17 December 2008. 
  4. ^ "New species discoveries". World Wide Fund for Nature. Retrieved 17 December 2008. 
  5. ^ "The Find-a-spider Guide: Beregama Aurea". University of South Queensland. Retrieved 18 December 2008. 
  6. ^ "New Species Alert!Hot Pink Millipede, Collosal [sic] Spider, and Tiny Deer Emerge.". http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/. Retrieved 18 December 2008.  External link in |publisher= (help)

Further reading[edit]

Bayer, Steffen; Jaeger, Peter (June 2009). "Heteropoda species from limestone caves in Laos (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae)". Zootaxa. 1 (2143): 23. Retrieved 29 April 2015.