Giga Press

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Giga Press
20200912-tesla-fremont-dcm2-idra-giga-press-ol6100cs-crop.png
Die Casting Machine #2 at Tesla Factory, Fremont, 2020
ClassificationHigh-pressure die-casting (HPDC)
IndustryMetal casting
ApplicationCar chassis production
Dimensions19.5 m × 5.9 m × 5.3 m
64 by 19 by 17 feet
Weight410–430 tonnes
900,000–950,000 lb
Fuel sourceElectric
Powered
  • 2 × 132kW motors[1]
  • 4 × 90kW motors[2]
Invented~2018
Examples
  • 1  (Glovitech)
Model
  • OL 6100 CS (Idra)
  • DCC 6000 (LK)

Giga Press are a series of aluminium die casting machines manufactured by Idra Group in Italy. They are notable for being the largest high-pressure die casting machines in the world, with a clamping force of 55,000 to 61,000 kilonewtons (5,600 to 6,200 tf).[2][3] Each machine weighs 410–430 tonnes (900,000–950,000 lb).[2][3]

Base specification Giga Press machines had been included in Idra's catalogue since 2018,[4] with usage of a customised OL 6100 CS Giga Press started by Tesla, Inc. in late-2020 for the production of chassis parts for the Tesla Model Y.[5]

Shots of molten aluminium weighing 80 kilograms (180 lb) are injected into the cold-chamber casting mold with a velocity of 10 metres per second (22 mph; 36 km/h).[6] The cycle time is ~80‒90 seconds,[2] allowing an output rate of 40‒45 completed castings per hour, or ~1,000 castings per day.

Tesla[edit]

In 2019 Jerome Guillen indicated that Tesla Grohmann Automation were working on a "giant, giant, giant machine" to "make full-size cars in the same way that toy cars are made".[7]

With our giant casting machines, we are literally trying to make full-size cars in the same way that toy cars are made

Elon Musk, (18 January 2021)[8]

The two biggest casting machines in the world had been purchased by Tesla, according to Elon Musk in April 2020, to enable casting the Tesla Model Y rear chassis and crash rails as a single component.[9][10] In January 2021, Elon Musk announced that also the rear chassis of the Tesla Cybertruck would be produced using an over-8,000-tonne-force (80,000 kN) casting machine.[11] On 16 March 2021, an order had been placed with Idra for the first 8,000-tonne die machine.[12]

As of October 2021 Tesla had five casting machines installed at Giga Shanghai, two machines installed at the Tesla Factory in California, two machines installed at Giga Berlin, and two machines at Giga Austin—plus foundations in preparation for many additional Giga Press machines.

Principle of operation[edit]

Giga Press in closed position during casting + after removal of previous casting; and in open position for robot removal of casting + cleaning;

Die casting works by forcing molten metal alloy inside a reusable mold, then opening the mold to remove the finished piece after it has solidified. The open mold is cooled to 185 °C (365 °F) and cleaned by robots, and fresh molten aluminium is prepared for the next cycle to begin 1‒2 minutes after the first cycle. Each fresh casting is trimmed to approximate size, measured, checked for imperfections, and sent for CNC machining to finished size.[13]

For the Tesla's Giga Press-based casting operation, ingots and off-cuts of aluminium are melted in a natural gas-powered melting oven operating at 850 °C (1,600 °F), until liquid. Slag in the form of Aluminium oxide is mechanically removed from the surface, and the rest of the liquid metal is pumped through heated pipes to an enclosed warming oven operating at 750–850 °C (1,400–1,600 °F), heated using 400 kilowatts (540 hp) of electrical power. To prevent the formation of oxides, a tank blanket of Nitrogen gas covers the molten aluminium, which is circulated to maintain an even temperature. Argon gas and a rotary-degasser are used to remove impurities, with a Silicon carbide filter removing most other particles larger than 25 micrometres (0.98 thou).[13]

At the beginning of each casting cycle robots spray 35 millilitres (1.2 imp fl oz; 1.2 US fl oz) of Soybean oil in a thin layer inside each half of the mold to allow separation. The mold is closed, and a low vacuum of 50 millibars (50 hPa) created by pumping out the air from inside. A precise amount of molten metal is pumped from the holding oven into the casting chamber of the Giga Press at 750 °C (1,400 °F), and forced into the mold using a high-speed plunger with an additional 8 millilitres (0.28 imp fl oz; 0.27 US fl oz) of lubricant. The mold is opened, and the raw casting removed at 400 °C (750 °F).

A robot reaches in and removes the casting, placing it in a quenching tank to reduce the temperature from 400 to 50 °C (750 to 120 °F). A mechanical trim press cuts the approximate edges, with excess aluminium being recycled back into the melting oven. The remaining useful part of the casting is X-rayed to check the internal structure, trimmed by laser, drilled for fittings, and then computer-measured for accuracy.[13]

Die structure[edit]

Tesla's Model Y rear casting die has 4 known visible parts: [14] [15]

  • 2 big classic main facing dies, oriented vertically with injection from the bottom of the immobile one.
  • 2 smaller side wedging dies, moving in for injection & out for removal.

The front casting suggests an identical die layout, with maybe a 5th wedging die underneath (process) for the front-facing (car) crash rail mount. [16]

Metal alloy[edit]

According to analysis by Sandy Munro, the casting aluminium alloy used in the large Tesla chassis parts is primarily an Aluminium‒Silicon mix with Aluminium (89.5%), and Silicon (8.5%) plus several other trace elements—falling within the categorisation of Aluminum Association alloy "AA 386":

Analysed alloy composition of Tesla Model Y megacasting[17]
Element Name Percentage
Al Aluminium 89.482%
Si Silicon 8.525%
Cu Copper 0.790%
Mn Manganese 0.455%
Fe Iron 0.277%
Mg Magnesium 0.075%
Zn Zinc 0.020%
V Vanadium 0.015%
Ti Titanium 0.013%
Ni Nickel 0.009%
Zr Zirconium 0.005%
Pb Lead 0.004%
Sb Antimony 0.000%

Components[edit]

Vacuum inside the closed mold is achieved using a 4,000-litre tank made by Fondarex in Switzerland.[18]

Molten metal is pumped through heated pipes, and rotary degassing is performed to reduce porosity in the casting.[19]

Steps and machinery involved:[citation needed]

Internals of second Tesla-customised Idra OL 6100 CS Giga Press, with gap for die casting molds, between plattens and moving compression toggles

Locations[edit]

Fremont[edit]

Robot immediately after removing completed Tesla Model Y rear megacasting from Die Casting Machine #1 (DCM1) at Tesla Factory in Fremont, September 2020

Preparation work for installation of the first Giga Press die casting machine ("DCM1")[f 1] was planned to begin in California during May 2020.[9] In May 2020, Tesla requested building permits from the City of Fremont for demolishing a car wash at the Tesla Factory, and installing an arch-shaped metal building for casting machinery.[f 2][f 3][f 4] During May/June 2020 Tesla advertised a "Castings Tooling & Process Engineer" job, based at the Tesla Factory in Fremont, responsible for production ramp-up of the first Giga Press.[20] In June 2020, permits for foundations to support the Giga Press at Fremont were filed, then issued on 26 June 2020.[f 5][f 6]

During July 2020, relocation of electrical equipment and raising of a compressed air pipeline by 1.8 metres (6 ft) were required; these steps were to enable installation of the drilling and tapping ("Drill & Tap") area for the "DCM1" Giga Press-based casting line at the Fremont factory.[f 1] Preparations for the Drill and Tap (D&T) area required in-filling of a pit.[f 7] [f 8] Several platforms required installing.[f 9][f 10]

At the end of July 2020, Tesla filed permit applications for construction work in preparation for Die-Casting Machine #2 (DCM2) at Fremont.[f 11][f 12]

By early-August 2020, the casting cell and first Giga Press were substantially complete, having been assembled in the open air at the north end of the General Assembly building.[21] Permits for the testing laboratory were filed during August 2020.[f 13] (37°29′51″N 121°56′46″W / 37.4975°N 121.946°W / 37.4975; -121.946 (Tesla Die Casting Machine (DCM1 + DCM2): Giga Press OL6100 CS)Coordinates: 37°29′51″N 121°56′46″W / 37.4975°N 121.946°W / 37.4975; -121.946 (Tesla Die Casting Machine (DCM1 + DCM2): Giga Press OL6100 CS))

During September 2020 the first Giga Press at Fremont (DCM1) started producing trial runs of the Model Y single-piece rear casting,[22] and the second Giga Press at Fremont (DCM2) had been installed.[22]

On 11 March 2021, one of the Fremont presses caught fire.[23]

Germany[edit]

As of July 2020 plans for the Tesla Giga Berlin factory in Brandenburg included provision and piling foundations for eight 6,100-tonne-force (60,000 kN) die casting machines.[24][25] (52°23′49″N 13°47′35″E / 52.397°N 13.793°E / 52.397; 13.793 (Tesla Die Casting Machine building: 8 foundations for Giga Press / 6100-tonne))

Tesla Model Y vehicles built at Giga Berlin will have a redesigned structure.[26] European Model Y cars will use a front chassis megacasting, in addition to the rear chassis megacasting.[27] The first 1‒2 Giga Press machines at Berlin will be required for the Model Y chassis production, with the remainder allowing flexibility in casting large numbers of parts quickly.[27] The first two European Giga Press machines were planned to be delivered to Giga Berlin by the start of 2021.[18]

Shanghai[edit]

Locally-produced compression platten (bottom-left) being unloaded at Giga Shanghai factory in July 2020

Idra's parent company, LK Machinery[28] held a factory tour in Shenzhen on 27 November 2019, during which a partially-complete machine was visible.[29] During the factory tour, the locally-produced Chinese machine was branded as "Impress-Plus DCC6000".[29]

By October 2020, three Impress-Plus DCC6000 machines were being assembled for Model Y production at the Giga Shanghai factory.[30] (30°52′19″N 121°46′19″E / 30.872°N 121.772°E / 30.872; 121.772 (Tesla Die Casting Machine: 3 Impress-Plus DCC6000))

By one year later in October 2021, five machines were available at Giga Shanghai.[31]

Texas[edit]

Construction workers preparing three Giga Press foundations at the Giga Texas factory site in January 2021

During the night of 18/19 January 2021, concrete foundations for three Giga Press machines were poured at the Giga Texas factory location near Austin, Texas.[32][33] (30°13′12″N 97°37′01″W / 30.22°N 97.617°W / 30.22; -97.617 (Tesla Die Casting Machine: 3 foundations for Giga Press))

On 21 January 2021 the first Giga Press components started to arrive on site.[34][35]

On 22 January 2021 the base frame of the first Giga Press was unboxed and moved into position.[36] By the end of January 2021 one compression platten had been lifted into place, with the other two ready for craning.[37]

As of 2 February 2021, all major components of the first Giga Press at the Austin site has been craned into place.[38]

On 15 April 2021, components for a second Giga Press started arriving at Giga Texas.[39]

Glovitech[edit]

LK Technology delivered one Impress-Plus DCC 6000 machine for Glovitech of South Korea, installed in the Vân Trung Industrial Zone, Việt Yên District, Bắc Giang Province, Vietnam.[40] The machine is used for producing large Faraday cages (radio-frequency enclosures) for 5G mobile base stations.[40] The machine was delivered in December 2020, and produced the first castings in March 2021.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ OL CS Compact Series (PDF) (Brochure). Idra. 4 July 2019. p. 2. Retrieved 24 April 2020. OL 5500 CS … Pumps motors power: kW 2x132
  2. ^ a b c d "OL 5500 CS" (PDF). Technical data sheet. Idra. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2020. Clamping force: kN 55.000; Ton 5.607 … Tie bar spacing: mm 2300x2300 … Tie bar diameter mm 450 … Max. shot weight (Al alloy): kg 84 … Dry Cycles (as per DIN 24480) n/1’ 1,5 … Pumps motors power; kW 4x90 … Machine weight: Ton 410 … Machine dimensions (LxWxH): m 19.2x6.9 [sic]x5.22 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ a b "OL 6200 CS" (PDF). Technical data sheet. Idra. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2020. Clamping force: kN 61.000; Ton 6.218 … Tie bar spacing: mm 2350x2350 … Tie bar diameter mm 470 … Max. shot weight (Al alloy): kg 104,6 … Dry Cycles (as per DIN 24480) n/1’ 1,3 … Pumps motors power; kW 4x90 … Machine weight: Ton 430 … Machine dimensions (LxWxH): m 19,5x5,9x5,32 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Ferrario, Riccardo (11 October 2018). "PDC School interviews Riccardo Ferrario, Idra General Manager" (offset 01:00) (in Italian). Idra. Retrieved 24 April 2020 – via Youtube. Quali innovazioni propone Idra, nel settore delle pressofusioni … La Idra a costruito per prima di tutti i nostri concorrenti una presse da quattromila duecento (4,200) tonnellate. Ora siamo orgogliosi di potervi dire che abbiamo a catalogo la mille-cinque, cinquecento (5,500) tonnellate e anche la seimilacinquecento (6,500) tonnellate.
  5. ^ Visnic, Bill (2 June 2020). "Tesla casts a new strategy for lightweight structures". Automotive Engineering. Vol. 7 no. 5. SAE International. ISSN 2331-7647. Retrieved 3 June 2020. world's largest aluminum die-casting machine to manufacture entire rear underbody structures. … Tesla is the first customer for IDRA's hulking OL6100 CS (with upgraded locking force to handle the special Tesla casting), destined for installation in the company's Fremont, California and Shanghai, China, plants. IDRA's "Giga Press" measures some 64 feet (19.5 m) long and 17 feet (5.3 m) tall. Along with the higher clamping force is a maximum aluminum-alloy "shot" weight of 104.6 kg (231 lb). … weighing in excess of 410 tons.
  6. ^ "Idra introduces the world's largest die cast machine". Asosiasi Italia Pemasok Foundries. 1 February 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2020. capable to produce castings well beyond 80 kgs in weight over an unbeaten maximum allowed projected area. … manufacture of high-integrity Aluminium and Magnesium Die Cast components for the automotive sector, with focus on structural and safety critical components. … Injection velocity exceeding requirements of 10 m/sec
  7. ^ Guillen, Jerome (23 June 2019). "Our Interview With Tesla President Jerome Guillen, Part Deux". Cleantechnica (Interview). Interviewed by Zachary Shahan. Retrieved 20 April 2020. building a giant machine using Tesla's Grohmann sub-division, … emphasized that it was a "giant, giant, giant machine" that duplicates everything, is modular, is simple on the modular level, and … is gigantic.
  8. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (18 January 2021). "With our giant casting machines, we are literally trying to make full-size cars in the same way that toy cars are made" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  9. ^ a b Musk, Elon; Munro, Sandy (14 April 2020). "Tesla Manufacturing with Sandy Munro and Elon Musk!". Third Row Tesla (offset 09:29) (Episode 14). Retrieved 20 April 2020. The current version of the Model Y has basically two big high pressure die casting aluminium castings that are joined, then there are still a bunch of other bits that are attached. And then later this year we will transition to the rear underbody being a single-piece casting that also integrates the rear crash rails. … It gets better: the current castings—because they have to interface to so many things—we have to CNC machine them; CNC the interfaces … the single-piece casting has no CNC machining; it doesn't even have datums. … (10:36) It does require the world's biggest casting machine, which we have two off. Basically around a 6,000-tonne casting machine—the size of a small house basically. One coming from Italy, and one coming from China. We should be starting to set up the one from Italy, … next month. … about a 30% reduction in the size of the body shop … (12:59) going back and retro-fitting the Model 3 production at Fremont with a single-piece casting—it might be something we'd do, but it would probably in two years or something like that…
  10. ^ Musk, Elon [@elonmusk] (14 August 2020). "Will be amazing to see it in operation! Biggest casting machine ever made. Will make rear body in a single piece, including crash rails" (Tweet). Retrieved 14 August 2020 – via Twitter.
  11. ^ Musk, Elon (27 January 2021). "Tesla Q4 2020 Earnings Call" (Interview).
  12. ^ Ferrario, Riccardo (18 March 2021). Giga Press. Flash News (offset 00:31). Idra. Retrieved 19 March 2021 – via Youtube. Today, on 16 March 2021, [Idra] have been able to secure the first order for an 8,000-tonne [force] die-casting machine … placed by a leading global manufacturer for new energy vehicles … toggles-closing, … together with … regenerative injection system.
  13. ^ a b c Tesla Manufacturing Brandenburg (30 June 2020). 3.1.2 A002 Gießerei (Casting) (PDF). Anlage und Betrieb [Plant and Operation] (Environmental impact assessment). Antrag für eine Genehmigung oder eine Anzeige nach dem Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz (in German). Grünheide: UVP Verbund. pp. 83‒84. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2021.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  14. ^ Tesla Battery Day (offset 1:20:14). 22 September 2020 – via Youtube.
  15. ^ Tesla Fremont Flyover Gigapress Operation Captured - Jan 21, 2021 (offset 5:26). 21 January 2021 – via Youtube.
  16. ^ Tesla Terafactory Texas Update #159 in 4K: Discarded??? - 05/24/21 (5:00pm | 78°F) (offset 4:44). 24 May 2021 – via Youtube.
  17. ^ Munro, Sandy (19 April 2021). Sandy Munro On Next-Generation EV Technology: Tesla, Solid State Batteries, MegaCastings, VTOLS, Q&A. Charged Electric Vehicles magazine (offset 3:56) – via Youtube.
  18. ^ a b "Giga Castings, not a wild idea anymore, but a market trend to follow". Foundry Planet. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2020. Fondarex … vacuum systems Modular Cell 6C 4000 liter tank [built] in our workshop in St-Légier – Switzerland, now equip the first 6 Giga Presses in the world … with 6 fully independent vacuum channels connected to the die and setting one channel dedicated to the shot sleeve. … evacuation capacity of this vacuum system allows the production of large structural castings … [Idra] … two Giga Presses in production … and we will be delivering another two machines before the end of 2020 into Europe. This will be followed by an additional eight machines in 2021 for the production of underbody castings. … 20th of August [2020] the first batch of mega castings were produced thanks to the new patented Idra 5S injection system.
  19. ^ Keller, Jeff (12 January 2021). "Larger Automotive Castings Drive Innovation in Molten Metal Delivery". Melt Pour. Foundry Magazine. Retrieved 18 January 2021. creation of closed-loop systems in which alloys can be recycled and repurposed for a consistent application, almost infinitely. … reduce the total number of parts needed for vehicle assembly … over 70 parts were eliminated from the overall assembly. … new project at a large, California-based OEM of electric vehicles. … 105 kgs of molten aluminum … delivered in each shot. … solution requires a pump that can deliver this amount of metal to the diecasting machine. A second MMEI pump … is used to measure the biscuit after each dose … In testing … 4 seconds delivery time, … in production 7-8 seconds is the rate. … proprietary heated-launder piping that maintains constant metal temperature throughout the process. … incorporated a rotary degasser into the system to ensure the highest degree of metal quality and to prevent any porosity from getting into the part.
  20. ^ "Castings Tooling & Process Engineer". Manufacturing (job advert) (63334). Fremont, California: Tesla, Inc. Retrieved 8 June 2020. Leads all Tooling & Process Engineering activities associated with the startup and ramp of a brand-new casting cell with the largest HPDC machine ever made.
  21. ^ Fox, Eva (5 August 2020). "Tesla Model Y Giant Casting Machine with Paint Shop Already in Fremont Factory". Teslamanian. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  22. ^ a b Alvarez, Simon (10 September 2020). "Tesla Model Y single-piece rear casts spotted in Fremont factory". Teslarati. Retrieved 10 September 2020. electric car maker has begun to test the production of the Model Y's single-piece rear casts. … deploying … a second "Giga Press" machine on the grounds of the Fremont factory. … two of these machines in the Fremont Factory, and one is already producing … single-piece casts for the Model Y's rear subframe. … Gigafactory Shanghai also receiving a "Giga Press" for its Model Y production … Giga Berlin will deploy a whopping eight "Giga Presses" for its operations.
  23. ^ Lambert, Fred. "Tesla's giant stamping machine caught on fire at Fremont factory". Electrek. Elektrek. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  24. ^ Tesla Manufacturing Brandenburg SE (24 June 2020). 3.4 Betriebsgebäude, Maschinen, Apparate und Behälter [3.4 Company buildings, machines, apparatus and containers] (PDF). Errichtung und Betrieb einer Anlage für den Bau und die Montage von Elektrofahrzeugen mit einer Kapazität von jeweils 100.000 Stück oder mehr je Jahr am Standort 15537 Grünheide (Mark) - Reg.-Nr.: G07819 [Construction and operation of a factory for the construction and assembly of electric vehicles with a capacity of 100,000+ cars per year, at location 15537 in Grünheide (Mark) - registration number: G07819] (Environmental impact assessment). 2 (in German). p. 139 – via Landesbetrieb Geoinformation und Vermessung. Nr.: A002-00 … Betriebseinheit: Gießerei (Casting) … Machine Nr.: A002-00-0x-04 … 8 x Die Cast Machine (DCM, Druckgussmaschine) … 6100 [tonnes·force] … Stärke tN
  25. ^ Taylor, Edward; Lienert, Paul (8 September 2020). Potter, Mark (ed.). "Move aside robots, Tesla bets on aluminium casting". Reuters. Retrieved 10 September 2020. for Tesla’s new car factory in Germany, which plans to replace hundreds of them with giant aluminium casting machines to build simpler chassis parts … new plant in Brandenburg, near Berlin, would be supplied with eight "Gigapress" machines. … Injecting molten aluminium into a cast and having robots pull out the moulded metal allows Tesla to combine several manufacturing steps. … reduced the rear underbody to two parts, forming the largest piece of aluminium that Munro has seen in 30 years
  26. ^ Schmidt, Bridie (4 September 2020). ""Radically" redesigned Tesla Model Y to be built in Berlin, Musk says". Driven. Retrieved 20 September 2020. Musk said that, "there's a bunch of innovative stuff that we will be doing here that we will tell you about in the future. … It's not just a copy of the Model Y, it's actually a radical redesign of the core technology of building a car, … It will be the first time that there’s going to be a transformation in the core structural design of the vehicle. It's quite a big thing."
  27. ^ a b Mattke, Sascha, ed. (18 September 2020). "Exklusiv: Tesla will bei deutschem Model Y vorderes Rahmen-Teil an einem Stück gießen" [Exclusive: Tesla wants to cast the front frame part in one piece for German Model Y]. TeslaMag (in German). Germany. Retrieved 20 September 2020. Woche Evan Horetsky, bei Tesla verantwortlich für den Bau der deutschen Gigafactory … geht Tesla in Grünheide damit aber trotzdem: Auch der vordere Teil des Rahmens für das Model Y werde dort im Guss-Verfahren entstehen, sagte Horetsky. … erklärte aber, der Front-Rahmen des deutschen Model Y werde wie bald das Heck in Fremont aus einem Stück gegossen. … eine oder maximal zwei der Giga-Pressen. Auf die Frage, warum dann in Grünheide gleich acht davon vorgesehen sind, sagte Horetsky, Tesla wolle dort eben sehr schnell sehr viele Teile gießen können.
  28. ^ LK Machinery
  29. ^ a b "Expert craftsmanship casting the future – LK 40th anniversary event" (with tour photographs). Shenzhen. 27 November 2019. Archived from the original on 15 May 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2020. IDRA, sister brand of LK, delivered 5500T die casting unit to a North American customer in 2019. Also the world's first 6000T die casting unit will be delivered to a US customer, for new energy vehicle structural parts manufacturing. … After the seminar, the crowd attended the factory open house of Shenzhen Leadwell Technology industrial park, to gain a better knowledge on smart die casting equipment, IDRA Xpress die casting machine and the world's first 6000T die casting cell. … During the factory open house, LK Group debuted the world's first 6000T die casting cell, named as IMPRESS-PLUS DCC6000. … most powerful die casting unit in the world.
  30. ^ Viecha, Martin (21 October 2020). "Gigafactory Shanghai - Model Y Die Cast" (PDF). Q3 2020 Update (Press release). Tesla, Inc. p. 15. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  31. ^ {{cite pressrelease|url=https://tesla-cdn.thron.com/static/TWPKBV_TSLA_Q3_2021_Quarterly_Update_SI1AKE.pdf%7Ctitle=Gigafactory Shanghai ‒ Giga Presses|page=17|format=photograph|work=Q3 2021 Update|date=2021-10-20|access-date=2021-10-21|first=Martin|last=Viecha|publisher=Tesla, Inc.
  32. ^ Randy (18 January 2021). Exceptional Weekend Progress - [2021-01-18] (5:00pm) (offset 04:30). Tesla Terafactory Texas Update. Retrieved 20 January 2021 – via YouTube.
  33. ^ Tegtmeyer, Joe (19 January 2021). Cyber Truck & Model Y Factory Construction Update (07:45AM) (offset 16:30). Tesla Gigafactory Texas – via Youtube.
  34. ^ Tesla Owners of Austin [@AustinTeslaClub] (21 January 2021). "Giga Press on site at Giga Texas!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  35. ^ Roberts, Jeff (21 January 2021). Idra Giga Press Casting Machines are at Giga Texas! - [2021-01-21] (offset 09:48). Tesla Gigafactory Austin 4K. Del Valle. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  36. ^ Texas Terafactory. Giga Press to Impress - 2021-01-22 (offset 21:42). Del Valle. Retrieved 23 January 2021 – via Youtube.
  37. ^ Roschetzky, Bryan (31 January 2021). Sunset into the Night Tesla TeraTexas GigaTexas Austin Cybertruck Gigafactory construction process (offset 06:30, 06:50, 13:20). Retrieved 1 February 2021 – via Youtube.
  38. ^ Randy (3 February 2021). Daily Progress Update - [2021-02-02 17:00] (offset 4:10). Tesla Terafactory Texas Update. Retrieved 5 February 2021 – via Youtube.
  39. ^ "Tesla Gigafactory Texas gets its second Giga Press machine". Teslarati. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  40. ^ a b "LK 6000 Plus die casting cell for Vietnam's 5G ultra large housing production". Foundry Planet. 28 March 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021. Vietnam factory. The 6000T die-casting machine … clamping force of more than 60,000KN. … South Korea's Glovitech company. … Glovitech's factory in Van trung industrial zone, Viet yan District, to produce 5G tele-communication base station (RF unit) housing products. Glovitech mentioned that it has successfully achieved the world's first ultra-large 5G RF unit housing production.
  41. ^ "LK 6000-ton die casting machine was put into production at customer's factory" (Press release). LK Machinery. 20 March 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021. 1 set of 4,000-ton and 1 set of 6,000-ton … December 2020, arrived at the Glovitech Vietnam factory … In March 2021, … 5G RF unit housing was successfully produced.

Fremont permits[edit]

  1. ^ a b Molinar, Robert; Tesla (7 July 2020). "F20-0048 Drill & Tap Demo". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00126). City of Fremont. prepare existing factory for new manufacturing line. … demolish existing lighting above and below the mezzanine. … relocate existing panels … transformers and IDF cabinets that are blocking future tools to new location. … relocate compressed air header – raise elevation approximately 6’-0” (must be done before tying in for DCM1) … reroute domestic water piping (that feeds maintenance shop)
  2. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (5 May 2020). "Tesla F20-0048 - Castings Demo". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2020-05639). City of Fremont. Remove car wash equipment including tank, filters, pumps with associate piping and accessories as well as associated electrical and civil components … $576 paid
  3. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (20 May 2020). "(Elec) Tesla F20-0048 Casting Arch and associated MEP". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2020-06008). City of Fremont. Architectural and MEP for pre engineered metal canopy structure. … $6,843 paid
  4. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (16 July 2020). "F20-0048-K Canopy Design and Foundations". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00496). City of Fremont. Canopy and foundation design
  5. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (11 June 2020). "(Elec) Tesla F20-0048 DCM Foundations". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2020-06344). City of Fremont. Die cast machine support skid. … $517.00 paid
  6. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (3 August 2020). "F20-0048-M DCM Tool Anchorage". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00972). City of Fremont. F20-0048-M DCM1 Tool Anchorage
  7. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (14 July 2020). "F20-0048-I D&T Pit-Infill". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00447). City of Fremont. Structural: Pit infill and foundations for new manufacturing equipment.
  8. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (3 August 2020). "F20-0048-N D&T Utilities". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00971). City of Fremont. F20-0048-N Castings D&T Utilities
  9. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (25 June 2020). "F20-0048-D TCO Platform & X-Platform". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2020-06699). City of Fremont. Install TCO Platform and X Platform at the north end of site.
  10. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (16 July 2020). "F20-0048-L Furnace Platform". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00493). City of Fremont. Install TCU-Platform and X-Platform
  11. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (9 July 2020). "F20-0048-F DCM2 Arch & MEP". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00297). City of Fremont. Retrieved 13 July 2020. process cooling water & natural gas piping distribution design from existing ab utility mains to new casting area outside. … new trade waste piping from the tie point inside the building to DCM2 area with pipes, pumps & accessories.
  12. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (16 July 2020). "F20-0048-J Foundations #2". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-00494). City of Fremont. Foundations for #2
  13. ^ Molinar, Robert; Tesla (28 August 2020). "Tesla - F20-0048 Test Lab IFP". Permitting (building permit application) (BLD2021-01626). City of Fremont. F20-0048 Test Lab IFP Facility Improvements

External links[edit]

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