Giant slalom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Giant slalom skiing)
Jump to: navigation, search
A skier attacks a gate in GS

Giant slalom (GS) is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles (gates) spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G.

Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing. This category separates them from the speed events of Super-G and downhill. The technical events are normally composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run.


The vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m (820–1,480 ft) for men, and 250–400 m (820–1,310 ft) for women. The number of gates in this event is 56–70 for men and 46–58 for women. The number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m (984 ft) would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race.[1]


Olympian Lotte Smiseth Sejersted
in a GS race

Although not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h (25 mph) in the giant slalom.


Top: giant slalom skis from 2006,
bottom: slalom skis.

Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, and longer than slalom skis.

In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation (FIS) increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m (69 ft) and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm (72.8 in) for men and 180 cm (70.9 in) for women. A maximum stand height (the distance from the snow to the sole of the boot) of 55 mm (2.17 in) was also established for all disciplines.

In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m (89 ft) for men and 23 m (75 ft) for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm (2.36 to 2.56 in), and the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm (1.97 in).[1] The best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety 29 m (95 ft) and Lindsey Vonn 27 m (89 ft).

For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m (115 ft) and the minimal length to 195 cm (76.8 in). Many athletes criticized this decision. Often David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues that FIS used studies which do not comprise a scientific proof. He states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski. He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used.[2][3][4][5][6]


The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20.[7] After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes.[8]

The giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen, Colorado, and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, Norway, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world championships and Olympics since. Originally a one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, and at the Olympics in 1968. The second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, and made its Olympic debut in 1980.

The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Also scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills. Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics.

Upon its introduction, giant slalom briefly displaced the combined event at the world championships; it was absent in 1950 and 1952. The combined returned in 1954 in Åre, Sweden, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events (downhill, giant slalom, and slalom), a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, Austria, and at the 1988 Calgary Olympics. It was changed to the super-combined format (one run of slalom on same day as downhill) at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010.

Men's World Cup podiums[edit]

In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967.[9]

Season 1st 2nd 3rd
1967 France Jean-Claude Killy France Georges Mauduit United States Jimmy Heuga
1968 France Jean-Claude Killy Switzerland Edmund Bruggmann Austria Herbert Huber
1969 Austria Karl Schranz Austria Reinhard Tritscher France Jean-Noel Augert
1970 Italy Gustav Thöni Switzerland Patrick Russel
France Dumeng Giovanoli
1971 Italy Gustav Thöni
France Patrick Russel
Switzerland Edmund Bruggmann
1972 Italy Gustav Thöni Switzerland Edmund Bruggmann France Rogers Rossat-Mignod
1973 Austria Hans Hinterseer Norway Erik Haker Switzerland Adolf Rösti
1974 Italy Piero Gros Austria Hans Hinterseer Italy Gustav Thöni
1975 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Italy Piero Gros Norway Erik Haker
1976 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Italy Gustav Thöni Italy Piero Gros
1977 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark
Switzerland Heini Hemmi
Austria Klaus Heidegger
1978 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Liechtenstein Andreas Wenzel United States Phil Mahre
1979 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Switzerland Peter Lüscher Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Bojan Krizaj
1980 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Austria Hans Enn Switzerland Jacques Lüthy
1981 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Soviet Union Alexander Zhirov United States Phil Mahre
1982 United States Phil Mahre Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Luxembourg Marc Girardelli
1983 United States Phil Mahre Sweden Ingemar Stenmark
Switzerland Max Julen
1984 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark
Switzerland Pirmin Zurbriggen
Austria Hans Enn
1985 Luxembourg Marc Girardelli Switzerland Pirmin Zurbriggen Switzerland Thomas Bürgler
1986 Switzerland Joel Gaspoz Sweden Ingemar Stenmark Austria Hubert Strolz
1987 Switzerland Pirmin Zurbriggen
Switzerland Joel Gaspoz
Italy Richard Pramotton
1988 Italy Alberto Tomba Austria Hubert Strolz Austria Helmut Mayer
1989 Norway Ole-Christian Furuseth
Switzerland Pirmin Zurbriggen
Austria Rudolf Nierlich
1990 Austria Günther Mader
Norway Ole-Christian Furuseth
Austria Hubert Strolz
1991 Italy Alberto Tomba Austria Rudolf Nierlich Luxembourg Marc Girardelli
1992 Italy Alberto Tomba Switzerland Hans Pieren Switzerland Paul Accola
1993 Norway Kjetil-Andre Aamodt Italy Alberto Tomba Luxembourg Marc Girardelli
1994 Austria Christian Mayer Norway Kjetil-Andre Aamodt France Franck Piccard
1995 Italy Alberto Tomba Slovenia Jure Kosir Norway Harald Strand Nilsen
1996 Switzerland Michael von Grünigen Switzerland Urs Kälin Norway Lasse Kjus
1997 Switzerland Michael von Grünigen Norway Kjetil-Andre Aamodt Austria Hans Knauß
1998 Austria Hermann Maier Switzerland Michael von Grünigen Austria Christian Mayer
1999 Switzerland Michael von Grünigen Austria Stephan Eberharter Austria Hermann Maier
2000 Austria Hermann Maier Austria Christian Mayer Switzerland Michael von Grünigen
2001 Austria Hermann Maier Switzerland Michael von Grünigen United States Erik Schlopy
2002 France Frederic Covili Austria Benjamin Raich Austria Stephan Eberharter
2003 Switzerland Michael von Grünigen United States Bode Miller Austria Hans Knauß
2004 United States Bode Miller Finland Kalle Palander Italy Massimiliano Blardone
2005 Austria Benjamin Raich United States Bode Miller Canada Thomas Grandi
2006 Austria Benjamin Raich Italy Massimiliano Blardone Sweden Fredrik Nyberg
2007 Norway Aksel Lund Svindal Italy Massimiliano Blardone Austria Benjamin Raich
2008 United States Ted Ligety Austria Benjamin Raich Italy Manfred Mölgg
2009 Switzerland Didier Cuche Austria Benjamin Raich United States Ted Ligety
2010 United States Ted Ligety Switzerland Carlo Janka Austria Benjamin Raich
2011 United States Ted Ligety Norway Aksel Lund Svindal France Cyprien Richard
2012 Austria Marcel Hirscher United States Ted Ligety Italy Massimiliano Blardone
2013 United States Ted Ligety Austria Marcel Hirscher France Alexis Pinturault
2014 United States Ted Ligety Austria Marcel Hirscher France Alexis Pinturault
2015 Austria Marcel Hirscher France Alexis Pinturault United States Ted Ligety
2016 Austria Marcel Hirscher France Alexis Pinturault Norway Henrik Kristoffersen
2017 Austria Marcel Hirscher France Mathieu Faivre France Alexis Pinturault

Men's most podiums in World Cup[edit]

Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup.[10]

  Still active

Updated to 5 February 2018.

# Skier Total Last
1 Sweden Ingemar Stenmark 72 19-02-1989
2 Austria Marcel Hirscher 52 28-01-2018
3 Switzerland Michael Von Grueningen 46 15-03-2003
4 United States Ted Ligety 41 28-01-2018
5 Austria Benjamin Raich 35 01-03-2015
6 Italy Alberto Tomba 31 06-01-1998
7 Austria Hermann Maier 28 23-10-2005
8 United States Phil Mahre 26 05-03-1984
9 Italy Gustavo Thoeni 26 02-01-1977
10 France Alexis Pinturault 26 06-01-2018
11 Luxembourg Marc Girardelli 26 27-03-1993
12 Italy Massimiliano Blardone 25 13-02-2016
13 United States Bode Miller 21 08-12-2013
14 Sweden Fredrik Nyberg 20 17-03-2006

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "The International Ski Competition Rules" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-01-16. 
  2. ^ Ted Ligety, Skiing's Most Outspoken Critic, Is Still the Best in the World, bleacher report, 2012-10-28.
  3. ^ A Letter To FIS, David Dodge, 2011.
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ Update on Injury Trends in Alpine Skiing, Johnson, Etlinger, Shealy, Update on Injury Trends in Alpine Skiing, 2009
  6. ^ Unfälle und Verletzungen im alpinen Skisport, David Schulz, Auswertungsstelle für Skiunfälle, Stiftung Sicherheit im Skisport, 2011.
  7. ^ Francesco Vida. La storia dello sci in Italia.
  8. ^ Allen, John. "First Giant Slalom". Skiing Heritage. International Skiing History Assoc. Retrieved 31 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "Winter Sports Chart - Alpine Skiing". Retrieved 11 February 2018. 

External links[edit]